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Two-phase Locking
In databases and transaction processing, two-phase locking (2PL) is a concurrency control method that guarantees serializability. Philip A. Bernstein, Vassos Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman (1987) ''Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems'' Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Gerhard Weikum, Gottfried Vossen (2001) ''Transactional Information Systems'' Elsevier, It is also the name of the resulting set of database transaction schedules (histories). The protocol uses locks, applied by a transaction to data, which may block (interpreted as signals to stop) other transactions from accessing the same data during the transaction's life. By the 2PL protocol, locks are applied and removed in two phases: # Expanding phase: locks are acquired and no locks are released. # Shrinking phase: locks are released and no locks are acquired. Two types of locks are used by the basic protocol: ''Shared'' and ''Exclusive'' locks. Refinements of the basic protocol may use more lock types. ...
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Concurrency Control
In information technology and computer science, especially in the fields of computer programming, operating systems, multiprocessors, and databases, concurrency control ensures that correct results for concurrent operations are generated, while getting those results as quickly as possible. Computer systems, both software and hardware, consist of modules, or components. Each component is designed to operate correctly, i.e., to obey or to meet certain consistency rules. When components that operate concurrently interact by messaging or by sharing accessed data (in memory or storage), a certain component's consistency may be violated by another component. The general area of concurrency control provides rules, methods, design methodologies, and theories to maintain the consistency of components operating concurrently while interacting, and thus the consistency and correctness of the whole system. Introducing concurrency control into a system means applying operation constraints w ...
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Global Serializability
In concurrency control of ''databases'', ''transaction processing'' (''transaction management''), and other transactional distributed applications, global serializability (or modular serializability) is a property of a ''global schedule'' of transactions. A global schedule is the unified schedule of all the individual database (and other transactional object) schedules in a multidatabase environment (e.g., federated database). Complying with global serializability means that the global schedule is '' serializable'', has the ''serializability'' property, while each component database (module) has a serializable schedule as well. In other words, a collection of serializable components provides overall system serializability, which is usually incorrect. A need in correctness across databases in multidatabase systems makes global serializability a major goal for ''global concurrency control'' (or ''modular concurrency control''). With the proliferation of the Internet, Cloud computi ...
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Timeout (telecommunication)
In telecommunications and related engineering (including computer networking and programming), the term timeout or time-out has several meanings, including: * A network parameter related to an enforced event designed to occur at the conclusion of a predetermined elapsed time. * A specified period of time that will be allowed to elapse in a system before a specified event is to take place, unless another specified event occurs first; in either case, the period is terminated when either event takes place. Note: A timeout condition can be canceled by the receipt of an appropriate time-out cancellation signal. * An event that occurs at the end of a predetermined period of time that began at the occurrence of another specified event. The timeout can be prevented by an appropriate signal. Timeouts allow for more efficient usage of limited resources without requiring additional interaction from the agent interested in the goods that cause the consumption of these resources. The ba ...
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Synchronization (computer Science)
In computer science, synchronization refers to one of two distinct but related concepts: synchronization of processes, and synchronization of data. ''Process synchronization'' refers to the idea that multiple processes are to join up or handshake at a certain point, in order to reach an agreement or commit to a certain sequence of action. '' Data synchronization'' refers to the idea of keeping multiple copies of a dataset in coherence with one another, or to maintain data integrity. Process synchronization primitives are commonly used to implement data synchronization. The need for synchronization The need for synchronization does not arise merely in multi-processor systems but for any kind of concurrent processes; even in single processor systems. Mentioned below are some of the main needs for synchronization: '' Forks and Joins:'' When a job arrives at a fork point, it is split into N sub-jobs which are then serviced by n tasks. After being serviced, each sub-job waits until ...
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Atomicity (database Systems)
In database systems, atomicity (; from grc, ἄτομος, átomos, undividable) is one of the ACID (''Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability'') transaction properties. An atomic transaction is an ''indivisible'' and '' irreducible'' series of database operations such that either ''all'' occurs, or ''nothing'' occurs. A guarantee of atomicity prevents updates to the database occurring only partially, which can cause greater problems than rejecting the whole series outright. As a consequence, the transaction cannot be observed to be in progress by another database client. At one moment in time, it has not yet happened, and at the next it has already occurred in whole (or nothing happened if the transaction was cancelled in progress). An example of an atomic transaction is a monetary transfer from bank account A to account B. It consists of two operations, withdrawing the money from account A and saving it to account B. Performing these operations in an atomic transaction ...
