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Transaction Cost
In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a market. Oliver E. Williamson defines transaction costs as the costs of running an economic system of companies, and unlike production costs, decision-makers determine strategies of companies by measuring transaction costs and production costs. Transaction costs are the total costs of making a transaction, including the cost of planning, deciding, changing plans, resolving disputes, and after-sales. Therefore, the transaction cost is one of the most significant factors in business operation and management. Oliver E. Williamson's ''Transaction Cost Economics'' popularized the concept of transaction costs. Douglass C. North argues that institutions, understood as the set of rules in a society, are key in the determination of transaction costs. In this sense, institutions that facilitate low transaction costs, boost economic growth.North, Douglass C. 1992. “Tran ...
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Economics
Economics () is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics analyzes what's viewed as basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the economy as a system where production, consumption, saving, and investment interact, and factors affecting it: employment of the resources of labour, capital, and land, currency inflation, economic growth, and public policies that have impact on these elements. Other broad distinctions within economics include those between positive economics, describing "what is", and normative economics, advocating "what ought to be"; between economic theory and applied economics; between rati ...
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Institutional Economics
Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behavior. Its original focus lay in Thorstein Veblen's instinct-oriented dichotomy between technology on the one side and the "ceremonial" sphere of society on the other. Its name and core elements trace back to a 1919 ''American Economic Review'' article by Walton H. Hamilton. Institutional economics emphasizes a broader study of institutions and views markets as a result of the complex interaction of these various institutions (e.g. individuals, firms, states, social norms). The earlier tradition continues today as a leading heterodox approach to economics.Warren J. Samuels ( 9872008). "institutional economics," '' The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics''Abstract. "Traditional" institutionalism rejects the ''reduction'' of institutions to simply tastes, technology, and nature (see naturalistic fallacy). Tastes, along with expectations ...
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Robert Dahlstrom
Robert F. Dahlstrom (born c. 1958) is an American organizational theorist who is the Seibert Professor in the Miami University Department of Marketing. known for his work on international marketing. Education Dahlstrom obtained a Bachelor of Business Administration from Xavier University in 1980 and a PhD in marketing at the University of Cincinnati in 1990."Robert Dahlstrom Department of Marketing - Chair & Joseph C. Seibert Professor at Miami University Farmer School of Business," at linkedin.com. Accessed 09-03-2015. Career Dahlstrom started his academic career at the University of Kentucky in 1990, where he became Bloomfield Professor of Marketing at the Gatton College of Business and Economics. He founded and directed its Douglas K. Von Allmen Center for Green Marketing, which aims "to expand the knowledge of green marketing practices among business owners, and to contribute to scholarly research on green marketing and sustainability."
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Arne Nygaard
Arne Nygaard (born 17 May 1957) is a Norwegian organizational theorist best known for his work with Robert Dahlstrom on transaction costs in franchising. Biography Nygaard obtained his Master of Business and Economics (MBE) at the BI Norwegian Business School in 1982, his Master of Science at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, where he also obtained his PhD in 1992.Curriculum Vitae : Arne Nygaard
at ''mh.academia.edu.'' Accessed 09-03-2015.
Nygaard started his career as Executive Officer Petroleum office in the Norwegian State Audit Commission in 1983. in 1985 he moved to the Institute of Energy- and Industrial Policy at the BI Norwegian Business School, where he was started as research assistant, and became research scholar in 1987. In 1990 he became Research Fellow at the N ...
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Nobel Memorial Prize In Economics
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ( sv, Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an economics award administered by the Nobel Foundation. Although not one of the five Nobel Prizes which were established by Alfred Nobel's will in 1895, it is commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics. The winners of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences are chosen in a similar way, are announced along with the Nobel Prize recipients, and the prize is presented at the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. The award was established in 1968 by an endowment "in perpetuity" from Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, to commemorate the bank's 300th anniversary. It is administered and referred to along with the Nobel Prizes by the Nobel Foundation. Laureates in the Memorial Prize in Economics are selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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Gift
A gift or a present is an item given to someone without the expectation of payment or anything in return. An item is not a gift if that item is already owned by the one to whom it is given. Although gift-giving might involve an expectation of reciprocity, a gift is meant to be free. In many countries, the act of mutually exchanging money, goods, etc. may sustain social relations and contribute to social cohesion. Economists have elaborated the economics of gift-giving into the notion of a gift economy. By extension the term ''gift'' can refer to any item or act of service that makes the other happier or less sad, especially as a favor, including forgiveness and kindness. Gifts are also first and foremost presented on occasions such as birthdays and holidays. Presentation In many cultures gifts are traditionally packaged in some way. For example, in Western cultures, gifts are often wrapped in wrapping paper and accompanied by a gift note which may note the occasion, th ...
