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1,000,000,000 (one
billion A billion is a number with two distinct definitions: *1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for ...

billion
,
short scale The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten 480px, Visualisation of powers of 10 from one to 1 billion. A power of 10 is any of the integer An integer (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a cla ...
; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the
natural number In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and total order, ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). In common mathematical terminology, w ...
following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn. In standard form, it is written as 1 × 109. The
metric prefix A metric prefix is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are commonly formed by the use of such ...
giga Giga ( or ) is a unit prefixA unit prefix is a specifier or mnemonic that is prepended to units of measurement to indicate multiples or fractions of the units. Units of various order of magnitude, sizes are commonly formed by the use of such prefi ...

giga
indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit. Its symbol is G. One billion years may be called an '' eon'' in astronomy or geology. Previously in
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
(but not in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...

American English
), the word "billion" referred exclusively to a million millions (1,000,000,000,000). However, this is no longer common, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million (1,000,000,000) for several decades. The term ''milliard'' can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; whereas "milliard" is rarely used in English, variations on this name often appear in
other languages Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
. In the
South Asian numbering system The Indian numbering system is used in the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Pakistan) to express large numbers. The terms ''lakh'' (100,000) and ''crore'' (10,000,000) are the most commonly used terms (even in ...
, it is known as 100
crore A crore (; abbreviated cr), kodi, karod, karor, or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation Scientific notation is a way of expressing numbers A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an ...
or 1
arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...
.


Sense of scale

The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:


Time

* 109 seconds (1 gigasecond) equal 11,574 days, 1 hour, 46 minutes and 40 seconds (approximately 31.7 years, or 31 years, 8 months, 8 days). * About 109 minutes ago, the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,901 years.) * About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the
Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology ...

Stone Age
(more precisely, the
Middle Paleolithic The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehi ...
). (109 hours is roughly 114,080 years.) * About 109 days ago, ''
Australopithecus ''Australopithecus'' (, ; ; singular: australopith) is a genus of early hominins that existed in Africa during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. The genera ''Homo'' (which includes modern humans), ''Paranthropus'', and ''Kenyanthropus'' ev ...

Australopithecus
'', an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...

savanna
s. (109 days is roughly years.) * About 109 months ago,
dinosaur Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic Geological period, period, between 243 and 233.23 annum, million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution ...

dinosaur
s walked the Earth during the late
Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of division ...

Cretaceous
. (109 months is roughly years.) * About 109 years—a
gigaannus A year is the orbital period of a planetary body, for example, the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent ...
—ago, the first
multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biolo ...
eukaryote Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...

eukaryote
s appeared on Earth. * About 109 decades ago,
galaxies A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to ...

galaxies
began to appear in the early
Universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

Universe
which was then 3.799 billion years old. (109 decades is exactly years.) * The
universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

universe
is thought to be about 13.8 × 109 years old.


Distance

* 109 inches is , more than halfway around the world and thus sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point. * 109
metre The metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American spelling Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English ...
s (called a
gigametre The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different length Length is a measure of distance. In the International System of Quantities The International System of Quantities (ISQ) is a set of quantities and the equation ...
) is almost three times the distance from the
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
to the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

Moon
. * 109
kilometre The kilometre (SI symbol: km; or ), spelt kilometer in American English, is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for ). It is now the measurement unit used for expressing distances betw ...
s (called a
terametre The following are examples of order of magnitude, orders of magnitude for different lengths. __TOC__ Overview Detailed list To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various lengths between 1.6 \times 10^ ...
) is over six times the distance from the Earth to the
Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

Sun
.


Area

* A billion square inches would be a square about one half mile on a side. * A bolt of finely woven 1000-TC bed sheet linen with a billion thread crossings would have an area of , comparable to the floor area of a motel unit.


Volume

* There are a billion cubic
millimetres The millimetre ( international spelling; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter ( American spelling) is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' ...
in a
cubic metre The cubic metre (in Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsula on the (not to b ...
, and a billion cubic metres in a
cubic kilometre The cubic metre (in Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become t ...
. * A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about . * A billion
cubic inch The cubic inch (symbol in3) is a unit of volume in the Imperial units and United States customary units systems. It is the volume of a cube with each of its three dimensions (length, width, and depth) being one inch long which is equivalent to 1 ...
es would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.


Weight

* Any object that weighs would weigh about as much as 5,525 empty
Boeing 747-400 The Boeing 747-400 is a wide-body airliner A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an with a wide enough to accommodate two passenger s with seven or more seats abreast. The typical diameter is . In the typical wid ...

