Zero Divisor
In abstract algebra, an element of a ring is called a left zero divisor if there exists a nonzero in such that , or equivalently if the map from to that sends to is not injective. Similarly, an element of a ring is called a right zero divisor if there exists a nonzero in such that . This is a partial case of divisibility in rings. An element that is a left or a right zero divisor is simply called a zero divisor. An element that is both a left and a right zero divisor is called a twosided zero divisor (the nonzero such that may be different from the nonzero such that ). If the ring is commutative, then the left and right zero divisors are the same. An element of a ring that is not a left zero divisor is called left regular or left cancellable. Similarly, an element of a ring that is not a right zero divisor is called right regular or right cancellable. An element of a ring that is left and right cancellable, and is hence not a zero divisor, is called re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include group (mathematics), groups, ring (mathematics), rings, field (mathematics), fields, module (mathematics), modules, vector spaces, lattice (order), lattices, and algebra over a field, algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variable (mathematics), variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form category (mathematics), mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For exampl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Order (group Theory)
In mathematics, the order of a finite group is the number of its elements. If a group is not finite, one says that its order is ''infinite''. The ''order'' of an element of a group (also called period length or period) is the order of the subgroup generated by the element. If the group operation is denoted as a multiplication, the order of an element of a group, is thus the smallest positive integer such that , where denotes the identity element of the group, and denotes the product of copies of . If no such exists, the order of is infinite. The order of a group is denoted by or , and the order of an element is denoted by or , instead of \operatorname(\langle a\rangle), where the brackets denote the generated group. Lagrange's theorem states that for any subgroup of a finite group , the order of the subgroup divides the order of the group; that is, is a divisor of . In particular, the order of any element is a divisor of . Example The symmetric group S3 h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Field (mathematics)
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure which is widely used in algebra, number theory, and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational numbers, the field of real numbers and the field of complex numbers. Many other fields, such as fields of rational functions, algebraic function fields, algebraic number fields, and ''p''adic fields are commonly used and studied in mathematics, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry. Most cryptographic protocols rely on finite fields, i.e., fields with finitely many elements. The relation of two fields is expressed by the notion of a field extension. Galois theory, initiated by Évariste Galois in the 1830s, is devoted to understanding the symmetries of field extensions. Among other res ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integral Domain
In mathematics, specifically abstract algebra, an integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. Integral domains are generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. In an integral domain, every nonzero element ''a'' has the cancellation property, that is, if , an equality implies . "Integral domain" is defined almost universally as above, but there is some variation. This article follows the convention that rings have a multiplicative identity, generally denoted 1, but some authors do not follow this, by not requiring integral domains to have a multiplicative identity. Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes admitted. This article, however, follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term "integral domain" for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including noncommutative rings. Some sources, notably Lang, use the term ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Division Ring
In algebra, a division ring, also called a skew field, is a nontrivial ring in which division by nonzero elements is defined. Specifically, it is a nontrivial ring in which every nonzero element has a multiplicative inverse, that is, an element usually denoted , such that . So, (right) ''division'' may be defined as , but this notation is avoided, as one may have . A commutative division ring is a field. Wedderburn's little theorem asserts that all finite division rings are commutative and therefore finite fields. Historically, division rings were sometimes referred to as fields, while fields were called "commutative fields". In some languages, such as French, the word equivalent to "field" ("corps") is used for both commutative and noncommutative cases, and the distinction between the two cases is made by adding qualificatives such as "corps commutatif" (commutative field) or "corps gauche" (skew field). All division rings are simple. That is, they have no twosided ideal b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite Field
In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (sonamed in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements. As with any field, a finite field is a set on which the operations of multiplication, addition, subtraction and division are defined and satisfy certain basic rules. The most common examples of finite fields are given by the integers mod when is a prime number. The ''order'' of a finite field is its number of elements, which is either a prime number or a prime power. For every prime number and every positive integer there are fields of order p^k, all of which are isomorphic. Finite fields are fundamental in a number of areas of mathematics and computer science, including number theory, algebraic geometry, Galois theory, finite geometry, cryptography and coding theory. Properties A finite field is a finite set which is a field; this means that multiplication, addition, subtraction and division (excluding division by zero ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unit (ring Theory)
