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The 16th century begins with the year () and ends with either the Julian or the year () (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582). The term is often used to refer to the 1500s, the century between January 1, 1500 and December 31, 1599. The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of and the occurred. During the 16th century, was introduced on maps, while and explorations led by opened a route in the and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes, and Large parts of the became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the , linking the Americas with India. This era of established as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European and throughout the world until the or early . The gave a major blow to the authority of the and the . European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal being laid towards the end of the century. In , various contributions made by leading figures led to the foundation of important subjects which include and . invented the first thermometer and made substantial contributions in the fields of and , becoming a major figure in the . In , the British-Italian wrote the first book on public international law and divided from and Catholic theology. In the , the continued to expand, with the taking the title of , while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by a major popularity of the sect of under the rule of the of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority- . In the , following the defeat of the , new powers emerged, the founded by and the by Emperor , a direct descendant of and . His successors and , enlarged the empire to include most of . The empire developed a strong and stable economy in the world, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture, which significantly influenced the course of . China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the . proposed the , which was met with strong resistance, and refuted the theory of through observational measurement of the of a . These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by and , and led to major revolutions in and .


Significant events


Undated

* translated into , , and . * disappears. * Medallion rug, variant Star style, (modern ), is made. It is now kept at The .


* : (future , , , and ) was born. * : begins the spreading of , the fifth-largest religion in the world. * : navigator encounters but is prevented from claiming it by the . * : navigator claims Brazil for Portugal. * : The of defeats the at the . * : returns to his native to begin work on the statue '. * : reunifies and rules over it until . Safavids adopt a branch of . * : First reported in the * : The sacks in the , ending its existence. * : defeats at the . Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. * : begins painting the ' and completes it three years later. * : is born on either December 14 or December 21. * : A period of , with in all of Spain. * : Death of ; becomes the Queen. * : Foundation of the by , in what is modern * : ascends the throne of . * : enters at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the . * : builds the first Muslim kingdom in Java, called , in Indonesia. Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of communication and unity. * : completes the '. * : King wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism becoming state religion. * : At least two thousand are massacred in a riot, Portugal. * : dies in , . * : is invaded by from the . * : The first recorded epidemic of in the on the island of . It devastates the native population. * : conquered and , among other bases in the , taking control of the region at the entrance of the . * –: paints the . * : The marks the beginning of dominance of the and the . * : The Portuguese king sends to find , the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira, captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape.Ricklefs (1991), p.23 The nese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.


* –: The 'great ' in various parts of . * : of Portugal in India. * : of Portugal , the capital of the in present-day Malaysia. * : writes ', and proclaims the sun the center of the solar system. * : The southern part (historical core) of the is invaded by . * : The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca (in present-day Malaysia) to search for the '' () led by . Serrão is shipwrecked but struggles on to (northern ) and wins the favour of the local rulers.Ricklefs (1991), page 24 * : writes ', a treatise about political philosophy * : The Portuguese lands at , China, during the . * : defeats the French at the . * : The in which invading are defeated by 's forces. * : Sultan ("The Grim") orders the massacre of Muslims in (present-day Turkey). * : , in service of Spain arrives at the (which he called Mar del Sur) across the . He was the first European to do so. * : The halts 's expansion into . * : (peasant revolt) in . * : The , the gains decisive victory against . * : The wrests Eastern from the Safavids after the . * : The conquers the last beyliks of Anatolia, the and the . * –: The defeat the s and gain control of , , and the . * : The epidemic in . * : The begins when posts his in . * : leaves and settles in . * : , also known as al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, an Andalusian Berber diplomat who is best known for his book ' (Description of Africa), is captured by Spanish pirates; he is taken to Rome and presented to . * : The begins in , lasting for about one month. * : dies of natural causes on May 2. *: , the Chinese philosopher and governor of province, describes his intent to use the firepower of the ''fo-lang-ji'', a Portuguese , in order to suppress the rebellion of Prince . * : led by , a Turk appointed to ruling position in Algiers by the Ottoman Empire, raid and in southern . * : Charles I of , , and the becomes Emperor of as (ruled until 1556). * –: Spanish expedition commanded by and are the first to the Earth. * –: leads the .