Boeing 747-400
s. * A cube of iron that weighs would be on each side.


Products

* As of July 2016,
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
has sold one billion
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
s. This makes the iPhone one of the most successful product lines in history, surpassing the
PlayStation is a video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing dev ...

PlayStation
and the
Rubik's Cube The Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Originally called the Magic Cube, the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toy Company, Ideal Toy Corp. ...

Rubik's Cube
. * As of July 2016,
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
has 1.71 billion users.


Nature

* A small mountain, slightly larger than
Stone Mountain Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock and the site of Stone Mountain Park, near the city of Stone Mountain, Georgia. The park is owned by the state of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, ...

Stone Mountain
in Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons. * There are billions of worker ants in the largest ant colony in the world, which covers almost of the Mediterranean coast. * In 1804, the
world population In demography, demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have exceeded 7.9 billion people . It took over 2 million years of prehistory, human prehistory and human history, history fo ...

world population
was one billion.


Count

A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube ''A'', C consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube ''B''; and D consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube ''C''. Thus there are ''A''-sized cubes in ''C''; and 1,000,000,000 ''A''-sized cubes in ''D''.


Selected 10-digit numbers (1,000,000,001–9,999,999,999)


1,000,000,001 to 1,999,999,999

* 1,000,000,007 – smallest
prime number A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ...
with 10 digits. * 1,000,006,281 – smallest
triangular number A triangular number or triangle number counts objects arranged in an equilateral triangle. Triangular numbers are a type of figurate number, other examples being square numbers and Cube (algebra)#In integers, cube numbers. The th triangular number ...
with 10 digits and the 44,721st triangular number. * 1,000,014,129 – smallest ten-digit square. * 1,023,456,789 – smallest pandigital number in
base 10 The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is t ...

base 10
. * 1,026,753,849 – smallest pandigital
square In Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematics , Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the ''Euclid's Elements, Elements''. Euclid's method ...
that includes 0. * 1,073,676,287 – 15th
Carol number A Carol number is an integer An integer (from the Latin wikt:integer#Latin, ''integer'' meaning "whole") is colloquially defined as a number that can be written without a Fraction (mathematics), fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and ...
. * 1,073,741,824 – 230 * 1,073,807,359 – 14th
Kynea number A Kynea number is an integer of the form :4^n + 2^ - 1. An equivalent formula is :(2^n + 1)^2 - 2. This indicates that a Kynea number is the ''n''th power of 4 plus the (''n'' + 1)th Mersenne number In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancien ...
. * 1,111,111,111
repunit In recreational mathematics, a repunit is a number like 11, 111, or 1111 that contains only the digit 1 — a more specific type of repdigit. The term stands for repeated unit and was coined in 1966 by Albert H. Beiler in his book ''Recreatio ...
, also a special number relating to the passing of
Unix time Current Unix time () Unix time (also known as Epoch time, POSIX time, seconds since the Epoch, or UNIX Epoch time) is a system for describing a point in time Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in an ...
. * 1,129,760,415 – 23rd
Motzkin number In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It h ...

Motzkin number
. * 1,134,903,170 – 45th
Fibonacci number In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers, commonly denoted , form a sequence In , a sequence is an enumerated collection of in which repetitions are allowed and matters. Like a , it contains (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The numbe ...

Fibonacci number
. * 1,162,261,467 – 319 * 1,220,703,125 – 513 * 1,232,922,769 –
Centered hexagonal number A centered hexagonal number, or hex number, is a centered figurate number that represents a hexagon In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") ...
. * 1,280,000,000 – 207 * 1,234,567,890 – pandigital number with the digits in order. * 1,311,738,121 – 25th
Pell number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
. * 1,382,958,545 – 15th
Bell number In combinatorial mathematics, the Bell numbers count the possible partitions of a set. These numbers have been studied by mathematicians since the 19th century, and their roots go back to medieval Japan. In an example of Stigler's law of eponymy, ...
. * 1,406,818,759 – 30th Wedderburn–Etherington number. * – Population of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
in 2018. * 1,475,789,056 – 148 * 1,631,432,881 – Triangular square number. * 1,673,196,525 – Lowest common multiple of the odd integers from 1 to 25 * 1,787,109,376 – 1- automorphic number * 1,836,311,903 – 46th Fibonacci number. * 1,882,341,361 – The smallest prime whose reversal is both square (403912) and
triangular A triangle is a polygon In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is conce ...
(triangular of 57121). * 1,977,326,743 – 711


