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The 17th century was the
century A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered names of numbers in English#Ordinal numbers, ordinally in English and many other languages. The word ''century'' comes from the Latin ''centum'', meaning ''one hundred''. ''Century'' is s ...

century
that lasted from January 1,
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
( MDCI), to December 31,
1700 As of March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC – Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first Roman triumph, triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia. * ...
( MDCC). The term is often used to refer to the 1600s, the century between January 1, 1600, and December 31, 1699. It falls into the
Early Modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. Humanity's written history was preceded by its , beginning with ...
period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

Baroque
cultural movement, the latter part of the
Spanish Golden Age The Spanish Golden Age ( es, Siglo de Oro, links=no , "Golden Century") is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Españ ...
, the
Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands The History of the Netherlands is a history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta A river delta is a landform A landform is a natura ...
, the French ''
Grand Siècle Grand Siècle refers to the period of French history during the 17th century, under the reign of Louis XIII Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of F ...
'' dominated by
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
, the
Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, ...

Scientific Revolution
, the world's first public company and
megacorporation Megacorporation, mega-corporation, or megacorp, a term originally coined by Alfred Eichner Alfred S. Eichner (March 23, 1937February 10, 1988) was an American post-Keynesian economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, soc ...
known as the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
, and according to some historians,
the General Crisis The General Crisis is a term used by some historians to describe an alleged period of widespread global conflict and instability that occurred from the early 17th century to the early 18th century in Europe, and in more recent historiography in t ...
. The greatest military conflicts were the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, the
Great Turkish War The Great Turkish War (german: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the Wars of the Holy League ( tr, Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin L ...
, Mughal–Safavid Wars (
Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) Mughal–Safavid War may refer to: * Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) * Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53) {{disambiguation ...
,
Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53) Mughal–Safavid War may refer to: * Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) The Mughal–Safavid War of 1622–1623 was fought over the important fortress city of Kandahar Kandahar (; ps, کندهار; prs, قندهار; known in older literature a ...
)
, Anglo-Mughal Indian War, and the
Dutch–Portuguese War The Dutch–Portuguese War (; ) was an armed conflict involving Dutch Republic, Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire. Beginning in 1602, the conflict primarily i ...
. It was during this period also that
European colonization of the Americas Although the Norse had explored and colonized northeastern North America c. 1000 CE, the later and more well-known wave of European colonization of the Americas took place in the Americas The Americas (also collectively called Ameri ...
began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. In the
Islamic world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...
, the
gunpowder empires The gunpowder empires, or Islamic gunpowder empires, is a collective term referring to the Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to ...
– the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
,
Safavid Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian peoples, Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia, ruled from 1501 to 1736 by the Safavid dynasty. It is often ...

Safavid
and
Mughal Mughal or Moghul may refer to: * The Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. ...
– grew in strength. Especially in the Indian subcontinent,
Mughal architecture Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced by and for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an initial Arab presence in Sindh Si ...

Mughal architecture
,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...
and
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
reached its zenith, while the empire itself, during the
sharia Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action ...
reign of Emperor
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled o ...

Aurangzeb
, is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
and worth 25% of global GDP, and its wealthiest province, the
Bengal Subah The Bengal Subah (also known as Mughal Bengal) was the largest subdivision Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre), in music * Subdivision (film), ''Subdivision'' (film), 2009 * "Subdivision", an episode of Priso ...
, signaled the period of
proto-industrialization Proto-industrialization is the regional development, alongside commercial agriculture Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming (as opposed to extensive farming) and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture Agricult ...
. In Japan,
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shogun ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
established the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
at the beginning of the century, beginning the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
; the isolationist
Sakoku was the isolationist Isolationism is a category of foreign policy, foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible mot ...
policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
was challenged by a series of conquests led by the
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
warlord
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese o ...

Nurhaci
, which were consolidated by his son
Hong Taiji Hong Taiji (28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and sometimes referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was the second khan of the Later Jin (reigned from 1626 to 1636) and the founding emperor of ...

Hong Taiji
and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were increasingly dominated by the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
, where royal power was solidified domestically in the
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
of the
Fronde The Fronde () was a series of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ...

Fronde
. The semi-feudal territorial
French nobility The French nobility (french: la noblesse française) was a privileged in France from the until its abolition on June 23, 1790 during the . From 1808 to 1815 during the the Emperor bestowed titles that were recognized as a new nobility by ...
was weakened and subjugated to the power of an
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
through the reinvention of the
Palace of Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...

Palace of Versailles
from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that the
English monarch The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary monarchy, hereditary sovereign reigns as the head of state of the United ...
became a symbolic figurehead and
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France. By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of
logarithm In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...

logarithm
s,
electricity Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...

electricity
, the
telescope A telescope is an optical instrument An optical instrument (or "optic" for short) is a device that processes light waves (or photons), either to enhance an image for viewing or to analyze and determine their characteristic properties. Common ...

telescope
and
microscope A microscope (from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' 'small' and ''skopeîn'' 'to look (at); examine, inspect') is a laboratory instrument used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye Naked eye, also called bare ...

microscope
,
calculus Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematics, mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations ...

calculus
,
universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation is usually stated as that every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is Proportionality (mathematics)#Direct proportionality, directly proportional to the product of their ...

universal gravitation
,
Newton's Laws of Motion Newton's laws of motion are three law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its ...
,
air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer A barom ...

air pressure
and
calculating machines A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic automatically, or (historically) a simulation such as an analog computer or a slide rule. Most mechanical calculators were ...
due to the work of the first scientists of the
Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, ...

Scientific Revolution
, including
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
,
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and ...

Johannes Kepler
,
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...

René Descartes
,
Pierre Fermat Pierre de Fermat (; between 31 October and 6 December 1607 – 12 January 1665) was a French people, French mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In pa ...
,
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...

Blaise Pascal
,
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a group ...

Robert Boyle
,
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
,
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek ( ; ; 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium ...
,
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
,
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
, and
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, " ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).


Events


1601–1650

*
1600 __NOTOC__ 1600 ( MDC) was a century leap year A century leap year is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar that is divisible by 400 without a remainder. Like all leap years, it has an extra day in February for a total of 366 days instead of 3 ...

1600
:
Michael the Brave Michael the Brave ( ro, Mihai Viteazul or ; 1558 – 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time pr ...

Michael the Brave
unifies the three
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
n principalities:
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found ...
,
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
and Translyvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599. *
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
: In the
Battle of Kinsale The siege of Kinsale, or Battle of Kinsale ( ga, Léigear/Cath Chionn tSáile), was the ultimate battle in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wa ...
, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system. *
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
1603 Events January–June * February 25 – Dutch–Portuguese War: the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese ship ''Santa Catarina (ship), Santa Catarina'' is seized by Dutch East India Company ships off Singapore. The first permanent Dutch tr ...
: The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills perhaps one-third of Russia. *
1602 1602 ( MDCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added ...
:
Matteo Ricci Matteo Ricci (; la, Mattheus Riccius; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian ...
produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World (坤輿萬國全圖, ''Kūnyú Wànguó Quántú''), a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries. *
1602 1602 ( MDCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added ...
: The
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
(VOC) is established by merging competing
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
trading companies.Ricklefs (1991), page 28 Its success contributes to the
Dutch Golden Age The Dutch Golden Age ( nl, Gouden Eeuw ) was a period in the history of the Netherlands The History of the Netherlands is a history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta A river delta is a landform A landform is a natura ...
. *
1603 Events January–June * February 25 – Dutch–Portuguese War: the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese ship ''Santa Catarina (ship), Santa Catarina'' is seized by Dutch East India Company ships off Singapore. The first permanent Dutch tr ...
:
Elizabeth I of England Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...