* –: The reign of marks the zenith of the . * : The first European diplomatic mission to , sent by the , arrives at 9 April, and reaches the imperial encampment of Emperor in 9 October. * : The established a in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of (in present-day Indonesia) as a transit harbour between and . * : Sultan of begins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west coast (in present-day Indonesia), and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast. * : (in present-day Serbia) is by the Ottoman Empire. * : After building fortifications at , the Portuguese attempt to invade China, but are expelled by Chinese naval forces. * : encountered by . He was later killed in the in central Philippines in the same year. * : ascended the throne of , China. * : November, 's expedition reaches (in present-day Indonesia) and after trade with returns to Europe with a load of . * : leads the invasion of (in present-day Malaysia) against the Portuguese occupation. Pati Unus was killed in this battle, and was succeeded by his brother, sultan . * : to the Ottomans of . * : The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of (in present-day Indonesia) and begin construction of a fort. * : August, signed between and granted Portuguese permit to build fortress in . * : from the . * : The is introduced to Spain by * –: in the . * – is the first European to explore the of between and . * – , the founder of , dies and becomes king. * : and defeat France at the , is captured. * : The Ottomans defeat the at the . * : , founded by , rules until . * : with escaping and the Swiss Guards defending the being killed. The sack of the city of Rome considered the end of the . * : begins in . * : The last ruler of falls from power. This state (located in present-day Indonesia) was finally extinguished at the hands of the . A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali; however, the power and the seat of government transferred to Demak under the leadership of Pangeran, later . * : June 22, The Javanese Prince of the successfully defeated the Portuguese armed forces at the site of the Harbor. The city was then renamed , meaning "a glorious victory." This eventful day came to be acknowledged as Jakarta's Founding Anniversary. * : The defeat the at the . * : defined the of attributing the to Portugal and to Spain. * : defeats the n Emperor in the , the opening clash of the .


* –: The breaks away from the and recognizes as the head of the Church. * : The is fought between the two brothers, and . * : leads the . * : Foundation of , the first permanent Portuguese settlement in the Americas. * : becomes Queen of England. * : is born. * : claims Canada for France. * : The Ottomans from the . * : – Francis becomes more active in repression of French Protestants. * : The , an attempt of radical, , to establish a , ends in bloodshed. * : The Portuguese in Ternate depose Sultan (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather the island of .Ricklefs (1991), page 25 becomes the next sultan. * : dies in , in England. * : In England, is beheaded for adultery and treason. * : Establishment of the in Portugal. * : Foundation of (in present-day Argentina) by . * : The establish in , north-east of . * : 's partial translation of the into English is published, which would eventually be incorporated into the . * : founds . * : – fleet is defeated by the Ottoman Turks at the . * : explores inland North America.


*: The , or the Jesuits, is founded by and six companions with the approval of . *: founds the in , an ethnic () of the house of , who supplanted the as rulers of North during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal emperor . Sher Shah Suri decisively defeats Humayun in the Battle of Bilgram (May 17, 1540). *: founds . *: An n military campaign by () is unsuccessful. *: is encountered and explored by . *: and the absorption of the major part of by the . *: of invades . *: War resumes between and . This time is allied with the Emperor, while and Sultan are allied with the . *: is born in the *: Spanish explorer named the island of and ' honoring and became the official name of the . *: n/ troops decisively defeat the Adal-Ottoman Muslim army led by Imam at the ; Imam is killed at this battle. * : publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun *: The begins after Portuguese traders make contact with . *: The defeat an – army at the . *: in . The and Macdonalds of fight over a disputed chiefship; reportedly, 5 Frasers and 8 Macdonalds survive. *: forces sack the capital of *: The meets for the first time in Trent (in northern Italy). *: is made chief architect of . *: works among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate and (Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission. (to 1547) *: dies in the on 28 January at the age of 55. *: dies in the on 31 March at the age of 52. *: becomes King of England and Ireland on 28 January and is crowned on 20 February at the age of 9. *: Emperor decisively dismantles the at the . *: is crowned tsar of (All) Russia, thenceforth becoming the . *: : Firearms are used for the first time on the battlefield in , and is defeated by . * : , who reigned from 1548 to 1583, establishes public libraries in (in present-day Mali). *: The government of issues a decree banning all foreign trade and closes down all seaports along the coast; these laws came during the wars with ese pirates. *: establishes in , north-east of . *: with the support of his teacher, Sunan Kudus, avenges the death of Raden Kikin by sending an envoy named Rangkud to kill Sunan Prawoto by (in present-day Indonesia).


