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12 (twelve) is the
natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). In common mathematical terminology, w ...
following
11
11
and preceding
13
13
. The product of the first 3 factorials, twelve is a
superior highly composite number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gene ...
, divisible by
2
2
,
3
3
,
4
4
, and
6
6
. It is approximately the number of full
lunations of the moon
lunations of the moon
in a year, and the number of years for a full cycle of Jupiter, historically considered to be the brightest "wandering star". It is central to many systems of timekeeping, including the
Western calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a minor modification of the Julian calendar, reducing the average year from 365.25 days to 365.2425 days, and adjusting ...
and
units of time of day
units of time of day
, and frequently appears in the world's major religions.


Name

Twelve is the largest number with a single-syllable name in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
. Early
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
numbers have been theorized to have been non-
decimal The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is t ...
: evidence includes the unusual phrasing of
eleven
eleven
and twelve, the former use of "hundred" to refer to groups of 120, and the presence of glosses such as "tentywise" or "ten-count" in medieval texts showing that writers could not presume their readers would normally understand them that way. Such uses gradually disappeared with the introduction of
Arabic numerals Arabic numerals are the ten numerical digit A numerical digit (often shortened to just digit) is a single symbol used alone (such as "2") or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers in a Positional notation, positional numeral sy ...

Arabic numerals
during the 12th-century Renaissance. Derived from
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
, ' and ' are first attested in the 10th-century
Lindisfarne Gospels upright=1.2, Folio 27r from the Lindisfarne Gospels contains the incipit from the Gospel of Matthew. The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript ...
'
Book of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels Gospel originally meant ...

Book of John
. It has cognates in every
Germanic language The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian su ...
(e.g. German ''zwölf''), whose
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
ancestor has been
reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for "reconstruction"), a late 20th century Soviet Union ...
as ', from ' ("
two 2 (two) is a number, numeral (linguistics), numeral and numerical digit, digit. It is the natural number following 1 and preceding 3. It is the smallest and only even prime number. Because it forms the basis of a Dualistic cosmology, duality, it ...

two
") and suffix ' or ' of uncertain meaning. It is sometimes compared with the
Lithuanian Lithuanian may refer to: * Lithuanians Lithuanians ( lt, lietuviai, singular ''lietuvis/lietuvė'') are a Balts, Baltic ethnic group. They are native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lith ...
', although ' is used as the suffix for all numbers from 11 to 19 (analogous to "-teen"). Every other
Indo-European language The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
instead uses a form of "
two 2 (two) is a number, numeral (linguistics), numeral and numerical digit, digit. It is the natural number following 1 and preceding 3. It is the smallest and only even prime number. Because it forms the basis of a Dualistic cosmology, duality, it ...

two
"+"", such as the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
'. The usual ordinal form is "twelfth" but "dozenth" or "duodecimal" (from the Latin word) is also used in some contexts, particularly
base-12 The duodecimal system (also known as base 12, dozenal, or, rarely, uncial) is a positional notation numeral system using 12 (number), twelve as its radix, base. The number twelve (that is, the number written as "12" in the decimal, base ten numeric ...
numeration. Similarly, a group of twelve things is usually a "
dozen A dozen (commonly abbreviated doz or dz) is a grouping of 12 (number), twelve. The dozen may be one of the earliest primitive integer groupings, perhaps because there are approximately a dozen cycles of the Moon, or months, in a cycle of the Su ...
" but may also be referred to as a "dodecad" or "duodecad". The adjective referring to a group of twelve is "duodecuple". As with ,''Oxford English Dictionary'', 1st ed. "eleven, ''adj.'' and ''n.''" Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1891. the earliest forms of twelve are often considered to be connected with Proto-Germanic ' or ' ("to leave"), with the implicit meaning that "two is left" after having already counted to ten.''Oxford English Dictionary'', 1st ed. "twelve, ''adj.'' and ''n.''" Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1916. The Lithuanian suffix is also considered to share a similar development. The suffix ' has also been connected with reconstructions of the Proto-Germanic for ten. While, as mentioned above, 12 has its own name in Germanic languages such as English (
dozen A dozen (commonly abbreviated doz or dz) is a grouping of 12 (number), twelve. The dozen may be one of the earliest primitive integer groupings, perhaps because there are approximately a dozen cycles of the Moon, or months, in a cycle of the Su ...
), German (Dutzend), and Swedish (dussin), it is a compound number in many other languages, e.g. Italian ''dodici'' (but in Spanish and Portuguese, 16, and in French, 17 is the first compound number), Japanese 十二 ''jūni''.