Elizabeth I of England
dies and is succeeded by her cousin King
James VI of Scotland James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...
, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England. *
1603 Events January–June * February 25 – Dutch–Portuguese War: the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese ship ''Santa Catarina (ship), Santa Catarina'' is seized by Dutch East India Company ships off Singapore. The first permanent Dutch tr ...
:
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shogun ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
takes the title of ''
shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' rulers of th ...
'', establishing the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
. This begins the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
, which will last until 1868. *
1603 Events January–June * February 25 – Dutch–Portuguese War: the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese ship ''Santa Catarina (ship), Santa Catarina'' is seized by Dutch East India Company ships off Singapore. The first permanent Dutch tr ...
: In
Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routl ...

Nagasaki
, the Portuguese Jesuit missionary João Rodrigues publishes ''
Nippo Jisho The or ''Vocabulario da Lingoa de Iapam'' (''Vocabulário da Língua do Japão'' in modern Portuguese; "Vocabulary of the Language of Japan" in English) was a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , imag ...
'', the first dictionary of Japanese to an European language (Portuguese) *
1605 Events January–June * January 16 – The first part of Miguel de Cervantes' satire on the theme of chivalry, ''Don Quixote'' (''El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha'', "The Ingenious Hidalgo (nobility), Hidalgo Don Quixote of ...
: The King of
Gowa Gowa (''Makassar language Makassarese (), sometimes spelled Makasar, Makassar, or Macassar, is a language of the Makassarese people, spoken in South Sulawesi province of Indonesia. It is a member of the South Sulawesi languages, South Sulawesi ...
, a Makassarese kingdom in
South Sulawesi South Sulawesi ( id, Sulawesi Selatan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first ...
, converts to Islam. *
1605 Events January–June * January 16 – The first part of Miguel de Cervantes' satire on the theme of chivalry, ''Don Quixote'' (''El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha'', "The Ingenious Hidalgo (nobility), Hidalgo Don Quixote of ...
-
1627 Events January–December * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a mod ...
: The reign of
Mughal Mughal or Moghul may refer to: * The Mughal Empire The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. ...
emperor
Jahangir Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iran ...

Jahangir
after the death of emperor
Akbar Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated ...

Akbar
. *
1606 Events January–June * January 29 Events Pre-1600 *904 __NOTOC__ Year 904 (Roman numerals, CMIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Byzant ...
: The Long War between the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
is ended with the
Peace of Zsitvatorok The Peace of Zsitvatorok (or Treaty of Sitvatorok) was a peace treaty which ended the Long Turkish War, Fifteen Years' War between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy on 11 November 1606. The treaty was part of a system of peace treaties ...
—Austria abandons
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural border is the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains. Broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western ...

Transylvania
. *
1606 Events January–June * January 29 Events Pre-1600 *904 __NOTOC__ Year 904 (Roman numerals, CMIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Byzant ...
: Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in
Royal Hungary Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name) Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...
. *
1607 Events January–June * January 13 Events Pre-1600 *27BC – Augustus, Octavian transfers the state to the free disposal of the Senate and the people. He receives Spain, Gaul, and Syria as his province for ten years. *532 ...
:
Flight of the Earls The Flight of the Earls ( ir, Teitheamh na nIarlaí) took place in September 1607, when Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, and Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell Tyrconnell (), also spelled Tirconnell, was a kingdom of Gaelic Ireland ...

Flight of the Earls
(the fleeing of most of the native
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
) occurs from
County Donegal County Donegal ( ; ga, Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...
in the west of
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...

Ulster
in Ireland. *
1607 Events January–June * January 13 Events Pre-1600 *27BC – Augustus, Octavian transfers the state to the free disposal of the Senate and the people. He receives Spain, Gaul, and Syria as his province for ten years. *532 ...
:
Iskandar Muda Iskandar Muda (1583? – 27 December 1636Yusra Habib Abdul Gani, accessed on 4 January 2007) was the twelfth Sultan, Sulṭān of Aceh Sultanate, Acèh Darussalam, under whom the sultanate achieved its greatest territorial extent, and was t ...
becomes the Sultan of
Aceh Aceh () is the westernmost province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivis ...

Aceh
(r. 1607–1637). He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh into a great power in the western
Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago ( ceb, Kapupud-ang Malay, ms, Kepulauan Melayu, tgl, Kapuluang Malay, jv, Nusantara) is the archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection o ...

Malay Archipelago
. *
1610 Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene The Anthropocene ( ) is a proposed geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age ...
: The
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
army defeats combined Russian–Swedish forces at the
Battle of Klushino The Battle of Klushino, or the Battle of Kłuszyn, was fought on 4 July 1610, between forces of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Tsardom of Russia during the Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18), Polish–Muscovite War, part of Russia's ...
and conquers Moscow. *
1610 Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene The Anthropocene ( ) is a proposed geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age ...
:
King Henry IV of France , house = BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * Bourbon biscuit, a chocolate sandwich ...

King Henry IV of France
is assassinated by
François Ravaillac François Ravaillac (; 1578 – 27 May 1610) was a French Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek langua ...

François Ravaillac
. *
1611 Events January–June * February 27 Events Pre-1600 *380 Year 380 ( CCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on WednesdayA leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on ...
: The Pontifical and Royal
University of Santo Tomas The University of Santo Tomas (also known as UST, and officially as Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Manila) is a Private university, private, Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines. Founded on April 28, 1611, by Spa ...

University of Santo Tomas
, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the
Dominican Order The Order of Preachers, also known as the Dominicans ( la, Ordo Praedicatorum; abbreviated OP), is an order of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by ...
in ManilaHistory of UST
UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
*
1611 Events January–June * February 27 Events Pre-1600 *380 Year 380 ( CCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on WednesdayA leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on ...
: The first publication of the
King James Bible The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an English translations of the Bible, English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, which was commissioned in 1604 and publ ...
. *
1612 Events January–June * January 6 – Axel Oxenstierna becomes Lord High Chancellor of Sweden. He persuades the Riksdag of the Estates to grant the Swedish nobility the right and privilege to hold all higher offices of governme ...
: Cotswold Olympic Games, Robert Dover *
1613 Events January–June * January 11 Events Pre-1600 *532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different Chariot racing, chariot teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the Hippodrome of Constantin ...
: The
Time of Troubles The Time of Troubles (russian: Смутное время, ), or Smuta (russian: Смута), was a period of political crisis during the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, tran ...
in Russia ends with the establishment of the
House of Romanov The House of Romanov (also transcribed Romanoff; rus, Рома́новы, Románovy, rɐˈmanəvɨ) was the reigning imperial house of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country s ...
, which rules until 1917. *
1613 Events January–June * January 11 Events Pre-1600 *532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different Chariot racing, chariot teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the Hippodrome of Constantin ...
1617 Events January–June * February 27 – The Treaty of Stolbovo ends the Ingrian War between Sweden and Tsardom of Russia, Russia. Sweden gains Swedish Ingria, Ingria and Priozersk, Kexholm. * April 14 – Second Battle of P ...
:
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
is invaded by the
Tatars The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar". Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...