* : The architect builds the in . * : led by invade and besiege . * –: concerning the human rights of the . * : Fifth outbreak of in . of writes the first full contemporary account of the symptoms of the disease. * : North African enslave the entire population of the Maltese island , between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to . * : Russia conquers the in central Asia. * : Jesuit China Mission, dies. * : becomes the first queen regnant of England and restores the Church of England under Papal authority. * : The found a settlement at . * : and establishes , southeast . * : is imprisoned in the upon the orders of for suspicion of being involved in the . * : The is the first major English trading company. * : Publication in of Delle Navigiationi et Viaggi (terzo volume) by , secretary of Council of Ten, with plan ''La Terra de Hochelaga'', an illustration of the . * : The in China is history's deadliest known earthquake during the . * : , the "Father of ", publishes his '. * : defeats at the . * : Russia conquers the . * –: During his reign, expands the Mughal Empire in a series of conquests (in the Indian subcontinent). * : captures with . * : , radical theologian, is executed by boiling in oil as part of the . * : declares bankruptcy. had to declare four in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. * : The settle in (on the western side of the Pearl River Delta across from present-day Hong Kong). * : The capture , all but isolating from the rest of the world. * : becomes Queen Elizabeth I at age 25. * –: The is considered the height of the . * –: between Poland, Grand Principality of Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark and Russia. * : After 200 years, the loses to France. * : With the , the conclude. * : Sultan of Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) protests the Portuguese's activities in his lands. Hostilities between and the Portuguese.


* : defeats the fleet at the . * : is born in Nyirbator, Hungary. * : By winning the , becomes one of the pre-eminent warlords of . * : declares the official religion of . * : * : Sir is born in . * : The between the Uesugi and Takeda at Hachimanbara takes place. * : draws up the of Protestant faith. * : emperor reconciles the Muslim and Hindu factions by marrying into the powerful Hindu caste. * –: between and s. * : and in the . * : Portuguese priests build a palm-trunk fortress which s burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the of the local population. * : outbreak claimed 80,000 people in . In alone, over 20,000 people died of the disease. * : born on February 15 * : baptized 26 April * : fought between the and the . * : dies at aged 97. * : establishes in . * : The , a Crusading Order, defeat the at the . * : establishes in the first Spanish settlement in the starting a period of Spanish colonization that would last over three hundred years. * : Spanish navigator discovers the maritime route from Asia to the Americas across the , also known as the ''tornaviaje''. * : is founded by . * : , ruler of the , dies on September 7, during the . * –: between Spain and the . * : Da le Balle Contrade d'Oriente, composed by . * : After 45 years' reign, died in the , ascended the throne of . * : , is imprisoned by . * : The , under the patronage of the prince , the former , inspired by the teachings of , the founder of the , promulgates the , the first law of and of conscience in the World. * –: in Spain. * –: The in Japan. * : Hadiwijaya sent his adopted son and son in-law , who would later become the first ruler of the dynasty of Indonesia, to kill . * : in England. * : published by . * : The is created with the which lasts until . * : Peace treaty signed by Sultan Hairun of Ternate and Governor Lopez De Mesquita of Portugal.


