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Two-element Boolean Algebra
In mathematics and abstract algebra, the two-element Boolean algebra is the Boolean algebra whose ''underlying set'' (or universe or ''carrier'') ''B'' is the Boolean domain. The elements of the Boolean domain are 1 and 0 by convention, so that ''B'' = . Paul Halmos's name for this algebra "2" has some following in the literature, and will be employed here. Definition ''B'' is a partially ordered set and the elements of ''B'' are also its bounds. An operation of arity ''n'' is a mapping from ''B''n to ''B''. Boolean algebra consists of two binary operations and unary complementation. The binary operations have been named and notated in various ways. Here they are called 'sum' and 'product', and notated by infix '+' and '∙', respectively. Sum and product commute and associate, as in the usual algebra of real numbers. As for the order of operations, brackets are decisive if present. Otherwise '∙' precedes '+'. Hence ''A∙B + C'' is parsed as ''(A∙B)& ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Order Of Operations
In mathematics and computer programming, the order of operations (or operator precedence) is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given mathematical expression. For example, in mathematics and most computer languages, multiplication is granted a higher precedence than addition, and it has been this way since the introduction of modern algebraic notation. Thus, the expression is interpreted to have the value , and not . When exponents were introduced in the 16th and 17th centuries, they were given precedence over both addition and multiplication, and could be placed only as a superscript to the right of their base. Thus and . These conventions exist to eliminate notational ambiguity, while allowing notation to be as brief as possible. Where it is desired to override the precedence conventions, or even simply to emphasize them, parentheses ( ) can be used. For example, forces addition to precede multipl ...
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Distributivity
In mathematics, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law, which asserts that the equality x \cdot (y + z) = x \cdot y + x \cdot z is always true in elementary algebra. For example, in elementary arithmetic, one has 2 \cdot (1 + 3) = (2 \cdot 1) + (2 \cdot 3). One says that multiplication ''distributes'' over addition. This basic property of numbers is part of the definition of most algebraic structures that have two operations called addition and multiplication, such as complex numbers, polynomials, matrices, rings, and fields. It is also encountered in Boolean algebra and mathematical logic, where each of the logical and (denoted \,\land\,) and the logical or (denoted \,\lor\,) distributes over the other. Definition Given a set S and two binary operators \,*\, and \,+\, on S, *the operation \,*\, is over (or with respect to) \,+\, if, given any elements x, y, \text z of S, x * (y + z) = (x * y) + (x * z); *the operation \,*\, i ...
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Decision Procedure
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a computational problem that can be posed as a yes–no question of the input values. An example of a decision problem is deciding by means of an algorithm whether a given natural number is prime. Another is the problem "given two numbers ''x'' and ''y'', does ''x'' evenly divide ''y''?". The answer is either 'yes' or 'no' depending upon the values of ''x'' and ''y''. A method for solving a decision problem, given in the form of an algorithm, is called a decision procedure for that problem. A decision procedure for the decision problem "given two numbers ''x'' and ''y'', does ''x'' evenly divide ''y''?" would give the steps for determining whether ''x'' evenly divides ''y''. One such algorithm is long division. If the remainder is zero the answer is 'yes', otherwise it is 'no'. A decision problem which can be solved by an algorithm is called ''decidable''. Decision problems typically appear in ma ...
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Duality (order Theory)
In the mathematical area of order theory, every partially ordered set ''P'' gives rise to a dual (or opposite) partially ordered set which is often denoted by ''P''op or ''P''''d''. This dual order ''P''op is defined to be the same set, but with the inverse order, i.e. ''x'' ≤ ''y'' holds in ''P''op if and only if ''y'' ≤ ''x'' holds in ''P''. It is easy to see that this construction, which can be depicted by flipping the Hasse diagram for ''P'' upside down, will indeed yield a partially ordered set. In a broader sense, two partially ordered sets are also said to be duals if they are dually isomorphic, i.e. if one poset is order isomorphic to the dual of the other. The importance of this simple definition stems from the fact that every definition and theorem of order theory can readily be transferred to the dual order. Formally, this is captured by the Duality Principle for ordered sets: : If a given statement is valid for all partially ordered sets, then its dual statement, o ...
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Boolean Semiring
In abstract algebra, a semiring is an algebraic structure similar to a ring, but without the requirement that each element must have an additive inverse. The term rig is also used occasionally—this originated as a joke, suggesting that rigs are ri''n''gs without ''n''egative elements, similar to using '' rng'' to mean a r''i''ng without a multiplicative ''i''dentity. Tropical semirings are an active area of research, linking algebraic varieties with piecewise linear structures. Definition A semiring is a set R equipped with two binary operations \,+\, and \,\cdot,\, called addition and multiplication, such that:Lothaire (2005) p.211Sakarovitch (2009) pp.27–28 * (R, +) is a commutative monoid with identity element 0: ** (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ** 0 + a = a = a + 0 ** a + b = b + a * (R, \,\cdot\,) is a monoid with identity element 1: ** (a \cdot b) \cdot c = a \cdot (b \cdot c) ** 1 \cdot a = a = a \cdot 1 * Multiplication left and right distributes over addition ...