Tatars
dozens of times. *
1613 Events January–June * January 11 Events Pre-1600 *532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different Chariot racing, chariot teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the Hippodrome of Constantin ...
: The
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
is forced to evacuate
Gresik Gresik Regency ( older spelling: Grissee, ) is a regency A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
because of the Mataram siege of neighboring
Surabaya Surabaya (; Javanese : ꦱꦸꦫꦧꦪ read : Suråbåyå; Van Ophuijsen Spelling (Old Spelling) : Soerabaja) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Java East Java ( id, Jawa Timur) is a province A province is almost always ...

Surabaya
. The VOC enters into negotiations with Mataram and is allowed to set up a trading post in
Jepara Jepara is a town in the province of Central Java Central Java ( id, Jawa Tengah) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which ...
. *
1614 Events January–June * February – King James I of England James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the Bri ...
1615 Events January–June * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the ...
: The
Siege of Osaka The was a series of battles undertaken by the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships ...
(last major threat to
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
) ends. *
1616 Events January–June * January ** Six-year-old António Vieira Father António Vieira (; 6 February 160818 July 1697) was a Jesuit The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church ...
: The last remaining
Morisco Moriscos (, ; pt, mouriscos ; Spanish for "Moorish") were former Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * A ...
s (Moors who had nominally converted to Christianity) in Spain are expelled. *
1616 Events January–June * January ** Six-year-old António Vieira Father António Vieira (; 6 February 160818 July 1697) was a Jesuit The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church ...
: English poet and playwright
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
dies. *
1618 Events January–June * March 8 Events Pre-1600 * 1010 – Ferdowsi , image = File:Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran 3 (cropped2).jpg , image_size = , caption = Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran, Tus by Abolhassan Sad ...
: The Defenestration of Prague. *
1618 Events January–June * March 8 Events Pre-1600 * 1010 – Ferdowsi , image = File:Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran 3 (cropped2).jpg , image_size = , caption = Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran, Tus by Abolhassan Sad ...
: The
Bohemian Revolt The Bohemian Revolt (german: Böhmischer Aufstand; cs, České stavovské povstání; 1618–1620) was an uprising of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Bohemian Estates of the realm, estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty ...
precipitates the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48. *
1618 Events January–June * March 8 Events Pre-1600 * 1010 – Ferdowsi , image = File:Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran 3 (cropped2).jpg , image_size = , caption = Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran, Tus by Abolhassan Sad ...
: The
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
s start invading China. Their
conquest Conquest is the act of military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, g ...
eventually topples the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
. *
1619 Events January–June * January 12 – James I of England's Banqueting House, Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire."Fires, Great", in ''The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Conn ...
:
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
,
English East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
, and
Sultanate of Banten The Banten Sultanate was an Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interj ...
all fighting over port city of
Jayakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the Capital of Indonesia, capital and largest city of Indonesia. Lying on the northwest coast of Java (the world's list of islands by po ...
. VOC forces storm the city and withstand a months-long siege by the combined English, Bantenese, and Jayakartan forces. They are relieved by
Jan Pieterszoon Coen Jan Pieterszoon Coen (, 8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was an officer of the Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), w ...

Jan Pieterszoon Coen
and a fleet of nineteen ships out of Ambon. Coen had burned
Jepara Jepara is a town in the province of Central Java Central Java ( id, Jawa Tengah) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which ...
and its EIC post along the way. The VOC levels the old city of
Jayakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the Capital of Indonesia, capital and largest city of Indonesia. Lying on the northwest coast of Java (the world's list of islands by po ...
and builds its new headquarters,
Batavia
Batavia
, on top of it. *
1620 Events January–June * February 4 This day marks the approximate midpoint of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and of summer in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the December solstice). Events Pre–1600 *211 ...
1621 Events January–June * February 9 – Papal conclave, 1621, Papal Conclave of 1621: Pope Gregory XV succeeds Pope Paul V, as the 234th pope. * February 17 – Myles Standish is appointed as the first commander of Plymouth C ...
: Polish-Ottoman War over
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
. *
1620 Events January–June * February 4 This day marks the approximate midpoint of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and of summer in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the December solstice). Events Pre–1600 *211 ...
:
Bethlen Gabor Gabriel Bethlen ( hu, Bethlen Gábor; 15 November 1580 – 15 November 1629) was Prince of Transylvania The Prince of Transylvania (german: Fürst von Siebenbürgen,Fallenbüchl 1988, p. 77. hu, erdélyi fejedelem, la, princeps Transsylvan ...
allies with the Ottomans and an invasion of
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
takes place. The Polish suffer a disaster at Cecora on the River
Prut The Prut (also spelled in English as Pruth; , uk, Прут) is a long river in Eastern Europe. It is a left tributary of the Danube. In part of its course it forms Romania's border with Moldova and Ukraine. Characteristics The Prut originates ...
. *
1620 Events January–June * February 4 This day marks the approximate midpoint of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and of summer in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the December solstice). Events Pre–1600 *211 ...
: The
Mayflower ''Mayflower'' was an English ship that transported a group of English families, known today as the Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony), Pilgrims, from England to the New World in 1620. After a grueling 10 weeks at sea, ''Mayflower'', with 102 passenger ...

Mayflower
sets sail from
Plymouth, England Plymouth () is a port city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: ...
to what became
Plymouth Colony Plymouth Colony (sometimes Plimouth) was an British America, English colonial venture in America from 1620 to 1691 at a location that had previously been surveyed and named by Captain John Smith (explorer), John Smith. The settlement served as t ...
in the New England region of North America. *
1621 Events January–June * February 9 – Papal conclave, 1621, Papal Conclave of 1621: Pope Gregory XV succeeds Pope Paul V, as the 234th pope. * February 17 – Myles Standish is appointed as the first commander of Plymouth C ...
: The Battle of Chocim: Poles and
Cossacks The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be, казакi * pl, Kozacy * cs, kozáci * sk, kozáci * hu, kozákok, cazacii * fi, Kasakat, cazacii * et, Kasakad, cazacii are a group of predominantly East Slavic languages, East Slav ...

Cossacks
under
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz Jan Karol Chodkiewicz ( lt, Jonas Karolis Chodkevičius; 1561 – 24 September 1621) was a military commander of the Grand Ducal Lithuanian Army, who was from 1601 Field Hetman of Lithuania, and from 1605 Grand Hetman of Lithuania Grand may ...