* : , tsar of Russia, orders the massacre of inhabitants of . * : issues ', a papal bull excommunicating all who obeyed and calling on all Catholics to rebel against her. * : Sultan of Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) is killed by the Portuguese. becomes the next Sultan. * : completes the as a united front against the . * : The Spanish-led Holy League navy destroys the navy at the . * : attack and , burning everything but the . * : kill Spanish missionaries in what would later be . * : Spanish conquistador establishes , Philippines as the capital of the . * : is taken from by Protestant in the , in the . * : apprehend the last leader at , and execute him in . * : dies aged 43 and is succeeded by . * : instigates the which takes the lives of Protestant leader and thousands of s. The violence spreads from Paris to other cities and the countryside. * : First edition of the epic of , three years after the author returned from the East. * : The 9 years old , ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty, known as . * : After heavy losses on both sides the ends in a victory. * : in the the capital of , declares for the Protestants. * : After a siege of 4 months the ends in a comprehensive victory. * : finally captures fortress. * : Following a five-year war, the Ternateans under Sultan defeated the Portuguese. * : , shah, dies. * : The is fought between the ruler of , and the 's forces under Emperor led by . * : by badly paid soldiers. * –: . * : Ki Ageng Pemanahan built his palace in Pasargede or Kotagede. * : King is killed at the . * : The Portuguese establish a fort on but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon. * : is conferred the title of by Tumed Mongol ruler, . Recognised as the reincarnation of two previous Lamas, Sonam Gyatso becomes the third Dalai Lama in the lineage. * : The unifies the northern Netherlands, a foundation for the later . * : The unifies the southern Netherlands, a foundation for the later states of the , the and . * : The British navigator passes through Maluku and transit in on his circumnavigation of the world. The Portuguese establish a fort on but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.


* : 's royal reception after his attacks on Spanish possessions influences to build up the . English ships in Spanish harbours are impounded. * : Spain unifies with Portugal under . The ends the . The Spanish and Portuguese crowns are for 60 years, i.e. until 1640. * –: comes under control of the . * : Dutch , declaring abjuring allegiance to Philip II of Spain. * : dies at the age of 65. * : is by his general, . * : issues the . The last day of the Julian calendar was Thursday, 4 October 1582 and this was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October 1582 * : conquers the on behalf of the . * : Denmark builds the world's first theme park, . * : Death of Sultan . * –: After the , many of its merchants flee to . According to Luc-Normand Tellier, "At its peak, between 1510 and 1557, concentrated about 40% of the world trade...It is estimated that the port of Antwerp was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the ."Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "
Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective
'". PUQ. p.308.
* : died. Sultan Pajang raised Sutawijaya, son of Ki Ageng Pemanahan as the new ruler in , titled "Loring Ngabehi Market" (because of his home in the north of the market). * : Colony at founded in North America. * –: The is fought on both sides of the Atlantic. * : is executed by . * : The reign of marks the zenith of the . * : Troops that would invade Pajang storm ravaged the eruption of Mount Merapi. Sutawijaya and his men survived. * : Mataram into the kingdom with Sutawijaya as Sultan, titled "Senapati Ingalaga Sayidin Panatagama" means the warlord and cleric Manager Religious Life. * : England repulses the . * : Spain repulses the . * : dies at aged 69.


* : : the surrender to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Japan is unified. * : leads a huge Tatar expedition against . * : In , forces of the Sultan led by Judar Pasha defeat the at the . * –: reports 10,675 deaths in , a city of approximately 200,000 people. * –: Korea, with the help of China, repels . * –: The between the and the . * : , founded by . * : First Dutch expedition to Indonesia sets sail for the East Indies with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by .Ricklefs (1991), page 27 * : Birth of . * : June, de Houtman's expedition reaches the main pepper port of West Java where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at and killing a local ruler in . * : ' is published. * : Cornelis de Houtman's expedition returns to the Netherlands with enough spices to make a considerable profit. * : The ends the . * : moves capital from to in 1598. * –: Russia descends into anarchy during the . * : The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising. (to 1599) * : More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia and most are profitable. * : The province of is established in Northern . The region would later become a territory of Mexico, the in the United States, and the US State of . * : Death of , known as the unifier of Japan. * : The is defeated at the . * : The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. The expedition makes a 400 per cent profit. (to 1600) * : March, Leaving Europe the previous year, a of eight ships under was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku. * : is burned at the stake for in . * : in . End of the and beginning of the . * : The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon.Ricklefs (1991), page 28 Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu. * : grants a charter to the beginning the English advance in Asia.