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Selling
Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. The delivery of a service for a cost is also considered a sale. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, completes a sale in response to an acquisition, appropriation, requisition, or a direct interaction with the ''buyer'' at the point of sale. There is a passing of title (property or ownership) of the item, and the settlement of a price, in which agreement is reached on a price for which transfer of ownership of the item will occur. The ''seller'', not the purchaser, typically executes the sale and it may be completed prior to the obligation of payment. In the case of indirect interaction, a person who sells goods or service on behalf of the owner is known as a salesman or saleswoman or salesperson, but this often refers to someone selling goods in a store/shop, in which case other terms are also common, including ''salesclerk'', ''shop assistant'', and ''re ...
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Buying
Trade involves the transfer of goods and services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system or network that allows trade as a market. An early form of trade, barter, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services, i.e. trading things without the use of money. Modern traders generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and letter of credit, paper money, and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade involving more than two traders is called multilateral trade. In one modern view, trade exists due to specialization and the division of labour, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products a ...
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Morton Glantz
Morton may refer to: People * Morton (surname) * Morton (given name) Fictional * Morton Koopa, Jr., a character and boss in ''Super Mario Bros. 3'' * A character in the '' Charlie and Lola'' franchise * A character in the 2008 film '' Horton Hears a Who'' * Morton Slumber, a funeral director who assists the diamond smuggling ring in '' Diamonds Are Forever'' * Morton "Mort" Rainey, an author and the main character of the 2004 film ''Secret Window'' Places Canada * Rural Municipality of Morton, Manitoba, a former rural municipality * Morton, Ontario, a community in Rideau Lakes England * Morton, Carlisle, a place in Carlisle, Cumbria * Morton, Eden, Cumbria * Morton, Derbyshire * Morton, Gloucestershire * Morton, Isle of Wight * Morton, a village in Morton and Hanthorpe parish, Lincolnshire * Morton by Gainsborough, Lincolnshire * Morton Hall, Lincolnshire * Morton, Norfolk (or Morton on the Hill) * Morton, Nottinghamshire * Morton-on-Swale, North Yorkshire * Mort ...
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Robert Kissell
The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (''Hrōþiberhtaz''). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of '' Hruod'' ( non, Hróðr) "fame, glory, honour, praise, renown" and ''berht'' "bright, light, shining"). It is the second most frequently used given name of ancient Germanic origin. It is also in use as a surname. Another commonly used form of the name is Rupert. After becoming widely used in Continental Europe it entered England in its Old French form ''Robert'', where an Old English cognate form (''Hrēodbēorht'', ''Hrodberht'', ''Hrēodbēorð'', ''Hrœdbœrð'', ''Hrœdberð'', ''Hrōðberχtŕ'') had existed before the Norman Conquest. The feminine version is Roberta. The Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish form is Roberto. Robert is also a common name in many Germanic languages, including English, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish, Scots, Danish, and Icelandic. I ...
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The Problem Of Social Cost
"The Problem of Social Cost" (1960) by Ronald Coase, then a faculty member at the University of Virginia, is an article dealing with the economic problem of externalities. It draws from a number of English legal cases and statutes to illustrate Coase's belief that legal rules are only justified by reference to a cost–benefit analysis, and that nuisances that are often regarded as being the fault of one party are more symmetric conflicts between the interests of the two parties. If there are sufficiently low costs of doing a transaction, legal rules would be irrelevant to the maximization of production. Because in the real world there are costs of bargaining and information gathering, legal rules are justified to the extent of their ability to allocate rights to the most efficient right-bearer. Along with an earlier article, “ The Nature of the Firm”, "The Problem of Social Cost" was cited by the Nobel committee when Coase was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sci ...
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The Nature Of The Firm
"The Nature of the Firm" (1937) is an article by Ronald Coase. It offered an economic explanation of why individuals choose to form partnerships, companies, and other business entities rather than trading bilaterally through contracts on a market. The author was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1991 in part due to this paper. Despite the honor, the paper was written when Coase was an undergraduate and he described it later in life as "little more than an undergraduate essay." The article argues that firms emerge because they are better equipped to deal with the transaction costs inherent in production and exchange than individuals are. Economists such as Oliver Williamson, Douglass North, Oliver Hart, Bengt Holmström, Arman Alchian and Harold Demsetz expanded on Coase's work on firms, transaction costs and contracts. Economists and political scientists have used insights from Coase's work to explain the functioning of organizations in general, not just f ...
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