Jan Karol Chodkiewicz
defeat the Ottomans. *
1622 Events January–June * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modi ...
:
Jamestown massacre The Indian massacre of 1622, popularly known as the Jamestown massacre, took place in the English overseas possessions, English Colony of Virginia, in what is now the United States, on 22 March 1622. John Smith (explorer), John Smith, though he h ...
:
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
natives kill 347 English settlers outside
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent British colonization of the Americas, English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James River, James (Powhatan) River about southwe ...
(one-third of the colony's population) and burn the
Henricus The "Citie of Henricus"—also known as Henricopolis, Henrico Town or Henrico—was a settlement in Virginia founded by Thomas Dale, Sir Thomas Dale in 1611 as an alternative to the swampy and dangerous area around the original English colonial e ...

Henricus
settlement. *
1624 Events January–June * January 14 – After 90 years of Ottoman Empire, Ottoman occupation, the Safavid empire, Safavid Empire recaptures Baghdad. * January 24 – Afonso Mendes, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Et ...
1642 Events January–June * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfr ...
: As chief minister,
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
centralises power in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. *
1626 Events January–June * January 7 – Polish–Swedish War (1625–1629), Polish-Swedish War – Battle of Wallhof, Latvia: Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden defeats a Polish army. * January 9 &nda ...
:
St. Peter's Basilica The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican ( it, Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply Saint Peter's Basilica ( la, Basilica Sancti Petri), is a Church (building), church built in the Renaissance architecture, Renaissanc ...

St. Peter's Basilica
in the Vatican completed. *
1627 Events January–December * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a mod ...
:
Aurochs The aurochs (''Bos primigenius'') ( or ), also known as urus or ure, is an extinct cattle species that was first described in 1827. With a shoulder height of up to in bulls and in cows, it was one of the largest herbivores in Holocene Europe ...

Aurochs
go extinct. *
1628 Events January–June * January 25 Events Pre-1600 * 41 – After a night of negotiation, Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fou ...
1629 Events January–June * February 11 Events Pre-1600 * 660 BC – Traditional date for the foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. * 55 – The death under mysterious circumstances of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus ...
:
Sultan Agung Sultan Anyakrakusuma is known as Sultan Agung ( jv, ꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦲꦒꦸꦁꦲꦢꦶꦥꦿꦧꦸꦲꦚꦏꦿꦏꦸꦱꦸꦩ, Sultan Agung Adi Prabu Anyakrakusuma) was the third Sultan of Mataram in Central Java ruling from 1613 to 1645. ...

Sultan Agung
of Mataram launches a failed campaign to conquer Dutch Batavia. *
1629 Events January–June * February 11 Events Pre-1600 * 660 BC – Traditional date for the foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. * 55 – The death under mysterious circumstances of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus ...
:
Abbas I
Abbas I
, the
Safavids Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, le ...

Safavids
king, died. *
1629 Events January–June * February 11 Events Pre-1600 * 660 BC – Traditional date for the foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. * 55 – The death under mysterious circumstances of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus ...
:
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
allies with Swedish Protestant forces in the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
to counter
Ferdinand II's
Ferdinand II's
expansion. *
1630 Events January–June * February 22 – Native Americans in the United States, Native American Quadequine introduces popcorn to English colonists. * March – Fedorovych Uprising: Zaporozhian Cossacks rebel against the Poli ...
: Birth of
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Shivaji Bhonsale I (; 19 February 1630 – 3 April 1680), also referred to as Chhatrapati Shivaji, was an Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur ...

Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
at
Shivneri Shivneri Fort (Marathi pronunciation: Help:IPA/Marathi, iʋneɾiː is a 17th-century military fortification located near Junnar in Pune district in Maharashtra, India. It is the birthplace of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj , the emperor and foun ...

Shivneri
fort *
1631 Events January–June * January 23 Events Pre-1600 * 393 – Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶ ...
: Mount Vesuvius erupts. *
1632 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as ...
: Battle of Lützen, death of king of
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
Gustav II Adolf Gustavus Adolphus (9 December Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">N.S_19_December.html" ;"title="Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ;"title="/nowiki>Old Style and New Style dates">N.S 19 December">Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ;"title="/nowi ...

Gustav II Adolf
. *
1632 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as ...
:
Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (; , ), is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan () to house the tomb of his favourite wi ...

Taj Mahal
building work started in Agra, India. *
1633 Events January–June * February 13 ** Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ** Fire engines are used for the first time in England in order to control and extinguish a fire that breaks out at London ...
:
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
arrives in Rome for his trial before the
Inquisition The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical terminology also referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1. ...

Inquisition
. *
1633 Events January–June * February 13 ** Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ** Fire engines are used for the first time in England in order to control and extinguish a fire that breaks out at London ...
1639 Events January–June * January 14 Events Pre-1600 *1236 – King Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence. *1301 – Andrew III of Hungary dies, ending the Árpád dynasty in Hungary. 1601–1900 *1639 – ...
: Japan transforms into "locked country". *
1634 Events January–June * February 24 Events Pre-1600 *484 __NOTOC__ Year 484 ( CDLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed ...
: Battle of Nördlingen results in Catholic victory. *
1636 Events January–June * March 5 (February 24 Old Style) – King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway, Christian of Denmark gives an order, that all beggars that are able to work must be sent to Brinholmen, to build ships or to wo ...
:
Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard University
is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. *
1637 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
:
Shimabara Rebellion The , also known as the or , was an uprising Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment ...
of Japanese Christians,
rōnin Image:Ronin, or masterless Samurai, lunging forward.jpg, ''Ukiyo-e'' woodblock print by Yoshitoshi depicting Oishi Chikara, one of the Forty-seven rōnin, forty-seven ''rōnin'' A was a samurai without a lord or master during the History of Jap ...
and peasants against Edo. *
1637 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
: The first opera house,
Teatro San Cassiano The Teatro San Cassiano (or Teatro di San Cassiano and other variants) in Venice was the world’s first public opera theatre, inaugurated as such in 1637. The first mention of its construction dates back to 1581. The name with which it is best know ...

Teatro San Cassiano
, opens in Venice. *
1637 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
: Qing dynasty attacked Joseon dynasty. *
1639 Events January–June * January 14 Events Pre-1600 *1236 – King Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence. *1301 – Andrew III of Hungary dies, ending the Árpád dynasty in Hungary. 1601–1900 *1639 – ...
: Naval
Battle of the Downs The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 21 October 1639 (New Style), during the Eighty Years' War, and was a decisive defeat of the Spanish Empire, Spanish, commanded by Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, by the Dutch Republic, United Provinces ...
Republic of the United Provinces The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history ...
fleet decisively defeats a Spanish fleet in English waters. *
1639 Events January–June * January 14 Events Pre-1600 *1236 – King Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence. *1301 – Andrew III of Hungary dies, ending the Árpád dynasty in Hungary. 1601–1900 *1639 – ...
: Disagreements between the Farnese and
Barberini The Barberini are a family of the Nobility of Italy, Italian nobility that rose to prominence in 17th century Rome. Their influence peaked with the election of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini to the papal throne in 1623, as Pope Urban VIII. Their urban ...
Pope Urban VIII Pope Urban VIII ( la, Urbanus VIII; baptised 5 April 1568 – 29 July 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. As pope, he expanded the papal territ ...

