Uncountable
In mathematics, an uncountable set (or uncountably infinite set) is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable. The uncountability of a set is closely related to its cardinal number: a set is uncountable if its cardinal number is larger than that of the set of all natural numbers. Characterizations There are many equivalent characterizations of uncountability. A set ''X'' is uncountable if and only if any of the following conditions hold: * There is no injective function (hence no bijection) from ''X'' to the set of natural numbers. * ''X'' is nonempty and for every ωsequence of elements of ''X'', there exists at least one element of X not included in it. That is, ''X'' is nonempty and there is no surjective function from the natural numbers to ''X''. * The cardinality of ''X'' is neither finite nor equal to \aleph_0 ( alephnull, the cardinality of the natural numbers). * The set ''X'' has cardinality strictly greater than \aleph_0. The first three o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ordinal Number
In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is a generalization of ordinal numerals (first, second, th, etc.) aimed to extend enumeration to infinite sets. A finite set can be enumerated by successively labeling each element with the least natural number that has not been previously used. To extend this process to various infinite sets, ordinal numbers are defined more generally as linearly ordered labels that include the natural numbers and have the property that every set of ordinals has a least element (this is needed for giving a meaning to "the least unused element"). This more general definition allows us to define an ordinal number \omega that is greater than every natural number, along with ordinal numbers \omega + 1, \omega + 2, etc., which are even greater than \omega. A linear order such that every subset has a least element is called a wellorder. The axiom of choice implies that every set can be wellordered, and given two wellordered sets, one is isomorph ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cantor's Diagonal Argument
In set theory, Cantor's diagonal argument, also called the diagonalisation argument, the diagonal slash argument, the antidiagonal argument, the diagonal method, and Cantor's diagonalization proof, was published in 1891 by Georg Cantor as a mathematical proof that there are infinite sets which cannot be put into onetoone correspondence with the infinite set of natural numbers. English translation: Such sets are now known as uncountable sets, and the size of infinite sets is now treated by the theory of cardinal numbers which Cantor began. The diagonal argument was not Cantor's first proof of the uncountability of the real numbers, which appeared in 1874. However, it demonstrates a general technique that has since been used in a wide range of proofs, including the first of Gödel's incompleteness theorems and Turing's answer to the '' Entscheidungsproblem''. Diagonalization arguments are often also the source of contradictions like Russell's paradox and Richard's paradox ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Countable Set
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cantor Set
In mathematics, the Cantor set is a set of points lying on a single line segment that has a number of unintuitive properties. It was discovered in 1874 by Henry John Stephen Smith and introduced by German mathematician Georg Cantor in 1883. Through consideration of this set, Cantor and others helped lay the foundations of modern pointset topology. The most common construction is the Cantor ternary set, built by removing the middle third of a line segment and then repeating the process with the remaining shorter segments. Cantor mentioned the ternary construction only in passing, as an example of a more general idea, that of a perfect set that is nowhere dense. More generally, in topology, ''a'' Cantor space is a topological space homeomorphic to the Cantor ternary set (equipped with its subspace topology). By a theorem of Brouwer, this is equivalent to being perfect nonempty, compact metrizable and zero dimensional. Construction and formula of the ternary set The Cantor t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' onedimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the real ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Georg Cantor
Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor ( , ; – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. He played a pivotal role in the creation of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of onetoone correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and wellordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are more numerous than the natural numbers. In fact, Cantor's method of proof of this theorem implies the existence of an infinity of infinities. He defined the cardinal and ordinal numbers and their arithmetic. Cantor's work is of great philosophical interest, a fact he was well aware of. Originally, Cantor's theory of transfinite numbers was regarded as counterintuitive – even shocking. This caused it to encounter resistance from mathematical contemporaries such as Leopold Kronecker and Henri Poincaré and later from Hermann Weyl and L. E. J. Brouwer, while Ludwig Wittgenstein raise ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cardinality