Significant people


Politics

*, the greatest king of the (–). *, and general (–). * the Great, third , who led the to its zenith (–). *, Burmese ruler who created the largest empire in Southeast Asia. The . (Second Burmese Empire) (–). * and . Involved in almost constant conflict with and the while promoting the (–). *, the last of the , led the native resistance against the es (–). *, notable for further differentiating from the practices of the (–). *, Queen of England (–). *, considered the first monarch of his Kingdom (–). *, restored Swedish sovereignty and introduced in (–). * and , ended the and reunited the kingdom under his command (–). *, king of , established the Tudor dynasty (–). *, founder of (–). *, Persian ruler, reunified , established the and declared as the state religion (–). *, first Russian (–). *, of and . Notably deposed by popular (–). *, of , led the in the (–). *, politician and , played a pivotal role in organizing the against (–). *, King of , Most Successful insurgent king against the Mughal Empire (–). *, King of Portugal. Ruler of the first global empire. He also used the motto ''Manuel Rex Orbis est'', meaning ''Manuel King of the Globe'' (–). *, King of in . prince (died ). *, Attempted to counter the in her domains. Nicknamed Bloody Mary for her (–). *, First female head of the (–). *, ruler of , national symbol of for uniting the three provinces under his rule in 1600 (–) *, of the , was the ruler in which the Spanish arrived (c. –). *, and military leader, stopped the invading army at the in (–). *, ' of the of . First ruler of the (–). *, It was first said of his that . Strong defender of and self-proclaimed leader of (–). *, the first and only monarch of the ; his long reign in the coincided with the apex of the Commonwealth's prestige, power and economic influence (–). *, of the . Conqueror and legal reformer (–). *, the longest ruler of the Safavids (–). *, ' of the of . Second ruler of the (–). *, during the , aided Korea in the (–). *, William I of , main leader of the revolt against the (–). *, King of Poland, established a conscription army and the bureaucracy needed to finance it (–).


Consorts of rulers

*, second wife of King . She was the first Queen of England to be executed, and the mother of Queen (c. –).


Military

*, () and leader of the peasants' revolt in (–). *, Filipino native warrior. He is best known for the Battle of Mactan that happened at dawn on April 27, 1521, where he and his soldiers defeated Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. *, Korean admiral, respected as one of the greatest in world history (–).


Jurisprudence

*, the "Father of international law", considered to be one of the greatest lawyers of all time (–).


Theology

*, French theologian . Proponent of what came to be called ( –). * , founder of the (–). * , Spanish mystic (–). *, clergyman and leader of the , who is considered the founder of the denomination (c. – ). *, German religious reformer (–). *, Italian who traveled to , China in 1582, and died in (–). *, Spanish bishop and player (c. – c. ). * , Spanish mystic (–).


Mysticism

*, French astrologer (in his time there was not yet a clear separation between and ), (in this epoch was a that was precursor to modern day , modern day alchemy is considered a ), (precursors to modern day s), physician, author of , a book of world prophecies (–).