Pope Urban VIII
escalate into the
Wars of Castro The Wars of Castro were a series of conflicts during the mid-17th century revolving around the ancient city of Castro Castro is a Romance language word that originally derived from Latin ''castrum'', a pre-Roman military camp or fortification (c ...
and last until 1649. *
1639 Events January–June * January 14 Events Pre-1600 *1236 – King Henry III of England marries Eleanor of Provence. *1301 – Andrew III of Hungary dies, ending the Árpád dynasty in Hungary. 1601–1900 *1639 – ...
1651 Events January–June * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the ...
:
Wars of the Three Kingdoms The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place between 1639 and 1653 in the kingdoms of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country tha ...
, civil wars throughout Scotland, Ireland, and
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...
. *
1640 Events January–June * February 9 Events Pre-1600 *474 __NOTOC__ Year 474 ( CDLXXIV) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on ...
1668 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
: The
Portuguese Restoration War The Portuguese Restoration War ( pt, Guerra da Restauração) was the war between Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial bo ...
led to the end of the
Iberian Union The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ...
. *
1641 Events January–June * January 4 – The stratovolcano Mount Parker (Philippines) undergoes a major eruption. * January 18 – Pau Claris proclaims the Catalan Republic (1641), Catalan Republic. * February 16 – King Ch ...
: The Irish Rebellion. *
1641 Events January–June * January 4 – The stratovolcano Mount Parker (Philippines) undergoes a major eruption. * January 18 – Pau Claris proclaims the Catalan Republic (1641), Catalan Republic. * February 16 – King Ch ...
:
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...

René Descartes
publishes ''Meditationes de prima philosophia''
Meditations on First Philosophy #REDIRECT Meditations on First Philosophy#REDIRECT Meditations on First Philosophy ''Meditations on First Philosophy, in which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated'' ( la, Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, in qu ...
. *
1642 Events January–June * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfr ...
: Beginning of
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
, conflict will end in 1649 with the execution of
King Charles I of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King Charles I
, abolishment of the monarchy and the establishment of the supremacy of Parliament over the king. *
1643 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
:
L'incoronazione di Poppea ''L'incoronazione di Poppea'' (Stattkus-Verzeichnis, SV 308, ''The Coronation of Poppaea'') is an Italian List of operas by Claudio Monteverdi, opera by Claudio Monteverdi. It was Monteverdi's last opera, with a libretto by Giovanni Francesco Buse ...
,
Monterverdi
Monterverdi
*
1644 It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+500(D)+100(C)+(-10(X)+50(L))+(-1(I)+5(V)) = 1644). Events January–June * January 22 Events Pre-1600 *613 __NOTOC__ Year 613 ( DCXIII) was a commo ...
: The
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
conquer China ending the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
. The subsequent
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
rules until 1912. *
1644 It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+500(D)+100(C)+(-10(X)+50(L))+(-1(I)+5(V)) = 1644). Events January–June * January 22 Events Pre-1600 *613 __NOTOC__ Year 613 ( DCXIII) was a commo ...
1674 Events January–June * February 19 – Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic, Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster (1674), Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Its provisions come into eff ...
: The Char Bouba war, Mauritanian Thirty-Year War. * 1645–1669: Ottoman war with Republic of Venice, Venice. The Ottomans invade Crete and capture Canea. * 1647–1652: The Great Plague of Seville. * 1648: The Peace of Westphalia ends the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
and the Eighty Years' War and marks the ends of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire as major European powers. * 1648–1653:
Fronde The Fronde () was a series of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ...

Fronde
civil war in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. * 1648–1657: The Khmelnytsky Uprising – a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine which turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland. * 1648–1667: The Deluge (Polish history), The Deluge wars leave
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
in ruins. * 1648–1669: The Ottoman Empire, Ottomans capture Crete from the Republic of Venice, Venetians after the Siege of Candia. * 1649:
King Charles I of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King Charles I
is executed for High treason, the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death. * 1649–1653: The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.


1651–1700

*
1651 Events January–June * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the ...
:
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
ends with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester. * 1656–1661: Mehmed Köprülü is Grand Vizier. * 1655–1661: The Northern Wars cement Swedish Empire, Sweden's rise as a Rise of Sweden as a Great Power, Great Power. * 1658: After his father Shah Jahan completes the
Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (; , ), is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan () to house the tomb of his favourite wi ...

Taj Mahal
, his son
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled o ...

Aurangzeb
deposes him as ruler of the Mughal Empire. * 1660: The Commonwealth of England ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration. * 1660: The Royal Society is founded * 1661: The reign of the Kangxi Emperor of China begins. * 1663: Ottoman–Habsburg wars, Ottoman war against Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Habsburg Hungary. * 1664: The Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664), Battle of St. Gotthard: count Raimondo Montecuccoli defeats the Ottomans. The Peace of Vasvar – intended to keep the peace for 20 years. * 1665:
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
discovers cells using a microscope. * 1665: Portuguese Empire, Portugal defeats the Kongo Empire at the Battle of Mbwila. * 1665–1667: The Second Anglo-Dutch War fought between England and the Dutch Republic, United Provinces. * 1666: The Great Fire of London. * 1667: The Raid on the Medway during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. * 1667–
1668 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
: The War of Devolution; France invades the Netherlands. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668), Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) brings this to a halt. * 1667–1699: The
Great Turkish War The Great Turkish War (german: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the Wars of the Holy League ( tr, Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin L ...
halts the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
's expansion into Europe. * 1672–1673: Ottoman campaign to help the Ukrainian Cossacks. John Sobieski defeats the Ottomans at the second battle of Khotyn (1673). * 1672–
1674 Events January–June * February 19 – Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic, Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster (1674), Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Its provisions come into eff ...
: The Third Anglo-Dutch War fought between England and the Dutch Republic, United Provinces * 1672–1676: Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676), Polish–Ottoman War. * 1672–1678: Franco-Dutch War. *
1674 Events January–June * February 19 – Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic, Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster (1674), Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Its provisions come into eff ...
: Shivaji forms the Maratha Empire, which lasts until 1818. * 1676–1681: Russia and the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
commence the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681), Russo-Turkish Wars. * 1678: The Treaty of Nijmegen ends various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire. * 1680: The Pueblo Revolt drives the Spanish out of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, New Mexico until 1692. * 1682: Chateau de Versailles, Saint-Gobain *1682 – In North America, the French explorer Robert La Salle claims all the land east of the Mississippi River. * 1683: China conquers the Kingdom of Tungning and annexes Taiwan. * 1683: The Ottoman Empire is defeated in the second Battle of Vienna, Siege of Vienna. * 1683–1699: The
Great Turkish War The Great Turkish War (german: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the Wars of the Holy League ( tr, Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin L ...
leads to the conquest of most of Ottoman Hungary by the Habsburgs. * 1687:
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
publishes ''Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica''. * 1688: The Siege of Derry. * 1688: Siamese revolution of 1688 ousted French influence and virtually severed all ties with the West until the 19th century. * 1688–1689: The Glorious Revolution starts with the Dutch Republic invading England, England becomes a constitutional monarchy. * 1688–1691: Williamite War in Ireland, The War of the Two Kings in Ireland. * 1688–1697: The Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), Grand Alliance sought to stop French expansion during the Nine Years' War. * 1689: The Battle of Killiecrankie is fought between Jacobitism, Jacobite and Williamite forces in Highland Perthshire. * 1689: The Karposh rebellion is crushed in present-day North Macedonia, Skopje is retaken by the Ottoman Turks. Karposh is killed, and the rebels are defeated. * 1689: Bill of Rights 1689, Bill of Rights * 1690: The Battle of the Boyne in Ireland. * 1692: Port Royal in Jamaica is struck by an earthquake and a tsunami. Approximately 2,000 people die and 2,300 are injured. * 1692–1694: Famine in France kills two million. * 1693: The College of William and Mary is founded in Williamsburg, Virginia, by a royal charter. * 1694: The Bank of England is established. * 1695: The Mughal Empire nearly bans the East India Company in response to pirate Henry Every's capture of the ''Ganj-i-Sawai''. * 1696–1697: List of famines, Famine in Finland wipes out almost one-third of the population.Karen J. Cullen (2010). "
Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s
'". Edinburgh University Press. p. 20.
* 1697–1699: Grand Embassy of Peter the Great * 1699: Thomas Savery demonstrates his first steam engine to the Royal Society.


