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Ulna
The ulna (''pl''. ulnae or ulnas) is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm. That is, the ulna is on the same side of the forearm as the little finger. It runs parallel to the radius, the other long bone in the forearm. The ulna is usually slightly longer than the radius, but the radius is thicker. Therefore, the radius is considered to be the larger of the two. Structure The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm. It is broader close to the elbow, and narrows as it approaches the wrist. Close to the elbow, the ulna has a bony process, the olecranon process, a hook-like structure that fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus. This prevents hyperextension and forms a hinge joint with the trochlea of the humerus. There i ...
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Elbow
The elbow is the region between the arm and the forearm that surrounds the elbow joint. The elbow includes prominent landmarks such as the olecranon, the cubital fossa (also called the chelidon, or the elbow pit), and the lateral and the medial epicondyles of the humerus. The elbow joint is a hinge joint between the arm and the forearm; more specifically between the humerus in the upper arm and the radius and ulna in the forearm which allows the forearm and hand to be moved towards and away from the body. The term ''elbow'' is specifically used for humans and other primates, and in other vertebrates forelimb plus joint is used. The name for the elbow in Latin is ''cubitus'', and so the word cubital is used in some elbow-related terms, as in ''cubital nodes'' for example. Structure Joint The elbow joint has three different portions surrounded by a common joint capsule. These are joints between the three bones of the elbow, the humerus of the upper arm, and the rad ...
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Forearm
The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. The term forearm is used in anatomy to distinguish it from the arm, a word which is most often used to describe the entire appendage of the upper limb, but which in anatomy, technically, means only the region of the upper arm, whereas the lower "arm" is called the forearm. It is homologous to the region of the leg that lies between the knee and the ankle joints, the crus. The forearm contains two long bones, the radius and the ulna, forming the two radioulnar joints. The interosseous membrane connects these bones. Ultimately, the forearm is covered by skin, the anterior surface usually being less hairy than the posterior surface. The forearm contains many muscles, including the flexors and extensors of the wrist, flexors and extensors of the digits, a flexor of the elbow (brachioradialis), and pronators and supinators that turn the hand to face down or upwards, respectively. In cross-section, the f ...
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Radius (bone)
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna. It extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna. The ulna is usually slightly longer than the radius, but the radius is thicker. Therefore the radius is considered to be the larger of the two. It is a long bone, prism-shaped and slightly curved longitudinally. The radius is part of two joints: the elbow and the wrist. At the elbow, it joins with the capitulum of the humerus, and in a separate region, with the ulna at the radial notch. At the wrist, the radius forms a joint with the ulna bone. The corresponding bone in the lower leg is the fibula. Structure The long narrow medullary cavity is enclosed in a strong wall of compact bone. It is thickest along the interosseous border and thinnest at the extremities, same over the cup-shaped articular surface (fovea) of the head. The trabeculae of the spongy tiss ...
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Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
The flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) is a muscle of the forearm that flexes and adducts at the wrist joint. Structure Origin The flexor carpi ulnaris has two heads; a humeral head and ulnar head. The humeral head originates from the medial epicondyle of the humerus via the common flexor tendon. The ulnar head originates from the medial margin of the olecranon of the ulnar and the upper two-thirds of the dorsal border of the ulnar by an aponeurosis. Between the two heads passes the ulnar nerve and ulnar artery. Insertion The flexor carpi ulnaris inserts onto the pisiform, hook of the hamate (via the pisohamate ligament) and the anterior surface of the base of the fifth metacarpal (via the pisometacarpal ligament). Action The flexor carpi ulnaris flexes and adducts at the wrist joint. Innervation The flexor carpi ulnaris is innervated by the ulnar nerve. The corresponding spinal nerves are C8 and T1. Tendon The tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris can be seen on the anterior surface ...
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Ulnar Styloid Process
The styloid process of the ulna is a bony prominence found at distal end of the ulna in the forearm. Structure The styloid process of the ulna projects from the medial and back part of the ulna. It descends a little lower than the head. The head is separated from the styloid process by a depression for the attachment of the apex of the triangular articular disk, and behind, by a shallow groove for the tendon of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. The styloid process of the ulnar varies in length between 2 mm and 6 mm. Function The rounded end of the styloid process of the ulna connects to the ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist. The radioulnar ligaments also attaches to the base of the styloid process of the ulna. Clinical significance Fractures of the styloid process of the ulna seldom require treatment when they occur in association with a distal radius fracture. The major exception is when the joint between these bones, the distal radioulnar joint (or DRUJ), is uns ...
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Coronoid Process Of The Ulna
The coronoid process of the ulna is a triangular process projecting forward from the anterior proximal portion of the ulna. Structure Its ''base'' is continuous with the body of the bone, and of considerable strength. Anatomy Its ''apex'' is pointed, slightly curved upward, and in flexion of the forearm is received into the coronoid fossa of the humerus. Its ''upper surface'' is smooth, convex, and forms the lower part of the semilunar notch. Its ''antero-inferior'' surface is concave, and marked by a rough impression for the insertion of the brachialis muscle. At the junction of this surface with the front of the body is a rough eminence, the tuberosity of the ulna, which gives insertion to a part of the brachialis; to the lateral border of this tuberosity the oblique cord is attached. Its ''lateral surface'' presents a narrow, oblong, articular depression, the radial notch. Its ''medial surface'', by its prominent, free margin, serves for the attachment of part of the ul ...