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the number of elements of the set. For example, the set A = \ contains 3 elements, and therefore A has a cardinality of 3. Beginning in the late 19th century, this concept was generalized to infinite sets, which allows one to distinguish between different types of infinity, and to perform arithmetic on them. There are two approaches to cardinality: one which compares sets directly using bijections and injections, and another which uses cardinal numbers. The cardinality of a set is also called its size, when no confusion with other notions of size is possible. The cardinality of a set A is usually denoted , A, , with a vertical bar on each side; this is the same notation as absolute value, and the meaning depends on context. The cardinality of a set A may alternatively be denoted by n(A), , \operatorname(A), or \#A. History A crude sense of cardinality, an awareness that groups of things or events compare with other grou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Infinite Set
In set theory, an infinite set is a set that is not a finite set. Infinite sets may be countable or uncountable. Properties The set of natural numbers (whose existence is postulated by the axiom of infinity) is infinite. It is the only set that is directly required by the axioms to be infinite. The existence of any other infinite set can be proved in Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (ZFC), but only by showing that it follows from the existence of the natural numbers. A set is infinite if and only if for every natural number, the set has a subset whose cardinality is that natural number. If the axiom of choice holds, then a set is infinite if and only if it includes a countable infinite subset. If a set of sets is infinite or contains an infinite element, then its union is infinite. The power set of an infinite set is infinite. Any superset of an infinite set is infinite. If an infinite set is partitioned into finitely many subsets, then at least one of them must be infi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Of Choice
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that ''a Cartesian product of a collection of nonempty sets is nonempty''. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection of sets, each containing at least one element, it is possible to construct a new set by arbitrarily choosing one element from each set, even if the collection is infinite. Formally, it states that for every indexed family (S_i)_ of nonempty sets, there exists an indexed set (x_i)_ such that x_i \in S_i for every i \in I. The axiom of choice was formulated in 1904 by Ernst Zermelo in order to formalize his proof of the wellordering theorem. In many cases, a set arising from choosing elements arbitrarily can be made without invoking the axiom of choice; this is, in particular, the case if the number of sets from which to choose the elements is finite, or if a canonical rule on how to choose the elements is available – some distinguis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Aleph Number
In mathematics, particularly in set theory, the aleph numbers are a sequence of numbers used to represent the cardinality (or size) of infinite sets that can be wellordered. They were introduced by the mathematician Georg Cantor and are named after the symbol he used to denote them, the Hebrew letter aleph (\,\aleph\,). The cardinality of the natural numbers is \,\aleph_0\, (read ''alephnought'' or ''alephzero''; the term ''alephnull'' is also sometimes used), the next larger cardinality of a wellorderable set is alephone \,\aleph_1\;, then \,\aleph_2\, and so on. Continuing in this manner, it is possible to define a cardinal number \,\aleph_\alpha\, for every ordinal number \,\alpha\;, as described below. The concept and notation are due to Georg Cantor, who defined the notion of cardinality and realized that infinite sets can have different cardinalities. The aleph numbers differ from the infinity (\,\infty\,) commonly found in algebra and calculus, in that the alephs ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cardinality Of The Continuum
In set theory, the cardinality of the continuum is the cardinality or "size" of the set of real numbers \mathbb R, sometimes called the continuum. It is an infinite cardinal number and is denoted by \mathfrak c (lowercase fraktur "c") or , \mathbb R, . The real numbers \mathbb R are more numerous than the natural numbers \mathbb N. Moreover, \mathbb R has the same number of elements as the power set of \mathbb N. Symbolically, if the cardinality of \mathbb N is denoted as \aleph_0, the cardinality of the continuum is This was proven by Georg Cantor in his uncountability proof of 1874, part of his groundbreaking study of different infinities. The inequality was later stated more simply in his diagonal argument in 1891. Cantor defined cardinality in terms of bijective functions: two sets have the same cardinality if, and only if, there exists a bijective function between them. Between any two real numbers ''a'' \mathfrak c . Alternative explanation for 𝔠 = 2&alep ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuum Hypothesis
In mathematics, the continuum hypothesis (abbreviated CH) is a hypothesis about the possible sizes of infinite sets. It states that or equivalently, that In Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice (ZFC), this is equivalent to the following equation in aleph numbers: 2^=\aleph_1, or even shorter with beth numbers: \beth_1 = \aleph_1. The continuum hypothesis was advanced by Georg Cantor in 1878, and establishing its truth or falsehood is the first of Hilbert's 23 problems presented in 1900. The answer to this problem is independent of ZFC, so that either the continuum hypothesis or its negation can be added as an axiom to ZFC set theory, with the resulting theory being consistent if and only if ZFC is consistent. This independence was proved in 1963 by Paul Cohen, complementing earlier work by Kurt Gödel in 1940. The name of the hypothesis comes from the term '' the continuum'' for the real numbers. History Cantor believed the continuum hypothesis t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 