Significant people


Politics

* Abbas I of Persia, shah of the Safavid dynasty (1571–
1629 Events January–June * February 11 Events Pre-1600 * 660 BC – Traditional date for the foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. * 55 – The death under mysterious circumstances of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus ...
) * Ahmed I, sultan of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
(1590–
1617 Events January–June * February 27 – The Treaty of Stolbovo ends the Ingrian War between Sweden and Tsardom of Russia, Russia. Sweden gains Swedish Ingria, Ingria and Priozersk, Kexholm. * April 14 – Second Battle of P ...
) * Alexis of Russia, tsar of Russia (
1629 Events January–June * February 11 Events Pre-1600 * 660 BC – Traditional date for the foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. * 55 – The death under mysterious circumstances of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus ...
–1676) * Anne of Austria, queen consort and regent of France (
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
–1666) * Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus, Monarch of Sweden, king of Sweden (1594–
1632 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as ...
) *
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled o ...

Aurangzeb
, Mughal emperor * Bohdan Khmelnytsky, hetman of
Cossacks The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be, казакi * pl, Kozacy * cs, kozáci * sk, kozáci * hu, kozákok, cazacii * fi, Kasakat, cazacii * et, Kasakad, cazacii are a group of predominantly East Slavic languages, East Slav ...

Cossacks
(1595–1657) * Gabriel Bethlen, Hungarian prince of Transylvania (1580–
1629 Events January–June * February 11 Events Pre-1600 * 660 BC – Traditional date for the foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. * 55 – The death under mysterious circumstances of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus ...
) * Christina of Sweden, Queen Christina of Sweden, high-profile Catholic convert, matron of the arts (
1626 Events January–June * January 7 – Polish–Swedish War (1625–1629), Polish-Swedish War – Battle of Wallhof, Latvia: Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden defeats a Polish army. * January 9 &nda ...
–1689) * Charles I of England (
1600 __NOTOC__ 1600 ( MDC) was a century leap year A century leap year is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar that is divisible by 400 without a remainder. Like all leap years, it has an extra day in February for a total of 366 days instead of 3 ...

1600
–1649) * Charles II of England (
1630 Events January–June * February 22 – Native Americans in the United States, Native American Quadequine introduces popcorn to English colonists. * March – Fedorovych Uprising: Zaporozhian Cossacks rebel against the Poli ...
–1685) * Charles II of Spain (1661–
1700 As of March 1 Events Pre-1600 *509 BC – Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first Roman triumph, triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia. * ...
) * Jean-Baptiste Colbert, chief minister of Louis XIV of France * Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1599–1658) * Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (
1626 Events January–June * January 7 – Polish–Swedish War (1625–1629), Polish-Swedish War – Battle of Wallhof, Latvia: Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden defeats a Polish army. * January 9 &nda ...
–1712) * Henry IV of France (1553–
1610 Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene The Anthropocene ( ) is a proposed geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age ...
) *
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shogun ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
, the founder of the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
in Japan (1543–
1616 Events January–June * January ** Six-year-old António Vieira Father António Vieira (; 6 February 160818 July 1697) was a Jesuit The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church ...
) *
Jahangir Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim (Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iran ...

Jahangir
, Mughal emperor * James I of England (1566–1625) * James II of England (
1633 Events January–June * February 13 ** Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ** Fire engines are used for the first time in England in order to control and extinguish a fire that breaks out at London ...
–1701) * Kangxi Emperor, ruler of China * Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (
1640 Events January–June * February 9 Events Pre-1600 *474 __NOTOC__ Year 474 ( CDLXXIV) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on ...
–1705) * Louis XIII of France, King of France (
1601 1601 ( MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added t ...
1643 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
) * Louis XIV of France, King of France (1638–1715) * Marie de' Medici, regent of France (1575–
1642 Events January–June * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfr ...
) * Mary II of England (1662–1694) * Cardinal Mazarin, French prime minister of Italian origin (
1602 1602 ( MDCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) added ...
–1661) * Mehmed IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire * Murad IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire * Peter I of Russia, Peter the Great, first Russian emperor (1672–1725) * Philip III of Spain, Spanish king (1578–
1621 Events January–June * February 9 – Papal conclave, 1621, Papal Conclave of 1621: Pope Gregory XV succeeds Pope Paul V, as the 234th pope. * February 17 – Myles Standish is appointed as the first commander of Plymouth C ...
) * Philip IV of Spain, Spanish king (
1605 Events January–June * January 16 – The first part of Miguel de Cervantes' satire on the theme of chivalry, ''Don Quixote'' (''El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha'', "The Ingenious Hidalgo (nobility), Hidalgo Don Quixote of ...
–1665) * Dmitry Pozharsky, Russian prince, leader of anti-Polish uprising (1577–
1642 Events January–June * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfr ...
) * Cardinal Richelieu, French prime minister (1585–
1642 Events January–June * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfr ...
) * Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares, Spanish prime minister * Michael of Russia, tsar of Russia (1596–1645) * Shah Jahan, Mughal emperor * Shivaji, emperor of the Maratha Empire (
1674 Events January–June * February 19 – Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic, Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster (1674), Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Its provisions come into eff ...
–1680) * John III Sobieski, King of Poland, Jan III Sobieski, military leader and king of Poland (
1629 Events January–June * February 11 Events Pre-1600 * 660 BC – Traditional date for the foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. * 55 – The death under mysterious circumstances of Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus ...
–1696) * Imre Thököly, leader of the anti-Habsburg uprising in Hungary (1657–1705) * Henri de Turenne, Marshal General of France (
1611 Events January–June * February 27 Events Pre-1600 *380 Year 380 ( CCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on WednesdayA leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on ...
–1675) * Albrecht von Wallenstein, Catholic German general and Diplomat, statesman in the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
(1583–
1634 Events January–June * February 24 Events Pre-1600 *484 __NOTOC__ Year 484 ( CDLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed ...
) * William III of England, stadthouder of the main provinces of the
Republic of the United Provinces The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history ...
and King of England (1650–17027) * Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of the
Republic of the United Provinces The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history ...
(1625–1672)