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Semiring
In abstract algebra, a semiring is an algebraic structure similar to a ring, but without the requirement that each element must have an additive inverse. The term rig is also used occasionally—this originated as a joke, suggesting that rigs are ri''n''gs without ''n''egative elements, similar to using '' rng'' to mean a r''i''ng without a multiplicative ''i''dentity. Tropical semirings are an active area of research, linking algebraic varieties with piecewise linear structures. Definition A semiring is a set R equipped with two binary operations \,+\, and \,\cdot,\, called addition and multiplication, such that:Lothaire (2005) p.211Sakarovitch (2009) pp.27–28 * (R, +) is a commutative monoid with identity element 0: ** (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ** 0 + a = a = a + 0 ** a + b = b + a * (R, \,\cdot\,) is a monoid with identity element 1: ** (a \cdot b) \cdot c = a \cdot (b \cdot c) ** 1 \cdot a = a = a \cdot 1 * Multiplication left and right distributes over addition ...
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Logical AND
In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (\wedge) is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the ''and'' of a set of operands is true if and only if ''all'' of its operands are true. The logical connective that represents this operator is typically written as \wedge or . A \land B is true if and only if A is true and B is true, otherwise it is false. An operand of a conjunction is a conjunct. Beyond logic, the term "conjunction" also refers to similar concepts in other fields: * In natural language, the denotation of expressions such as English "and". * In programming languages, the short-circuit and control structure. * In set theory, intersection. * In lattice theory, logical conjunction (greatest lower bound). * In predicate logic, universal quantification. Notation And is usually denoted by an infix operator: in mathematics and logic, it is denoted by \wedge, or ; in electronics, ; and in programming languages, &, &&, or and. In Jan Ł ...
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Logical OR
In logic, disjunction is a logical connective typically notated as \lor and read aloud as "or". For instance, the English language sentence "it is raining or it is snowing" can be represented in logic using the disjunctive formula R \lor S , assuming that R abbreviates "it is raining" and S abbreviates "it is snowing". In classical logic, disjunction is given a truth functional semantics according to which a formula \phi \lor \psi is true unless both \phi and \psi are false. Because this semantics allows a disjunctive formula to be true when both of its disjuncts are true, it is an ''inclusive'' interpretation of disjunction, in contrast with exclusive disjunction. Classical proof theoretical treatments are often given in terms of rules such as disjunction introduction and disjunction elimination. Disjunction has also been given numerous non-classical treatments, motivated by problems including Aristotle's sea battle argument, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, as well ...
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Logical NOT
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P, \mathord P or \overline. It is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true. Negation is thus a unary logical connective. It may be applied as an operation on notions, propositions, truth values, or semantic values more generally. In classical logic, negation is normally identified with the truth function that takes ''truth'' to ''falsity'' (and vice versa). In intuitionistic logic, according to the Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov interpretation, the negation of a proposition P is the proposition whose proofs are the refutations of P. Definition ''Classical negation'' is an operation on one logical value, typically the value of a proposition, that produces a value of ''true'' when its operand is false, and a value of ''false'' when its operand is true. Thus if statement is true, then \neg P ( ...
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Bivalent Logic
In logic, the semantic principle (or law) of bivalence states that every declarative sentence expressing a proposition (of a theory under inspection) has exactly one truth value, either true or false. A logic satisfying this principle is called a two-valued logic or bivalent logic. In formal logic, the principle of bivalence becomes a property that a semantics may or may not possess. It is not the same as the law of excluded middle, however, and a semantics may satisfy that law without being bivalent. The principle of bivalence is studied in philosophical logic to address the question of which natural-language statements have a well-defined truth value. Sentences that predict events in the future, and sentences that seem open to interpretation, are particularly difficult for philosophers who hold that the principle of bivalence applies to all declarative natural-language statements. Many-valued logics formalize ideas that a realistic characterization of the notion of conseq ...
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One-to-one Correspondence
In mathematics, a bijection, also known as a bijective function, one-to-one correspondence, or invertible function, is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set. There are no unpaired elements. In mathematical terms, a bijective function is a one-to-one (injective) and onto (surjective) mapping of a set ''X'' to a set ''Y''. The term ''one-to-one correspondence'' must not be confused with ''one-to-one function'' (an injective function; see figures). A bijection from the set ''X'' to the set ''Y'' has an inverse function from ''Y'' to ''X''. If ''X'' and ''Y'' are finite sets, then the existence of a bijection means they have the same number of elements. For infinite sets, the picture is more complicated, leading to the concept of cardinal number—a way to distinguish the various sizes of infinite sets ...
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