2,000,000,000 to 2,999,999,999

* 2,038,074,743 – 100,000,000th prime number *
2,147,483,647 Image:Leonhard Euler.jpg, upBy 1772, Leonhard Euler had proven that 2,147,483,647 is a prime number, prime. The number 2,147,483,647 is the eighth Mersenne prime, equal to 231 − 1. It is one of only four known double Mersenne number, do ...
– 8th
Mersenne prime A Mersenne prime is a prime number A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a compo ...
and the largest signed 32-
bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algo ...
integer. * 2,147,483,648 – 231 * 2,176,782,336 – 612 * 2,214,502,422 – 6th primary pseudoperfect number. * 2,357,947,691 – 119 * 2,562,890,625 – 158 * 2,971,215,073 – 11th Fibonacci prime (47th Fibonacci number).


3,000,000,000 to 3,999,999,999

* 3,166,815,962 – 26th Pell number. * 3,192,727,797 – 24th Motzkin number. * 3,323,236,238 – 31st Wedderburn–Etherington number. * 3,405,691,582 – hexadecimal CAFEBABE; used as a placeholder in programming. * 3,405,697,037 – hexadecimal CAFED00D; used as a placeholder in programming. * 3,486,784,401 – 320 * 3,735,928,559 – hexadecimal
DEADBEEF DeaDBeeF is an Media player (software), audio player software available for Linux, Android (operating system), Android and other Unix-like operating systems. DeaDBeeF is free and open-source software, except on Android. History The player was f ...
; used as a placeholder in programming. * 3,735,929,054 – hexadecimal DEADC0DE; used as a placeholder in programming.


4,000,000,000 to 4,999,999,999

* 4,294,836,223 – 16th Carol number. * 4,294,967,291 – Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer. * 4,294,967,295 – Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer (FFFFFFFF 16),
perfect totient numberIn number theory, a perfect totient number is an integer An integer (from the Latin wikt:integer#Latin, ''integer'' meaning "whole") is colloquially defined as a number that can be written without a Fraction (mathematics), fractional component. ...
, product of the first five prime
Fermat number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
s F_0 through F_4. * 4,294,967,296 – 232 * 4,294,967,297 – F_5, the first composite
Fermat number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
. * 4,295,098,367 – 15th Kynea number. * 4,807,526,976 – 48th Fibonacci number.


5,000,000,000 to 5,999,999,999

* 5,159,780,352 – 129 * 5,354,228,880 – superior highly composite number, smallest number divisible by all the numbers 1 through 24 * 5,784,634,181 – 13th
alternating factorial In mathematics, an alternating factorial is the absolute value of the alternating sum of the first ''n'' factorials of positive integers. This is the same as their sum, with the odd-indexed factorials multiplied by -1 (number), −1 if ''n'' is ...
.


6,000,000,000 to 6,999,999,999

* 6,103,515,625 – 514 * 6,210,001,000 – only self-descriptive number in base 10. * 6,227,020,800 – 13 ! * 6,975,757,441 – 178 * 6,983,776,800 – 15th
colossally abundant number Image:Prime powers in SHCN, CAN.svg, Prime-power factors In mathematics, a colossally abundant number (sometimes abbreviated as CA) is a natural number that, in a particular, rigorous sense, has many divisors. Formally, a number ''n'' is colossally ...
, 15th
superior highly composite number In mathematics, a superior highly composite number is a natural number which has more divisors per ''some'' positive power of itself than any other number. It is a stronger restriction than that of a highly composite number, which is defined as ha ...


7,000,000,000 to 7,999,999,999

* 7,645,370,045 – 27th Pell number. * 7,778,742,049 – 49th Fibonacci number. * 7,862,958,391 – 32nd Wedderburn–Etherington number.


8,000,000,000 to 8,999,999,999

* 8,212,890,625 – 1- automorphic number * 8,589,869,056 – 6th
perfect number In number theory Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of devoted primarily to the study of the s and . German mathematician (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number ...
. * 8,589,934,592 – 233


9,000,000,000 to 9,999,999,999

* 9,043,402,501 – 25th
Motzkin number In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It h ...

Motzkin number
. * 9,814,072,356 – largest square pandigital number, largest pandigital pure power. * 9,876,543,210 – largest number without redundant digits. * 9,999,999,967 – greatest prime number with 10 digits


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:1000000000 (Number) Integers Large numbers