Written representation

In prose writing, ''twelve'', being the last single-syllable numeral, is sometimes taken as the last number to be written as a word, and the first to be written using digits. This is not a binding rule, and in English language tradition, it is sometimes recommended to spell out numbers up to and including either ''nine'', ''ten'' or ''twelve'', or even ''ninety-nine'' or ''one hundred''. Another system spells out all numbers written in one or two words (''sixteen'', ''twenty-seven'', ''fifteen thousand'', but ''372'' or ''15,001''). In
German orthography German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic orthography, phonemic. However, it shows many instances of spellings that are historic or analogous to other spellings rather than phonemic. T ...
, there used to be the widely followed (but unofficial) rule of spelling out numbers up to twelve (''zwölf''). The
Duden The Duden () is a dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexeme A lexeme () is a unit of lexical meaning that underlies a set of words that are related through inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is ...

Duden
(the German standard dictionary) mentions this rule as outdated.


Mathematical properties

Twelve is a
composite number A composite number is a positive integer In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calcul ...
, the smallest number with exactly six
divisor In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities a ...

divisor
s, its divisors being , , , , and 12. Twelve is also a
highly composite number __FORCETOC__ A highly composite number (sometimes called ''anti-prime'') is a positive Positive is a property of Positivity (disambiguation), positivity and may refer to: Mathematics and science * Converging lens or positive lens, in optics * ...
, the next one being twenty-four. Twelve is the smallest
abundant number In number theory, an abundant number or excessive number is a number that is smaller than the sum of its proper divisors. The integer 12 is the first abundant number. Its proper divisors are 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 for a total of 16. The amount by which ...
, since it is the smallest integer for which the sum of its proper divisors (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 = 16) is greater than itself. Twelve is a sublime number, a number that has a
perfect number In number theory Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of devoted primarily to the study of the s and . German mathematician (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number ...
of divisors, and the sum of its divisors is also a perfect number. Since there is a subset of 12's proper divisors that add up to 12 (all of them but with 4 excluded), 12 is a
semiperfect number In number theory, a semiperfect number or pseudoperfect number is a natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the '' ...
. If an odd
perfect number In number theory Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of devoted primarily to the study of the s and . German mathematician (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number ...
is of the form 12''k'' + 1, it has at least twelve distinct prime factors. A twelve-sided
polygon In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position o ...

polygon
is a
dodecagon In geometry, a dodecagon or 12-gon is any twelve-sided polygon. Regular dodecagon A regular polygon, regular dodecagon is a figure with sides of the same length and internal angles of the same size. It has twelve lines of reflective symmetry an ...

dodecagon
. A twelve- faced
polyhedron In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position o ...
is a
dodecahedron In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position o ...

dodecahedron
. Regular
cube In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...

cube
s and
octahedron In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra, octahedrons) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. The term is most commonly used to refer to the regular octahedron, a Platonic solid composed of eight equilateral tri ...

octahedron
s both have 12 edges, while regular
icosahedron In geometry, an icosahedron ( or ) is a polyhedron with 20 faces. The name comes and . The plural can be either "icosahedra" () or "icosahedrons". There are infinitely many non-similarity (geometry), similar shapes of icosahedra, some of them ...

icosahedron
s have 12 vertices. Twelve is a
pentagonal number 181px, A visual representation of the first six pentagonal numbers A pentagonal number is a figurate number that extends the concept of triangular number, triangular and square numbers to the pentagon, but, unlike the first two, the patterns involv ...

pentagonal number
. The densest three-dimensional lattice
sphere packing In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space tha ...

sphere packing
has each sphere touching 12 others, and this is almost certainly true for ''any'' arrangement of spheres (the
Kepler conjecture#REDIRECT Kepler conjecture The Kepler conjecture, named after the 17th-century mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (; ; 27 December 1571 – 15 November 1630) was a German astronomer, mathematician A mathematician i ...
). Twelve is also the
kissing numberIn geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space that ...
in three dimensions. Twelve is the smallest weight for which a
cusp formIn number theory, a branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematica ...
exists. This cusp form is the discriminant Δ(''q'') whose Fourier coefficients are given by the Ramanujan -function and which is (up to a constant multiplier) the 24th power of the
Dedekind eta function In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
. This fact is related to a constellation of interesting appearances of the number twelve in mathematics ranging from the value of the
Riemann zeta function The Riemann zeta function or Euler–Riemann zeta function, denoted by the Greek letter The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is ...