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Coronoid Process Of The Ulna
The coronoid process of the ulna is a triangular process projecting forward from the anterior proximal portion of the ulna. Structure Its ''base'' is continuous with the body of the bone, and of considerable strength. Anatomy Its ''apex'' is pointed, slightly curved upward, and in flexion of the forearm is received into the coronoid fossa of the humerus. Its ''upper surface'' is smooth, convex, and forms the lower part of the semilunar notch. Its ''antero-inferior'' surface is concave, and marked by a rough impression for the insertion of the brachialis muscle. At the junction of this surface with the front of the body is a rough eminence, the tuberosity of the ulna, which gives insertion to a part of the brachialis; to the lateral border of this tuberosity the oblique cord is attached. Its ''lateral surface'' presents a narrow, oblong, articular depression, the radial notch. Its ''medial surface'', by its prominent, free margin, serves for the attachment of part of the ul ...
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Ulnar Collateral Ligament Of Elbow Joint
The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) or internal lateral ligament is a thick triangular ligament at the medial aspect of the elbow uniting the distal aspect of the humerus to the proximal aspect of the ulna. Structure It consists of two portions, an anterior and posterior united by a thinner intermediate portion. Note that this ligament is also referred to as the medial collateral ligament and should not be confused with the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL). The ''anterior portion'', directed obliquely forward, is attached, above, by its apex, to the front part of the medial epicondyle of the humerus; and, below, by its broad base to the medial margin of the coronoid process of the ulna. The ''posterior portion'', also of triangular form, is attached, above, by its apex, to the lower and back part of the medial epicondyle; below, to the medial margin of the olecranon. Between these two bands a few intermediate fibers descend from the medial epicondyle to blend wi ...
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Humerus
The humerus (; ) is a long bone in the arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. It connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, the radius and ulna, and consists of three sections. The humeral upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities). The body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. The lower extremity consists of 2 epicondyles, 2 processes ( trochlea & capitulum), and 3 fossae (radial fossa, coronoid fossa, and olecranon fossa). As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to fracture, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons. Etymology The word "humerus" is derived from la, humerus, umerus meaning upper arm, shoulder, and is linguistically related to Gothic ''ams'' shoulder and Greek ''ōmos''. Structure Upper extremity The upper ...
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Pronator Teres
The pronator teres is a muscle (located mainly in the forearm) that, along with the pronator quadratus, serves to pronate the forearm (turning it so that the palm faces posteriorly when from the anatomical position). It has two attachments, to the medial humeral supracondylar ridge and the ulnar tuberosity, and inserts near the middle of the radius. Structure The pronator teres has two heads—humeral and ulnar. * The humeral head, the larger and more superficial, arises from the medial supracondylar ridge immediately superior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and from the common flexor tendon (which arises from the medial epicondyle). * The ulnar head (or ulnar tuberosity) is a thin fasciculus, which arises from the medial side of the coronoid process of the ulna, and joins the preceding at an acute angle. The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar head. The muscle passes obliquely acros ...
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Olecranon Process
The olecranon (, ), is a large, thick, curved bony eminence of the ulna, a long bone in the forearm that projects behind the elbow. It forms the most pointed portion of the elbow and is opposite to the cubital fossa or elbow pit. The olecranon serves as a lever for the extensor muscles that straighten the elbow joint. Structure The olecranon is situated at the proximal end of the ulna, one of the two bones in the forearm. When the hand faces forward (supination) the olecranon faces towards the back (posteriorly). It is bent forward at the summit so as to present a prominent lip which is received into the olecranon fossa of the humerus during extension of the forearm. Its base is contracted where it joins the body and the narrowest part of the upper end of the ulna. Its posterior surface, directed backward, is triangular, smooth, subcutaneous, and covered by a bursa. Its superior surface is of quadrilateral form, marked behind by a rough impression for the insertion of the T ...
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Olecranon
The olecranon (, ), is a large, thick, curved bony eminence of the ulna, a long bone in the forearm that projects behind the elbow. It forms the most pointed portion of the elbow and is opposite to the cubital fossa or elbow pit. The olecranon serves as a lever for the extensor muscles that straighten the elbow joint. Structure The olecranon is situated at the proximal end of the ulna, one of the two bones in the forearm. When the hand faces forward ( supination) the olecranon faces towards the back (posteriorly). It is bent forward at the summit so as to present a prominent lip which is received into the olecranon fossa of the humerus during extension of the forearm. Its base is contracted where it joins the body and the narrowest part of the upper end of the ulna. Its posterior surface, directed backward, is triangular, smooth, subcutaneous, and covered by a bursa. Its superior surface is of quadrilateral form, marked behind by a rough impression for the insertion of th ...
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