Consorts of Rulers (and lovers)

* Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan, lover of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
(
1641 Events January–June * January 4 – The stratovolcano Mount Parker (Philippines) undergoes a major eruption. * January 18 – Pau Claris proclaims the Catalan Republic (1641), Catalan Republic. * February 16 – King Ch ...
–1707) * Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, wife of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
(1635–1719) * Maria Theresa of Spain, queen consort of France


Military

* Louis, Grand Condé, Louis de Bourbon, prince of Condé, French general(
1621 Events January–June * February 9 – Papal conclave, 1621, Papal Conclave of 1621: Pope Gregory XV succeeds Pope Paul V, as the 234th pope. * February 17 – Myles Standish is appointed as the first commander of Plymouth C ...
–1686) * Michiel de Ruyter, Dutch admiral (
1607 Events January–June * January 13 Events Pre-1600 *27BC – Augustus, Octavian transfers the state to the free disposal of the Senate and the people. He receives Spain, Gaul, and Syria as his province for ten years. *532 ...
–1676) * Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, Catholic general in the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
(1559–
1632 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as ...
)


Relatives of political figures

* Philippe I, Duke of Orleans, younger son of Louis XIII of France and his wife, Anne of Austria. His older brother was the "Sun King", Louis XIV of France, Louis XIV. He is also ancestor of many European monarchs


Religious Leader

* Guru Teg Bahadur, 9th Sikh Guru (
1621 Events January–June * February 9 – Papal conclave, 1621, Papal Conclave of 1621: Pope Gregory XV succeeds Pope Paul V, as the 234th pope. * February 17 – Myles Standish is appointed as the first commander of Plymouth C ...
–1675)


Musicians

* Johann Christoph Bach, Composer and great-uncle of J.S. Bach, (1642–1703) * John Blow, English composer (1649–1708) * Dieterich Buxtehude, Danish-German composer * Francesco Cavalli, Venetian opera composer (1602–1676) * Marc-Antoine Charpentier, French composer (1643–1708) * Arcangelo Corelli, Italian composer (1653–1713) * Jean-Baptiste Lully, Italian-born composer regarded as the father of French opera (1632–1687) * Claudio Monteverdi, the most prominent composer of his time and creator of Baroque (1567–1643) * Johann Pachelbel, German composer (1653–1706) * Henry Purcell, English composer (1659–1695) * Alessandro Scarlatti, Italian opera composer (1660–1725) * Heinrich Schütz, German composer (1585–1672)


Visual artists

* Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Italian sculptor and architect (1598–1680) * Francesco Borromini, Italian architect (1599–1667) * Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Italian painter (1571–1610) * Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (1599–1641) * Artemisia Gentileschi, Italian painter (1593 – c. 1656) * Frans Hals, Dutch painter (1580–1666) * Georges de La Tour, French painter (1593–1652) * Charles Le Brun, painter of Louis XIV * André Le Nôtre, French landscape architect (1613–1700) * Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Spanish painter (1617–1682) * Nicolas Poussin, French painter (1594–1665) * Guido Reni, Italian painter * José de Ribera, ''Lo Spagnoletto'' (1591–1652) * Rembrandt van Rijn, Dutch painter (1606–1669) * Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, 1577–1640 * Jan Steen, Dutch painter (1626–1679) * Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez, Spanish painter (1599–1660) * Vauban, French military architect * Johannes Vermeer, Dutch painter (1632–1675) * Christopher Wren, English architect * Francisco de Zurbarán, Spanish painter (1598–1664)


Literature

* Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, French poet and critic (1636–1711) * John Bunyan, author of ''The Pilgrim's Progress'' (1628–1688) * Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Spanish dramatist (1600–1681) * Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Spanish novelist (1574–1616) * Pierre Corneille, French dramatist (1606–1684) * Cyrano de Bergerac, French playwright and novelist (1619–1655) * John Donne, English Metaphysical Poetry, metaphysical poet (1572–1631) * John Dryden, English poet (1631–1700) * Jean de La Fontaine, French poet (1621–1695) * Luis de Góngora, Spanish poet (1561–1627) * Juana Inés de la Cruz, Mexican poet (1651–1695) * Ben Jonson, English dramatist (1572–1637) * Matsuo Bashō, the first author of haiku (1644–1694) * François de La Rochefoucauld (writer), François de La Rochefoucauld, French author (1613–1680) * John Milton, English author and poet (1608–1674) * Molière, French dramatist (1622–1673) * Tirso de Molina, Spanish dramatist (1579–1648) * Miyamoto Musashi, Japanese samurai and author (1584–1645) * Samuel Pepys, English civil servant and diarist (1633–1703) * Charles Perrault, French author of fairy tales (1628–1703) * Francisco de Quevedo, Spanish writer (1580–1645) * Jean Racine, French dramatist (1639–1699) *
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
, English playwright (1564–1616) * Félix Lope de Vega, Spanish playwright (1562–1635)


Explorers

* William Baffin, English navigator in Northwest Passage * Evliya Çelebi, Ottoman traveler * Samuel de Champlain, French founder of Canada * Semyon Dezhnyov (1605–1672), Russian explorer of Siberia * Henry Hudson (1565–1611), English navigator of North America * René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, French explorer of Mississippi *
Matteo Ricci Matteo Ricci (; la, Mattheus Riccius; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian ...
, Italian missionary in China * Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603–1659), Dutch seafarer of Australia * Luis Váez de Torres (c. 1565–1607), Spanish explorer of the Pacific


Science and philosophy

*
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek ( ; ; 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium ...
, Dutch biologist * Athanasius Kircher, German polymath * Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher (1632–1677) *
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...

Blaise Pascal
, French mathematician and philosopher (1623–1662) *
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
, Dutch inventor, physicist and astronomer (1629–1695) * Edmond Halley, English astronomer * Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and mathematician * Francis Bacon (philosopher), Francis Bacon, English methodologist and politician (1561–1626) * Francis de Sales, doctor of the Church *
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
, Italian astronomer (1564–1642) * Giovanni Cassini, Italian-French astronomer * Gottfried Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician (1646–1716) * Hugo Grotius, Dutch political scientist *
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
, English physicist, mathematician and philosopher (1643–1727) * Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French theologian * Jacob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician * Johannes Amos Comenius, Czech educationist *
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and ...

Johannes Kepler
, German astronomer (1571–1630) * John Locke, English philosopher (1632–1704) * John Napier, Scottish inventor of the logarithms (1550–1617) * Margaret Mary Alacoque, French mystic * Marin Mersenne, (1588–1648), French polymath * Ole Rømer, Danish astronomer (1644–1710) * Otto von Guericke, German inventor (1602–1686) * Pierre Bayle, French freethinker * Pierre de Fermat, French mathematician (1601–1665) * Pierre Gassendi, French philosopher *
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...