Riemann zeta function
at −1 i.e. ζ(−1) = −, the fact that the
abelianization In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It h ...
of SL(2,Z) has twelve elements, and even the properties of lattice polygons. There are twelve Jacobian elliptic functions and twelve cubic
distance-transitive graph The Biggs-Smith graph, the largest 3-regular distance-transitive graph. In the mathematics, mathematical field of graph theory, a distance-transitive graph is a Graph (discrete mathematics), graph such that, given any two vertices ''v'' and ''w'' ...
s. There are 12
Latin square In combinatorics and in experimental design, a Latin square is an ''n'' × ''n'' array filled with ''n'' different symbols, each occurring exactly once in each row and exactly once in each column. An example of a 3×3 La ...
s of size 3 × 3. The
duodecimal The duodecimal system (also known as base 12, dozenal, or, rarely, uncial) is a positional notation Positional notation (or place-value notation, or positional numeral system) usually denotes the extension to any of the (or ). More generally ...
system (1210 welve= 1012), which is the use of 12 as a division factor for many
ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from ...
and medieval weights and measures, including
hour An hour (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. All ...
s, probably originates from
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamia
. In base thirteen and higher bases (such as
hexadecimal In mathematics and computing, the hexadecimal (also base 16 or hex) numeral system is a Numeral system#Positional systems in detail, positional numeral system that represents numbers using a radix (base) of 16. Unlike the decimal system repres ...
), twelve is represented as C. In
base 10 The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is t ...

base 10
, the number 12 is a
Harshad number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and t ...
. 12 is a
pronic number A pronic number is a number which is the product of two consecutive integer An integer (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoke ...
, and a
Pell number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
.


List of basic calculations


In nature

Notably, twelve is the number of full
lunation In lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a sing ...
s in a
solar year A tropical year (also known as a solar year or tropical period) is the time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past ...
, and the number of years for a full cycle of Jupiter (the brightest of the ancient "wandering stars"), hence the number of months in a
solar calendar A solar calendar is a calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, specific day within ...
, as well as the number of signs in the
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
and the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
zodiac The zodiac is a belt-shaped region of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic The ecliptic is the plane (geometry), plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. From the perspecti ...

zodiac
.


Religion

The number twelve carries religious, mythological and magical
symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), m ...

symbol
ism, generally representing perfection, entirety, or cosmic order in traditions since antiquity.


Ancient Greek religion

*The
Twelve Olympians file:Greek - Procession of Twelve Gods and Goddesses - Walters 2340.jpg, upright=1.8, Fragment of a Hellenistic relief sculpture, relief (1st century BC1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from le ...
are the principal gods of the
pantheon Pantheon may refer to: * Pantheon (religion), the set of gods belonging to a particular religion, mythology or tradition * Pantheon (mythical creature), a mythical or imaginary creature used in heraldry, particularly in Britain Computing *Pant ...
, they were preceded by twelve Titans, and
Hercules Hercules (, ) is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed p ...

Hercules
carries out twelve labours. *Several sets of twelve cities are identified in history as a dodecapolis, the most familiar being the
Etruscan League The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as parts of what are now the Po Valley, Emilia ...
. In ancient Rome, the twelve
lictor A lictor (possibly from la, ligare, "to bind") was a Ancient Rome, Roman civil servant who was an attendant and bodyguard to a Roman magistrate, magistrate who held ''imperium''. Lictors are documented since the Roman Kingdom, and may have origi ...

lictor
s carried
fasces Fasces ( ; ; a ''plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a ...

fasces
of twelve rods.