Exploration

* (c. 1475 – 1519) – explorer. The first European to cross the Isthmus of and view the Pacific Ocean from American shores. * (1450–1501) and (1448–1502). explorers. Among the first modern explorers (with ) in the coasts of the far Northeast of , including the . They also rediscovered (1499-1501/1502). * (c. –), Portuguese navigator. The first European to arrive in , on 22 April 1500. Led the first expedition that united Europe, Africa, America, and Asia. * (c. –), Portuguese explorer and statesman. Earlier geostrategist and explorer of the Indian Ocean. Leading builder of the Portuguese empire in and the Far East. * (c. 1480 – c. 1514) and (died 1521) – Portuguese explorers. Led the first European fleet into the edges of the Pacific Ocean, in 1511–1512, through , reaching the and the . * (c.1470–1525) – explorer, pilot, cosmographer and cartographer. Explored the and the . * (1491–1557) – explorer. Discovered . * (c. 1510 – 1554) – explorer. Searched for the Seven Cities of Gold and discovered the Grand Canyon in the process. *, Spanish (–). *(c. 1488/1490 – c. 1557/1558)., Spanish explorer. Crossed North America through the US south, southwest, and Mexico * (c. 1498 – 1568) was a Spanish navigator, friar and circumnavigator. In 1565 he discovered the maritime path from Asia to the Americas across the Pacific. *Sir (1540–1596) – explorer. The first English captain to and survive. * (1476–1526) – explorer. Completed the first of the globe in a single expedition after its captain, Magellan, was killed. * (c. – ), navigator. Discovered the ocean route to Asia around the . Explored and crossed the Atlantic and Indian oceans. * (c. 1460 – 1521) – explorer. He explored while attempting to locate a . *, navigator who sailed around the world (–). Explored and crossed the Pacific Ocean. *, trader and explorer who reached in 1542–43. * (1511–1546) – explorer in – sails the length of the . * (c. 1475 – 1541) – explorer and conquistador. Conquered the Empire. * (c. 1496 – 1542) – explorer. Explored , mainly northwest , and discovered the . * (c. 1509 – 8 July 1583) – . Explored Asia and the . Supposedly Reached in 1542–43. * (c. 1532–1585) – . Conquered the . * (c. 1565–1607) Spanish or Portuguese navigator. Explored the Pacific for the Spanish crown and crossed the strait that bears his name in northern . * (c. 1485–1528) – explorer for . Explored the northeast coast of America, from about present-day to .


Visual artists

* (1493–1560), Italian sculptor * (1444–1514), Italian architect * , Italian painter and sculptor (–). * (1503–1572), Italian painter * , (c. 1525 – September 9, 1569) * (1568–1625), * (1571–1610), Italian artist. * (1500–1571), Italian jeweller and sculptor. * (1472–1553), German painter. * (1515–1586), German painter. * (1471–1528), German artist. * (1494–1540), Italian painter. * (1543–1607), Italian architect. * (1529–1608), Flemish-Italian sculptor. * (1541–1614), Greek-Spanish painter, sculptor, and architect * , Spanish architect (–) * , German artist, (–) * (1508–1580), Italian architect * (1503–1540), Italian painter * (1494–1557), Italian painter. * (1483–1520), Italian painter * (c. 1499–1546), Italian painter and architect. * (1486–1530), Italian painter. * (c. 1445 – 1516), Italian sculptor, architect and military engineer * (1484–1546), Italian architect * (1489–1588) was a civil engineer and chief architect of the Ottoman Empire * (1518–1594), Italian painter * (c. 1485–1576), Italian painter * (1511–1574), Italian painter, architect, writer and historian. * , Italian painter, ( – April 19, 1588) * famous artist and inventor and scientist (–). * , Chinese painter who belonged to the and used brush style (–)


Musicians and composers

* ( circa 1516 - 1588) * and other of * (c. 1520 – c. 1578) * (c. 1560 – 1614) * (c. 1557 – 1634) * (c. 1558 – 1617) * (1560–1630) * (c. 1562 – 1628) * (c. 1510 – 1566) * (c. 1545 – 1618) * (c. 1560 – c. 1640) * (c. 1550 – March 11, 1602) * (before 1555 – 1642) * (c. 1555 – c. 1635) * (1563–1626) * (1565–1640) * (1557–1622) * (1562–1612) * (1565–1627) * (1557–1612) * * (c. 1535 – 1608) * (c. 1571 – c. 1627) * (1565–1627) * (c. 1500 – 1553) * (c. 1560 – 1623) * (c. 1556 – 1620) * (1533–1604) * , (–) * (1561–1633) * (c. 1560 – 1628) * (1560–1629) * (1516–1565) * (c. 1555 – 1628) * (1513–1590) * (1562–1621) * (1563–1633) * (1564–1627) * (1548–1611)


