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Transpiration Pull
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubitata'', a species of geometer mot ... in vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 ...s, the other being phloem Phloem (, ) is the living tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa d .... The basic function of xylem is to transport water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, ...
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Xylem And Phloem Diagram
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubitata'', a species of geometer mot ... in vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 ...s, the other being phloem Phloem (, ) is the living tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa d .... The basic function of xylem is to transport water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, ...
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Vascular Cambium
The vascular cambium is the main growth tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubitata'', a species of geometer mot ... in the stems and roots of many plants, specifically in dicot The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "a ...s such as buttercups and oak trees, gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also ...s such as pine trees, as well as in certain other vascular plant Vascular plant ...
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Monocots
Monocotyledons (), commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae Lilianae (also known as Liliiflorae) is a botanical name for a superorder (that is, a rank (botany), rank higher than that of order (biology), order) of flowering plants. Such a superorder of necessity includes the Type (biology), type Family (biol ... ''sensu ''Sensu'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Ro ...'' Chase & Reveal) are grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain ... and grass-like flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms ...
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Angiosperms
Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ... words ('container, vessel') and ('seed'), and refers to those plants that produce their seeds A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ... enclosed within a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. ...
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Softwood
Scots Pine, a typical and well-known softwood Softwood is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ... from gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also ... trees such as conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single ex ...s. The term is opposed to hardwood is a popular hardwood Hardwood is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tiss ...
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Conifers
Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to E ..., a subset of gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also ...s. Scientifically, they make up the division Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematics), the inverse of multiplication *Division algorithm, a method for computing the result of mathematical division Military *Division (military), a formation typically consisting o ... Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single extant class Class or Th ...
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Cycadophyta
:''For the insect, see Cicada The cicadas () are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of s in the order (true bugs). They are in the suborder , along with smaller jumping bugs such as s and s. The superfamily is divided into two families, the , with two species in Australia, an ....'' Cycads are seed plant A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...s that typically have a stout and woody (ligneous A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue and thus has a hard stem. In cold climates, woody plants further survive winter or dry season above ground, as opposite to Herbaceous plant, herbaceous plants that die back to th ...) trunk with a crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which ...
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Ginkgophyta
Ginkgoales is a gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also ... order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and the habit of achieving a ... containing only one extant Extant is the opposite of the word extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the endling, last individual o ... species: ''Ginkgo biloba ''Ginkgo biloba'', commonly known as ginkgo or gingko ( ) also known as the maidenhair tree, is a species of tree native to China. It is the las ...
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Gnetophyta
Gnetophyta () is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also ...s (which also includes conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single ex ...s, cycad :''For the insect, see Cicada.'' Cycads are seed plants that typically have a stout and woody (ligneous) trunk (botany), trunk with a crown (botany), crown of large, hard, stiff, evergreen and (usually) pinnate leaves. The species are dioecious ...s, and ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In ...
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Gymnosperm
The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single extant class, Pinopsida. All exta ..., cycad :''For the insect, see Cicada.'' Cycads are seed plants that typically have a stout and woody (ligneous) trunk (botany), trunk with a crown (botany), crown of large, hard, stiff, evergreen and (usually) pinnate leaves. The species are dioecious ...s, ''Ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...'', and gnetophyte Gnetophyta () is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperm The gymnosperms, al ...
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Procambium
The meristem is a type of biological tissue, tissue found in plants. It consists of undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells) capable of mitosis, cell division. Cells in the meristem can develop into all the other tissues and organs that occur in plants. These cells continue to divide until a time when they get differentiated and then lose the ability to divide. Cellular differentiation, Differentiated plant cells generally cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Meristematic cells are undifferentiated or incompletely differentiated. They are cell potency, totipotent and capable of continued Mitosis, cell division. Division of meristematic cells provides new cells for expansion and differentiation of tissues and the initiation of new organs, providing the basic structure of the plant body. The cells are small, with no or small vacuoles and protoplasm fills the cell completely. The plastids (chloroplasts or chromoplasts), are undifferentiated, but are present in rudime ...
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Murray's Law
Murray's law predicts the thickness of branches in transport networks, such that the cost for transport and maintenance of the transport medium is minimized. This law is observed in the vascular and respiratory systems of animals, xylem in plants, and the respiratory system of insects. Its simplest version states that if a branch of radius r splits into two branches of radii r_1 and r_2, then r^3 = r_1^3 + r_2^3. Like the Hagen–Poiseuille equation and Fick's laws, which were also formulated from a biological context, Murray's law is a basic physical principle for transfer networks. Murray's law is named after its inventor Cecil D. Murray, a physiologist at Bryn Mawr College, who published her theories in January of 1926 with the title "The Physiological Principle of Minimum Work, I. The Vascular System and the Cost of Blood Volume". Murray's law is also a powerful biomimetics design tool in engineering. It has been applied in the design of self-healing materials, Battery (electr ...
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