Judaism and Christianity

* The significance is especially pronounced in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
.
Ishmael Ishmael ''Ismaḗl''; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of ...
- the first-born son of
Abraham Abraham, ''Ibrāhīm''; el, Ἀβραάμ, translit=Abraám, name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common patriarch of the Abrahamic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the covenan ...

Abraham
- has 12 sons/princes ( Genesis 25:16), and
Jacob Jacob (; ; ar, يَعْقُوب, Yaʿqūb; gr, Ἰακώβ, Iakṓb), later given the name Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State ...

Jacob
also has 12 sons, who are the progenitors of the
Twelve Tribes of Israel The Twelve Tribes of Israel ( he, שבטי ישראל, translit=Shivtei Yisrael, lit=Tribes of Israel) are, according to Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religious texts, the descendants of the biblical Patriarchs (Bible), patriarch Jacob, also kno ...
. This is reflected in Christian tradition, notably in the
twelve Apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, partic ...

twelve Apostles
. When
Judas Iscariot Judas Iscariot (; he, יהודה איש-קריות , "Judah, man of KeriothKerioth ( he, קְרִיּוֹת, ''Kriyot'') is the name of two cities mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The spelling Kirioth appears in the King James Version of Amos ...
is disgraced, a meeting is held (
Acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New Te ...
) to add
Saint Matthias Matthias (Koine Greek: Μαθθίας, ''Maththías'' , from Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew מַתִּתְיָהוּ ''Mattiṯyāhū''; cop, ⲙⲁⲑⲓⲁⲥ; died c. AD 80) was, according to the Acts of the Apostles (written c. AD 80–90), chosen ...
to complete the number twelve once more. The
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
contains much numerical symbolism, and many of the numbers mentioned have 12 as a divisor. mentions a woman—interpreted as the
people of Israel Israelis ( he, ישראלים ''Yiśraʾelim'', ar, الإسرائيليين ''al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin'') are the citizens or permanent residents of the State of Israel, a multiethnic state populated by Demographics of Israel, people of different ...

people of Israel
, the
Church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is usually used to refer to the p ...

Church
and the
Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...

Virgin Mary
—wearing a crown of twelve stars (representing each of the twelve tribes of Israel). Furthermore, there are 12,000 people sealed from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, making a total of 144,000 (which is the square of 12 multiplied by a thousand). * The "
Twelve Days of Christmas The Twelve Days of Christmas, also known as Twelvetide, is a festive Christian season celebrating the Nativity of Jesus The nativity of Jesus, nativity of Christ, birth of Christ or birth of Jesus is described in the Biblical gospels of Go ...
" count the interval between
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
and
Epiphany Epiphany may refer to: * Epiphany (feeling), an experience of sudden and striking insight Religion * Epiphany (holiday), a Christian holiday celebrating the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ ** Epiphany season, or Epiphan ...
. * Eastern Orthodoxy observes twelve
Great Feasts In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the feast of the Resurrection of Jesus, called Easter, Pascha (Easter), is the greatest of all holy days and as such it is called the "feast of feasts". Immediately below it in importance, there is a group of Twelve G ...
.


Hinduism

* There are twelve
Jyotirlinga A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirlingam, is a devotional representation of the Hindu god Shiva Shiva (; sa, शिव, lit=The Auspicious One, Śiva ), also known as Mahadeva (; ɐɦaːd̪eːʋɐ, is one of the principal deities Principal may ...
(''Self-formed Lingas'') of Lord
Shiva Shiva (; sa, शिव, lit=The Auspicious One, Śiva ), also known as Mahadeva (; ɐɦaːd̪eːʋɐ, is one of the Hindu deities, principal deities of Hinduism. He is the God, Supreme Being in Shaivism, one of the major traditions wit ...

Shiva
in Hindu temples across
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
according to the Shaiva tradition. * The Sun god
Surya Surya (; sa, सूर्य, ) the sun and the solar deity in Hinduism, particularly in the Saura (Hinduism), Saura tradition found in Indian states such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and ...

Surya
has 12 names. * The Monkey god
Hanuman Hanuman (; sa, हनुमान्, ) is a Hindu god and divine ''vanara'' (monkey) companion of the god Rama. Hanuman is one of the central characters of the Hindu epic ''Ramayana''. He is an ardent devotee of Rama and one of the chiranji ...