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Two-phase Commit
In transaction processing, databases, and computer networking, the two-phase commit protocol (2PC) is a type of atomic commitment protocol (ACP). It is a distributed algorithm that coordinates all the processes that participate in a distributed atomic transaction on whether to commit or abort (roll back) the transaction. This protocol (a specialised type of consensus protocol) achieves its goal even in many cases of temporary system failure (involving either process, network node, communication, etc. failures), and is thus widely used. Philip A. Bernstein, Vassos Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman (1987) ''Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems'' Chapter 7, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Gerhard Weikum, Gottfried Vossen (2001) ''Transactional Information Systems'' Chapter 19, Elsevier, Philip A. Bernstein, Eric Newcomer (2009)''Principles of Transaction Processing'', 2nd Edition, Chapter 8, Morgan Kaufmann (Elsevier), However, it is not resilient to all possible fail ...
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Atomic Commitment
Atomic may refer to: * Of or relating to the atom, the smallest particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties * Atomic physics, the study of the atom * Atomic Age, also known as the "Atomic Era" * Atomic scale, distances comparable to the dimensions of an atom * Atom (order theory), in mathematics * Atomic (cocktail), a champagne cocktail * ''Atomic'' (magazine), an Australian computing and technology magazine * Atomic Skis, an Austrian ski producer Music * Atomic (band), a Norwegian jazz quintet * ''Atomic'' (Lit album), 2001 * ''Atomic'' (Mogwai album), 2016 * ''Atomic'', an album by Rockets, 1982 * ''Atomic'' (EP), by , 2013 * "Atomic" (song), by Blondie, 1979 * "Atomic", a song by Tiger Army from '' Tiger Army III: Ghost Tigers Rise'' See also * * * Atom (other) * Atomicity (database systems) * Nuclear (other) * Atomism, philosophy about the basic building blocks of reality * Atomic City (other) * Atomic formula, ...
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Wait-for Graph
A wait-for graph in computer science is a directed graph used for deadlock detection in operating systems and relational database systems. In computer science, a system that allows concurrent operation of multiple processes and locking of resources and which does not provide mechanisms to avoid or prevent deadlock must support a mechanism to detect deadlocks and an algorithm for recovering from them. One such deadlock detection algorithm makes use of a wait-for graph to track which other processes a process is currently blocking on. In a wait-for graph, processes are represented as nodes, and an edge from process P_i to P_j implies P_j is holding a resource that P_i needs and thus P_i is waiting for P_j to release its lock on that resource. If the process is waiting for more than a single resource to become available (the trivial case), multiple edges may represent a conjunctive (and) or disjunctive (or) set of different resources or a certain number of equivalent resources from ...
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Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC ), using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1960s to the 1990s. The company was co-founded by Ken Olsen and Harlan Anderson in 1957. Olsen was president until forced to resign in 1992, after the company had gone into precipitous decline. The company produced many different product lines over its history. It is best known for the work in the minicomputer market starting in the mid-1960s. The company produced a series of machines known as the PDP line, with the PDP-8 and PDP-11 being among the most successful minis in history. Their success was only surpassed by another DEC product, the late-1970s VAX "supermini" systems that were designed to replace the PDP-11. Although a number of competitors had successfully competed with Digital through the 1970s, the VAX cemented the company's place as a leading vendor in the computer space. As microcomputers improved in the late 1980s, especially ...
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Yoav Raz
Joab (Hebrew Modern: ''Yōʼav'', Tiberian: ''Yōʼāḇ'') the son of Zeruiah, was the nephew of King David and the commander of his army, according to the Hebrew Bible. Name The name Joab is, like many other Hebrew names, theophoric - derived from YHVH (), the name of the God of Israel, and the Hebrew word 'av' (), meaning 'father'. It therefore means 'YHVH sfather'. Life Joab was the son of Zeruiah, a sister of king David (1 Chronicles 2:15-16). According to Josephus (Antiquities VII, 1, 3) his father was called Suri.Flavius Josephus, ''Antiquities of the Jews''Book VII, Chapter 1, 3 Joab had two brothers, Abishai and Asahel. Asahel was killed by Abner in combat, for which Joab took revenge by murdering Abner against David's wishes and shortly after David and Abner had secured peace between the House of David and the House of Saul (2 Samuel 2:13-3:21; 3:27). While 2 Samuel 3:27 explicitly states that Joab killed Abner "to avenge the blood of his brother Asahel", ...
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Abraham Silberschatz
Avi Silberschatz (born in Haifa, Israel) is an Israeli computer scientist and researcher. He graduated in 1976 with a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook. He became the Sidney J. Weinberg Professor of Computer Science at Yale University, USA in 2005. He was the chair of the Computer Science department at Yale from 2005 to 2011. Prior to coming to Yale in 2003, he was the Vice President of the Information Sciences Research Center at Bell Labs. He previously held an endowed professorship at the University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin, UT, or Texas) is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It was founded in 1883 and is the oldest institution in the University of Texas System. With 40,916 undergraduate students, 11,075 ..., where he taught until 1993. His research interests include database systems, operating systems, storage systems, and network management. Silberschatz was electe ...
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