Transfer Function
In engineering, a transfer function (also known as system function or network function) of a system, subsystem, or component is a mathematical function that theoretically models the system's output for each possible input. They are widely used in electronics and control systems. In some simple cases, this function is a twodimensional graph of an independent scalar input versus the dependent scalar output, called a transfer curve or characteristic curve. Transfer functions for components are used to design and analyze systems assembled from components, particularly using the block diagram technique, in electronics and control theory. The dimensions and units of the transfer function model the output response of the device for a range of possible inputs. For example, the transfer function of a twoport electronic circuit like an amplifier might be a twodimensional graph of the scalar voltage at the output as a function of the scalar voltage applied to the input; the tran ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Optical Transfer Function
The optical transfer function (OTF) of an optical system such as a camera, microscope, human eye, or projector specifies how different spatial frequencies are captured or transmitted. It is used by optical engineers to describe how the optics project light from the object or scene onto a photographic film, detector array, retina, screen, or simply the next item in the optical transmission chain. A variant, the modulation transfer function (MTF), neglects phase effects, but is equivalent to the OTF in many situations. Either transfer function specifies the response to a periodic sinewave pattern passing through the lens system, as a function of its spatial frequency or period, and its orientation. Formally, the OTF is defined as the Fourier transform of the point spread function (PSF, that is, the impulse response of the optics, the image of a point source). As a Fourier transform, the OTF is complexvalued; but it will be realvalued in the common case of a PSF that is symmetr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Engineering
Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application. See glossary of engineering. The term ''engineering'' is derived from the Latin ''ingenium'', meaning "cleverness" and ''ingeniare'', meaning "to contrive, devise". Definition The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development (ECPD, the predecessor of ABET) has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under speci ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Laplace Transform
In mathematics, the Laplace transform, named after its discoverer PierreSimon Laplace (), is an integral transform that converts a function of a real variable (usually t, in the '' time domain'') to a function of a complex variable s (in the complex frequency domain, also known as ''s''domain, or splane). The transform has many applications in science and engineering because it is a tool for solving differential equations. In particular, it transforms ordinary differential equations into algebraic equations and convolution into multiplication. For suitable functions ''f'', the Laplace transform is the integral \mathcal\(s) = \int_0^\infty f(t)e^ \, dt. History The Laplace transform is named after mathematician and astronomer PierreSimon, marquis de Laplace, who used a similar transform in his work on probability theory. Laplace wrote extensively about the use of generating functions in ''Essai philosophique sur les probabilités'' (1814), and the integral form of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Timeinvariant
In system analysis, among other fields of study, a linear timeinvariant (LTI) system is a system that produces an output signal from any input signal subject to the constraints of linearity and timeinvariance; these terms are briefly defined below. These properties apply (exactly or approximately) to many important physical systems, in which case the response of the system to an arbitrary input can be found directly using convolution: where is called the system's impulse response and ∗ represents convolution (not to be confused with multiplication, as is frequently employed by the symbol in computer languages). What's more, there are systematic methods for solving any such system (determining ), whereas systems not meeting both properties are generally more difficult (or impossible) to solve analytically. A good example of an LTI system is any electrical circuit consisting of resistors, capacitors, inductors and linear amplifiers. Linear timeinvariant system theo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Communication Theory
Communication theory is a proposed description of communication phenomena, the relationships among them, a storyline describing these relationships, and an argument for these three elements. Communication theory provides a way of talking about and analyzing key events, processes, and commitments that together form communication. Theory can be seen as a way to map the world and make it navigable; communication theory gives us tools to answer empirical, conceptual, or practical communication questions. Communication is defined in both commonsense and specialized ways. Communication theory emphasizes its symbolic and social process aspects as seen from two perspectives—as exchange of information (the transmission perspective), and as work done to connect and thus enable that exchange (the ritual perspective). Sociolinguistic research in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that the level to which people change their formality of their language depending on the social context that th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Signal Processing
Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analyzing, modifying and synthesizing ''signals'', such as sound, images, and scientific measurements. Signal processing techniques are used to optimize transmissions, digital storage efficiency, correcting distorted signals, subjective video quality and to also detect or pinpoint components of interest in a measured signal. History According to Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, the principles of signal processing can be found in the classical numerical analysis techniques of the 17th century. They further state that the digital refinement of these techniques can be found in the digital control systems of the 1940s and 1950s. In 1948, Claude Shannon wrote the influential paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" which was published in the Bell System Technical Journal. The paper laid the groundwork for later development of information communication systems and the processing of signals ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Filter (signal Processing)
In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that removes some unwanted components or features from a signal. Filtering is a class of signal processing, the defining feature of filters being the complete or partial suppression of some aspect of the signal. Most often, this means removing some frequencies or frequency bands. However, filters do not exclusively act in the frequency domain; especially in the field of image processing many other targets for filtering exist. Correlations can be removed for certain frequency components and not for others without having to act in the frequency domain. Filters are widely used in electronics and telecommunication, in radio, television, audio recording, radar, control systems, music synthesis, image processing, and computer graphics. There are many different bases of classifying filters and these overlap in many different ways; there is no simple hierarchical classification. Filters may be: * nonlinear or linear * timevari ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Singleinput Singleoutput
In control engineering, a singleinput and singleoutput (SISO) system is a simple single variable control system with one input and one output. In radio it is the use of only one antenna both in the transmitter and receiver. Details SISO systems are typically less complex than multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) systems. Usually, it is also easier to make order of magnitude or trending predictions "on the fly" or "back of the envelope". MIMO systems have too many interactions for most of us to trace through them quickly, thoroughly, and effectively in our heads. Frequency domain techniques for analysis and controller design dominate SISO control system theory. Bode plot, Nyquist stability criterion, Nichols plot, and root locus are the usual tools for SISO system analysis. Controllers can be designed through the polynomial design, root locus design methods to name just two of the more popular. Often SISO controllers will be PI, PID, or leadlag. See also * Control theory ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spatial Frequency
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, spatial frequency is a characteristic of any structure that is periodic across position in space. The spatial frequency is a measure of how often sinusoidal components (as determined by the Fourier transform) of the structure repeat per unit of distance. The SI unit of spatial frequency is cycles per meter (m). In imageprocessing applications, spatial frequency is often expressed in units of cycles per millimeter (mm) or equivalently line pairs per mm. In wave propagation, the spatial frequency is also known as ''wavenumber''. Ordinary wavenumber is defined as the reciprocal of wavelength \lambda and is commonly denoted by \xi or sometimes \nu: :\xi = \frac. Angular wavenumber k, expressed in rad per m, is related to ordinary wavenumber and wavelength by :k = 2 \pi \xi = \frac. Visual perception In the study of visual perception, sinusoidal gratings are frequently used to probe the capabilities of the visual system. In these ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fourier Transform
A Fourier transform (FT) is a mathematical transform that decomposes functions into frequency components, which are represented by the output of the transform as a function of frequency. Most commonly functions of time or space are transformed, which will output a function depending on temporal frequency or spatial frequency respectively. That process is also called ''analysis''. An example application would be decomposing the waveform of a musical chord into terms of the intensity of its constituent pitches. The term ''Fourier transform'' refers to both the frequency domain representation and the mathematical operation that associates the frequency domain representation to a function of space or time. The Fourier transform of a function is a complexvalued function representing the complex sinusoids that comprise the original function. For each frequency, the magnitude ( absolute value) of the complex value represents the amplitude of a constituent complex sinusoid ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sine Wave
A sine wave, sinusoidal wave, or just sinusoid is a mathematical curve defined in terms of the '' sine'' trigonometric function, of which it is the graph. It is a type of continuous wave and also a smooth periodic function. It occurs often in mathematics, as well as in physics, engineering, signal processing and many other fields. Formulation Its most basic form as a function of time (''t'') is: y(t) = A\sin(2 \pi f t + \varphi) = A\sin(\omega t + \varphi) where: * ''A'', ''amplitude'', the peak deviation of the function from zero. * ''f'', '' ordinary frequency'', the ''number'' of oscillations (cycles) that occur each second of time. * ''ω'' = 2''f'', ''angular frequency'', the rate of change of the function argument in units of radians per second. * \varphi, '' phase'', specifies (in radians) where in its cycle the oscillation is at ''t'' = 0. When \varphi is nonzero, the entire waveform appears to be shifted in time by the amount ''φ''/''ω'' seconds. A negative value ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 