Hanuman
has 12 names. * There are 12 Petals in
Anahata Anahata ( sa, अनाहत, IAST: , en, "unstruck") or heart chakra is the fourth primary chakra, according to Hindu Yoga, Yogic, Shakta and Vajrayana, Buddhist Tantric traditions. In Sanskrit, ''anahata'' means "unhurt, unstruck, and unbe ...
or "heart chakra". * There are frequently said to be 12 Âdityas.


Others

* The chief Norse mythology, Norse god, Odin, has twelve sons. In the King Arthur Legend, Arthur is said to subdue 12 rebel princes and to win 12 great battles against Saxon invaders. In Twelver Shia Islam, Shi'a Islam, there are twelve Imamah (Shi'a doctrine), Imams, legitimate successors of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. These twelve early leaders of Islam are—Ali Ben Abu Talib, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali, Hasan, Husayn ibn Ali, Husayn, and nine of Husayn's descendants. Sura 12 in the Quran is sura Yusuf (surah), Yusuf, narrating the story of the sons of Jacob.


Law

* The number of twelve jurors in jury trials is depicted by Aeschylus in the ''Oresteia#The Eumenides, Eumenides''. In the play, the innovation is brought about by the goddess Athena, who summons twelve citizens to sit as jury. In English Common Law, the tradition of twelve jurors harks back to the 10th-century law code introduced by Aethelred the Unready.


Timekeeping

* The lunar year is 12 lunar months. Adding 11 or 12 days completes the
solar year A tropical year (also known as a solar year or tropical period) is the time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past ...
. * Most Calendar, calendar systems - solar or lunar - have twelve months in a year. * The Chinese use a 12-year cycle for time-reckoning called Earthly Branches. * There are twelve
hour An hour (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. All ...
s in a half day, numbered one to twelve for both the ''ante meridiem'' (a.m.) and the ''post meridiem'' (p.m.). 12:00 p.m. is midday or noon, and 12:00 a.m. is midnight. * The basic units of time (60 seconds, 60 minutes, 24 hours) are evenly divisible by twelve into smaller units.


In numeral systems


In science

*The atomic number of magnesium in the periodic table. *The Standard Model identifies twelve types of elementary fermions. *The human body has twelve cranial nerves. *The duodenum (from Latin ''duodecim,'' "twelve") is the first part of the small intestine, that is about twelve inches (30 cm) long. More precisely, this section of the intestine was measured not in inches but in fingerwidths. In fact, in German language, German the name of the duodenum is ''Zwölffingerdarm'' and in Dutch language, Dutch the name is ''twaalfvingerige darm'', both meaning "twelve-finger bowel". *Force 12 on the beaufort scale, Beaufort wind force scale corresponds to the maximum wind speed of a hurricane. *The human body has twelve Thoracic vertebrae


In sports

* In both soccer and American football, the number 12 can be a symbolic reference to the Fan (aficionado), fans because of the support they give to the 11 players on the field. Texas A&M University reserves the number 12 number (sports), jersey for a walk-on player who represents the original 12th Man (football), "12th Man", a fan who was asked to play when the team's reserves were low in a college American football game in 1922. Similarly, FC Bayern Munich, Bayern Munich, Hammarby Fotboll, Hammarby, Feyenoord, Clube Atlético Mineiro, Atlético Mineiro, Clube de Regatas Flamengo, Flamengo, Seattle Seahawks, Portsmouth F.C., Portsmouth and Cork City FC, Cork City do not allow field players to wear the number 12 on their jersey because it is reserved for their supporters. * In Canadian football, 12 is the maximum number of players that can be on the field of play for each team at any time. * In cricket, another sport with eleven players per team, teams may select a "12th man", who may replace an injured player for the purpose of fielding (but not batting or bowling). * In women's lacrosse, each team has 12 players on the field at any given time, except in penalty situations. * In rugby league, one of the starting second-row forwards wears the number 12 jersey in most competitions. An exception is in the Super League, which uses static squad numbering. * In rugby union, one of the starting centres, most often but not always the inside centre, wears the 12 shirt. * In an National Basketball Association, NBA game, a quarter lasts 12 minutes.