René Descartes
, French philosopher and mathematician (1596–1650) *
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a group ...

Robert Boyle
, the founder of chemistry *
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
, English biologist and physicist (1635–1703) * Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (1588–1679) * Tommaso Campanella, Italian philosopher * William Harvey, English biologist (1578–1657)


Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution. * Banknotes reintroduced in Europe. * Ice cream. * Tea and Coffeehouse, coffee become popular in Europe. * Banking, Central Banking in France and Finance, modern Finance by Scottish economist John Law (economist), John Law. * Minarets, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Persia (Iran), are built. * 1604: Supernova SN 1604 is observed in the Milky Way. *
1605 Events January–June * January 16 – The first part of Miguel de Cervantes' satire on the theme of chivalry, ''Don Quixote'' (''El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha'', "The Ingenious Hidalgo (nobility), Hidalgo Don Quixote of ...
:
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer An astronomer is a in the field of who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of . They observe s such as s, s, , s and ...

Johannes Kepler
starts investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion, elliptical orbits of planets. *
1605 Events January–June * January 16 – The first part of Miguel de Cervantes' satire on the theme of chivalry, ''Don Quixote'' (''El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha'', "The Ingenious Hidalgo (nobility), Hidalgo Don Quixote of ...
: Johann Carolus of Germany publishes the 'Relation', the first newspaper. * 1608: Refracting telescope's first appear. Dutch spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey tries to obtain a patent on one spreading word of the invention. *
1610 Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene The Anthropocene ( ) is a proposed geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age ...
: The Orion Nebula is identified by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc of France. *
1610 Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene The Anthropocene ( ) is a proposed geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age ...
:
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
and Simon Marius observe Jupiter's Galilean moons. *
1611 Events January–June * February 27 Events Pre-1600 *380 Year 380 ( CCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on WednesdayA leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on ...
: King James Version, King James Bible or 'Authorized Version' first published. *
1612 Events January–June * January 6 – Axel Oxenstierna becomes Lord High Chancellor of Sweden. He persuades the Riksdag of the Estates to grant the Swedish nobility the right and privilege to hold all higher offices of governme ...
: The first flintlock musket likely created for Louis XIII of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
by gunsmith Marin Bourgeois. *
1614 Events January–June * February – King James I of England James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the Bri ...
: John Napier introduces the
logarithm In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...

logarithm
to simplify calculations. *
1616 Events January–June * January ** Six-year-old António Vieira Father António Vieira (; 6 February 160818 July 1697) was a Jesuit The Society of Jesus (SJ; la, Societas Iesu) is a religious order of the Catholic Church ...
: Niccolò Zucchi describes experiments with a bronze parabolic reflector, parabolic mirror trying to make a reflecting telescope. *
1620 Events January–June * February 4 This day marks the approximate midpoint of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and of summer in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the December solstice). Events Pre–1600 *211 ...
: Cornelis Drebbel, funded by James I of England, builds the first 'submarine' made of wood and greased leather. * 1623: The first English dictionary, 'English Dictionarie' is published by Henry Cockeram, listing difficult words with definitions. *
1628 Events January–June * January 25 Events Pre-1600 * 41 – After a night of negotiation, Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fou ...
: William Harvey publishes and elucidates his earlier discovery of the Systemic circulation, circulatory system. *
1637 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
: Dutch Bible published. *
1637 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
:
Teatro San Cassiano The Teatro San Cassiano (or Teatro di San Cassiano and other variants) in Venice was the world’s first public opera theatre, inaugurated as such in 1637. The first mention of its construction dates back to 1581. The name with which it is best know ...

Teatro San Cassiano
, the first public opera house, opened in Venice. *
1637 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
: Pierre de Fermat formulates his so-called Fermat's Last Theorem, Last Theorem, unsolved until 1995. *
1637 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
: Although Chinese naval mines were earlier described in the 14th century ''Huolongjing'', the ''Tian Gong Kai Wu'' book of
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
scholar Song Yingxing describes naval mines wrapped in a lacquer bag and ignited by an ambusher pulling a rip cord on the nearby shore that triggers a steel-wheel flint mechanism. *
1642 Events January–June * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfr ...
:
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal ( , , ; ; 19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ...

Blaise Pascal
invents the mechanical calculator called Pascal's calculator. *
1642 Events January–June * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfr ...
: Mezzotint engraving introduces grey tones to printed images. *
1643 Events January–June * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifica ...
: Evangelista Torricelli of Italy invents the mercury barometer. * 1645: Giacomo Torelli of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage. *
1651 Events January–June * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the ...
: Giovanni Battista Riccioli, Giovanni Riccioli renames the Lunar mare, lunar maria. * 1656:
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
describes the true shape of the rings of Saturn. * 1657:
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
develops the first functional pendulum clock based on the learnings of
Galileo Galilei Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific q ...

Galileo Galilei
. * 1659:
Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens ( , also , ; la, Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695), also spelled Huyghens, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) i ...

Christiaan Huygens
first to observe surface details of Mars. * 1662: Christopher Merret presents first paper on the production of sparkling wine. * 1663: James Gregory (astronomer and mathematician), James Gregory publishes designs for a reflecting telescope. * 1669: The first known operational reflecting telescope is built by
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
. * 1676:
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek ( ; ; 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium ...
discovers Bacteria. * 1676: First measurement of the speed of light. * 1679: Binary numeral system, Binary system developed by
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the " 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, " ...

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
. * 1684: Calculus independently developed by both Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Sir Isaac Newton and used to formulate classical mechanics.


References


Further reading

* Chang, Chun-shu, and Shelley Hsueh-lun Chang. ''Crisis and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century China" (1998). * Langer, William. ''An Encyclopedia of World History'' (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of event
online free
* Reid, A. J. S. ''Trade and State Power in 16th & 17th Century Southeast Asia'' (1977). * Spence, J. D. ''The Death of Woman Wang: Rural Life in China in the 17th Century'' (1978).


Focus on Europe

* George Norman Clark, Clark, George. ''The Seventeenth Century'' (2nd ed. 1945). * Hampshire, Stuart. ''The Age of Reason the 17th Century Philosophers, Selected, with Introduction and Interpretive Commentary'' (1961). * Lewitter, Lucian Ryszard. "Poland, the Ukraine and Russia in the 17th Century." ''The Slavonic and East European Review'' (1948): 157–171
in JSTOR
* David Ogg (historian), Ogg, David. ''Europe in the Seventeenth Century'' (6th ed. 1965). * Rowbotham, Sheila. ''Hidden from history: Rediscovering women in history from the 17th century to the present'' (1976). * Trevor-Roper, Hugh R. "The general crisis of the 17th century." ''Past & Present (journal), Past & Present'' 16 (1959): 31–64.


External links


Vistorica
Timelines of 17th century events, science, culture and persons {{Authority control 17th century, 2nd millennium Centuries Early Modern period