Literature

* , Spanish poet and painter, (–) * , Spanish novelist and writer ( – c. ) * , Italian poet, (–) * , Ottoman Turkish poet. He was known as "Sultan of poets" (–) * , Portuguese poet (c. – ). * , Italian author (–) * , Spanish author (–) * , English (–) * , Italian poet (-) * , Spanish poet (–) * , Spanish poet (–) * , English dramatist (c. early – ) * , and (–) * , English dramatist (c. – ) * , Polish poet (–) * , Azerbaijani poet (–) * , English dramatist (–) * , Spanish poet (–) * , English dramatist (–) * , Italian author (–) * , English poet and dramatist (–). * , French essayist (–). * , English politician and author (–). * , famous warrior in , author of , a treaty on and martial combat. (–) * , French author (c. – ). * , Polish writer (–). * , French poet. Called the "Prince of poets" of his generation. (–). * , English playwright (–). * , English poet (c. –) * , Italian humanist, poet, dramatist, diplomat, and grammarian (1478–1550) * , Spanish poet (–) * , Spanish dramatist (–). * , Italian humanist, a historian and poet (1502/1503 – 1565) * , Kurdish , and (–)


Science and philosophy

*, (–), the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world in the last four hundred years who introduced or ''al-hikmah al-muta'liyah'' *,Indian Astronomer * and *, (–) was an , , and . * (1470–1547), Italian scholar, poet, literary theorist and a cardinal. *, (–), . *, Italian philosopher and astronomer/astrologer (–). *, Venetian , diplomat and secretary of council of Ten of Venice , author of (–). * (1568–1639), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet. *, (1423–1511), Greek humanist, scholar. *, (–) , developed the (-centered) using methods. * (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, 1466/1469, Rotterdam – July 12, 1536, Basel was a Dutch Renaissance humanist and Catholic theologian. * ( The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the , which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the . Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – ) was a () , , , and who played a major role in the . * (–) was a , , , His three-volume ' (1551–1558) is considered the beginning of modern *, also known as Gilberd, (–) was an English physician and a natural philosopher. *, (1483–1540) Italian historian and statesman. *, (–), German , , and who played a major role in the . * (1469–1527), Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. * (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594), famous cartographer. * (1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist. * (1548–1617), Spanish philosopher and theologian. *, Swiss Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist (–). * (Brussels, December 31, 1514 – Zakynthos, October 15, 1564) was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. *, (baptized ; died ), English and who determined the mathematical basis of the and produced the first maps in England according to this method


Inventions, discoveries, introductions

: ''Related article: .'' * The introduces many plants, animals and diseases to the and s. * Introduction of the revolutionizes production in Europe. * The letter is introduced into the . * : First portable is created by of . * : sights and sights the eastern edge of the . * –: and lead the first of the World. * –: In America, expeditions map the coastline and bays. * : Modern symbol (√) * : sights the . * –: sails the length of the . * –: are introduced into by the . * : publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun * : Theory of is first developed by of Italy. * : is first used in Europe by of . * –: Spanish settlements in / and confirm dangers of s and local native warring tribes. * : Spanish settlers outside (Mexico) colonize 's coastline at . * : Invention of the (in a wooden holder) by . Modernized in . * : creates the first map. * : Supernova is observed by in the . * : is introduced in by and adopted by Catholic countries. * c. : of , identifies the constant swing of a , leading to development of reliable timekeepers. * : earliest known reference to the '' in . * : invents the . * : First flush is introduced by of , the design published under the title 'The Metamorphosis of Ajax'. * : invents a . * : discovers . * : in by .


See also

*


References


Further reading

* Langer, William. ''An Encyclopedia of World History'' (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of event
online free


External links

*

{{DEFAULTSORT:16th Century 2nd millennium