In technology

*ASCII and Unicode code point for form feed. * The number of function keys on most PC keyboards (F1 through F12). * The number of keys in any standard digital telephone (1 through 9, 0, * and #). * Microsoft's Rich Text Format specification assigns numbers congruent to 12 mod 256 to variants of the French language.


In the arts


Film

Movies with the number twelve or its variations in their titles include: *''12 (2007 film), 12'' *''12 Angry Men'' (12 Angry Men (1957 film), 1957 and 12 Angry Men (1997 film), 1997) *''Cheaper by the Dozen (1950 film), Cheaper by the Dozen'' *''Ocean's Twelve'' *''12 Monkeys (film), 12 Monkeys'' *''The Dirty Dozen'' *''The Twelve Chairs'' (The Twelve Chairs (1970 film), 1970, The Twelve Chairs (1971 film), 1971 and The Twelve Chairs (1976 film), 1976) *''12 Rounds'' *''Twelve (2010 film), Twelve'' *''Twelve Years a Slave''


Television

*The number twelve plays a significant role in the television franchise ''Battlestar Galactica''. The characters come from the Twelve Colonies of Kobol and worship the twelve lords of Kobol. In the re-imagined series, there are also twelve models of the humanoid version of Cylon (Battlestar Galactica), Cylons. *''Twelve Angry Men (Westinghouse Studio One), Twelve Angry Men'', the original 1954 live performance on the anthology television series ''Westinghouse Studio One, Studio One'' *"Number 12 Looks Just Like You" is an episode of the television show ''The Twilight Zone (1959 TV series), The Twilight Zone''. *''Multiplication Rock, Schoolhouse Rock!'' portrayed an alien child using duodecimal, base-twelve arithmetic in the shor
"Little Twelvetoes"
*''12 oz. Mouse'' was an animated television show on Adult Swim. * The News 12 Networks are a group of American regional cable news television channels covering New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. * ' is a French game show broadcast on TF1 with Oliver Minne at midday CEST. * In ''Star Twinkle PreCure'', the Star Palace is home to the twelve Star Princesses, one for each sign of the Zodiac.


Theatre

* ''Twelfth Night'' is a comedy by William Shakespeare. * ''The Vision of the Twelve Goddesses'' is a Jacobean masque by Samuel Daniel. * ''Twelve Angry Men (play), Twelve Angry Men'', by Reginald Rose, adapted from his own teleplay (see above).


Literature

* "The Twelve (poem), The Twelve" is a poem by Aleksandr Blok. * ''Twelve (novel), Twelve'' is a novel by Nick McDonell. * ''The Twelve Chairs'' is a satirical novel by the Soviet authors Ilf and Petrov. * ''Cheaper by the Dozen'' is a 1946 novel by Frank Bunker Gilbreth Jr. and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey. * ''The Twelve Dancing Princesses'' is a folk tale. * The ''Aeneid'', an epic poem by ''Virgil'' is divided into two halves composed of twelve books. * ''Paradise Lost'', an epic poem by ''John Milton'' is divided into twelve books perhaps in imitation of the ''Aeneid''. * Miguel de Cervantes wrote twelve ''Novelas ejemplares''.


Music


Music theory

*Twelve is the number of pitch classes in an octave, not counting the duplicated (octave) pitch. Also, the total number of major keys, (not counting enharmonic equivalents) and the total number of minor keys (also not counting equivalents). This applies only to twelve tone equal temperament, the most common tuning used today in western influenced music. *The twelfth is the Interval (music), interval of an octave and a fifth. Instruments such as the clarinet which behave as a stopped cylindrical pipe overblowing, overblow at the twelfth. *The twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. Music using the technique is called twelve-tone music. *The Twelve-bar blues is one of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music. *12-inch record, see Phonograph record#78 rpm disc sizes.