In algebra, a unit of a ring is an invertible element for the multiplication of the ring. That is, an element of a ring is a unit if there exists in such that vu = uv = 1, where is the multiplicative identity; the element is unique for this property and is called the multiplicative inverse of . The set of units of forms a group under multiplication, called the group of units or unit group of . Other notations for the unit group are , , and (from the German term ). Less commonly, the term ''unit'' is sometimes used to refer to the element of the ring, in expressions like ''ring with a unit'' or ''unit ring'', and also unit matrix. Because of this ambiguity, is more commonly called the "unity" or the "identity" of the ring, and the phrases "ring with unity" or a "ring with identity" may be used to emphasize that one is considering a ring instead of a rng. Examples The multiplicative identity and its additive inverse are always units. More generally, any root of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Prime Number
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because the only ways of writing it as a product, or , involve 5 itself. However, 4 is composite because it is a product (2 × 2) in which both numbers are smaller than 4. Primes are central in number theory because of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic: every natural number greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be factorized as a product of primes that is unique up to their order. The property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of checking the primality of a given number n, called trial division, tests whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and \sqrt. Faster algorithms include the Miller–Rabin primality test, which is fast but has a small chance of error, and the AKS primality test, which alway ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Endomorphism Ring
In mathematics, the endomorphisms of an abelian group ''X'' form a ring. This ring is called the endomorphism ring of ''X'', denoted by End(''X''); the set of all homomorphisms of ''X'' into itself. Addition of endomorphisms arises naturally in a pointwise manner and multiplication via endomorphism composition. Using these operations, the set of endomorphisms of an abelian group forms a (unital) ring, with the zero map 0: x \mapsto 0 as additive identity and the identity map 1: x \mapsto x as multiplicative identity. The functions involved are restricted to what is defined as a homomorphism in the context, which depends upon the category of the object under consideration. The endomorphism ring consequently encodes several internal properties of the object. As the resulting object is often an algebra over some ring ''R,'' this may also be called the endomorphism algebra. An abelian group is the same thing as a module over the ring of integers, which is the initial object in the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Function Composition
In mathematics, function composition is an operation that takes two functions and , and produces a function such that . In this operation, the function is applied to the result of applying the function to . That is, the functions and are composed to yield a function that maps in domain to in codomain . Intuitively, if is a function of , and is a function of , then is a function of . The resulting ''composite'' function is denoted , defined by for all in . The notation is read as " of ", " after ", " circle ", " round ", " about ", " composed with ", " following ", " then ", or " on ", or "the composition of and ". Intuitively, composing functions is a chaining process in which the output of function feeds the input of function . The composition of functions is a special case of the composition of relations, sometimes also denoted by \circ. As a result, all properties of composition of relations are true of composition of functions, such as t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pointwise
In mathematics, the qualifier pointwise is used to indicate that a certain property is defined by considering each value f(x) of some function f. An important class of pointwise concepts are the ''pointwise operations'', that is, operations defined on functions by applying the operations to function values separately for each point in the domain of definition. Important relations can also be defined pointwise. Pointwise operations Formal definition A binary operation on a set can be lifted pointwise to an operation on the set of all functions from to as follows: Given two functions and , define the function by Commonly, ''o'' and ''O'' are denoted by the same symbol. A similar definition is used for unary operations ''o'', and for operations of other arity. Examples \begin (f+g)(x) & = f(x)+g(x) & \text \\ (f\cdot g)(x) & = f(x) \cdot g(x) & \text \\ (\lambda \cdot f)(x) & = \lambda \cdot f(x) & \text \end where f, g : X \to R. See also pointwise product, and sca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Additive Map
In algebra, an additive map, Zlinear map or additive function is a function f that preserves the addition operation: f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) for every pair of elements x and y in the domain of f. For example, any linear map is additive. When the domain is the real numbers, this is Cauchy's functional equation. For a specific case of this definition, see additive polynomial. More formally, an additive map is a \Z module homomorphism. Since an abelian group is a \Zmodule, it may be defined as a group homomorphism between abelian groups. A map V \times W \to X that is additive in each of two arguments separately is called a biadditive map or a \Zbilinear map. Examples Typical examples include maps between rings, vector spaces, or modules that preserve the additive group. An additive map does not necessarily preserve any other structure of the object; for example, the product operation of a ring. If f and g are additive maps, then the map f + g (defined pointwise) is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 