Pop music

* The 12-inch single is a vinyl record format. *Twelfth Night (band), Twelfth Night is a progressive rock band. *''12 Play'' is an R. Kelly album. *The Number 12 Looks Like You is a mathcore band. *"12", a song from the album ''Brave Murder Day'' by Katatonia. *''12 (Herbert Grönemeyer album), 12'' is a studio album by German singer Herbert Grönemeyer. *''Twelve (Patti Smith album), Twelve'' is an album by Patti Smith. *''Twelve Deadly Cyns...and Then Some'' is an album by Cyndi Lauper. *D12 a rap group also known as the Dirty Dozen. *12 Stones is an American Christian rock band. *"12 Hundred" is a song by band Mushroomhead of their ''Savior Sorrow'' album. *''12 (Keller Williams album), 12'' is the 12th studio album by Keller Williams. *"12" ("Dodeka" in Greek) is one of the most well-known hits by Anna Vissi. *"Twelve drummers drumming" is the gift on the twelfth day of Christmas in the carol "The Twelve Days of Christmas (song), The Twelve Days of Christmas". *Twelve Girls Band are an all female Chinese musical group . *''12 (American Song Book)'' is an album by Italian singer Mina. *"Revelation 12 (song), Revelation #12" is a song by American rock band Marilyn Manson.


Art theory

* There are twelve basic hues in the color wheel; 3 primary colors (red, yellow, blue), 3 secondary colors (orange, green & purple) and 6 tertiary colors (names for these vary, but are intermediates between the primaries and secondaries).


Games

* In the game of craps, a dice roll of two sixes (value 12) on the come-out roll constitutes a "craps" and the shooter (dice thrower) loses immediately. * Twelve (Street Fighter), Twelve is a character in the ''Street Fighter'' video game series. * In ''Mario Kart Wii'' and ''Mario Kart 8'', the starting grid carries twelve characters in each race. * Games such as Backgammon have a long history of 12 points on each side of the gaming board, as evidenced in the XII scripta board in the museum at Ephesus.


In other fields

*There are 12 troy ounces in a Troy weight, troy pound (used for precious metals). *Twelve of something is called a
dozen A dozen (commonly abbreviated doz or dz) is a grouping of 12 (number), twelve. The dozen may be one of the earliest primitive integer groupings, perhaps because there are approximately a dozen cycles of the Moon, or months, in a cycle of the Su ...
. *In the £sd, former British currency system, there were twelve Old pence, pence in a shilling. *In Greek mythology, the number of Labours of Heracles was increased from ten to make twelve. *In English, twelve is the number of greatest magnitude that has just one syllable, and also the last one to contain a single syllable. *12 is the last number featured on the analogue clock, and also the starting point of the transition from A.M. to P.M. hours or vice-versa. *There are twelve months within a year, with the last one being December. *The level of grades in which one must attend school typically ends at Twelfth grade, 12 (although some jurisdictions may include a thirteenth grade depending on the country). *Twelve hours form half a day, and twelve hours away from another lead to the same time but with a different period (ex. Twelve hours away from 6:00AM leads to 6:00PM). *There are normally twelve pairs of ribs in the human body. *The ''Twelve Tables'' or ''Leges Duodecim Tabularum'', more informally simply ''Duodecim Tabulae'', was the ancient legislation underlying Roman law. *In the United States, twelve people are appointed to sit on a jury for felony trials in all but four states, and in federal and Washington, D.C. courts. The number of jurors gave the title to the play (and subsequent films) ''Twelve Angry Men (play), Twelve Angry Men''. *Twelve men have List of Apollo astronauts#Apollo astronauts who walked on the Moon, walked on Earth's moon. *The United States is divided into twelve Federal Reserve Districts (Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Richmond, Atlanta, Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Dallas, and San Francisco); American paper currency has serial numbers beginning with one of twelve different letters, A through L, representing the Federal Reserve Bank from which the currency originated. *According to UFO conspiracy theory, Majestic 12 is a secret committee, allegedly set up by U.S. President Harry S. Truman to investigate the Roswell UFO incident and cover up future extraterrestrial contact. *12 is the number of the French department Aveyron. *King Arthur's round table had 12 knights plus King Arthur himself. *12 inches in a foot (length), foot. *Alcoholics Anonymous has 12 steps, 12 traditions and 12 concepts for world service. *Wilhelm Heinrich Schüßler developed a list of 12 biochemical cell salts, also known as tissue salts. *The age of consent in the Philippines.


See also

* The Twelfth


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

; Books * ; Journal articles * * .


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:12 (Number) Integers Numerology