Trace (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra, the trace of a square matrix , denoted , is defined to be the sum of elements on the main diagonal (from the upper left to the lower right) of . The trace is only defined for a square matrix (). It can be proved that the trace of a matrix is the sum of its (complex) eigenvalues (counted with multiplicities). It can also be proved that for any two matrices and . This implies that similar matrices have the same trace. As a consequence one can define the trace of a linear operator mapping a finitedimensional vector space into itself, since all matrices describing such an operator with respect to a basis are similar. The trace is related to the derivative of the determinant (see Jacobi's formula). Definition The trace of an square matrix is defined as \operatorname(\mathbf) = \sum_^n a_ = a_ + a_ + \dots + a_ where denotes the entry on the th row and th column of . The entries of can be real numbers or (more generally) complex numbers. The trace is not ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Algebra
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and through matrices. Linear algebra is central to almost all areas of mathematics. For instance, linear algebra is fundamental in modern presentations of geometry, including for defining basic objects such as lines, planes and rotations. Also, functional analysis, a branch of mathematical analysis, may be viewed as the application of linear algebra to spaces of functions. Linear algebra is also used in most sciences and fields of engineering, because it allows modeling many natural phenomena, and computing efficiently with such models. For nonlinear systems, which cannot be modeled with linear algebra, it is often used for dealing with firstorder approximations, using the fact that the differential of a multivariate function at a point is the linea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vectorization (mathematics)
In mathematics, especially in linear algebra and matrix theory, the vectorization of a matrix is a linear transformation which converts the matrix into a column vector. Specifically, the vectorization of a matrix ''A'', denoted vec(''A''), is the column vector obtained by stacking the columns of the matrix ''A'' on top of one another: :\operatorname(A) = _, \ldots, a_, a_, \ldots, a_, \ldots, a_, \ldots, a_\mathrm Here, a_ represents A(i,j) and the superscript ^\mathrm denotes the transpose. Vectorization expresses, through coordinates, the isomorphism \mathbf^ := \mathbf^m \otimes \mathbf^n \cong \mathbf^ between these (i.e., of matrices and vectors) as vector spaces. For example, for the 2×2 matrix A = \begin a & b \\ c & d \end, the vectorization is \operatorname(A) = \begin a \\ c \\ b \\ d \end. The connection between the vectorization of ''A'' and the vectorization of its transpose is given by the commutation matrix. Compatibility with Kronecker products The vect ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix Product
In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, matrix multiplication is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices. For matrix multiplication, the number of columns in the first matrix must be equal to the number of rows in the second matrix. The resulting matrix, known as the matrix product, has the number of rows of the first and the number of columns of the second matrix. The product of matrices and is denoted as . Matrix multiplication was first described by the French mathematician Jacques Philippe Marie Binet in 1812, to represent the composition of linear maps that are represented by matrices. Matrix multiplication is thus a basic tool of linear algebra, and as such has numerous applications in many areas of mathematics, as well as in applied mathematics, statistics, physics, economics, and engineering. Computing matrix products is a central operation in all computational applications of linear algebra. Notation This article will use the following notat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Conjugate
In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. That is, (if a and b are real, then) the complex conjugate of a + bi is equal to a  bi. The complex conjugate of z is often denoted as \overline or z^*. In polar form, the conjugate of r e^ is r e^. This can be shown using Euler's formula. The product of a complex number and its conjugate is a real number: a^2 + b^2 (or r^2 in polar coordinates). If a root of a univariate polynomial with real coefficients is complex, then its complex conjugate is also a root. Notation The complex conjugate of a complex number z is written as \overline z or z^*. The first notation, a vinculum, avoids confusion with the notation for the conjugate transpose of a matrix, which can be thought of as a generalization of the complex conjugate. The second is preferred in physics, where dagger (†) is used for the conjugate ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Vector Space
In mathematics and physics, a vector space (also called a linear space) is a set whose elements, often called ''vectors'', may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called ''scalars''. Scalars are often real numbers, but can be complex numbers or, more generally, elements of any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called ''vector axioms''. The terms real vector space and complex vector space are often used to specify the nature of the scalars: real coordinate space or complex coordinate space. Vector spaces generalize Euclidean vectors, which allow modeling of physical quantities, such as forces and velocity, that have not only a magnitude, but also a direction. The concept of vector spaces is fundamental for linear algebra, together with the concept of matrix, which allows computing in vector spaces. This provides a concise and synthetic way for manipulating and studying systems of linear e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hermitian Inner Product
In mathematics, an inner product space (or, rarely, a Hausdorff preHilbert space) is a real vector space or a complex vector space with an operation called an inner product. The inner product of two vectors in the space is a scalar, often denoted with angle brackets such as in \langle a, b \rangle. Inner products allow formal definitions of intuitive geometric notions, such as lengths, angles, and orthogonality (zero inner product) of vectors. Inner product spaces generalize Euclidean vector spaces, in which the inner product is the dot product or ''scalar product'' of Cartesian coordinates. Inner product spaces of infinite dimension are widely used in functional analysis. Inner product spaces over the field of complex numbers are sometimes referred to as unitary spaces. The first usage of the concept of a vector space with an inner product is due to Giuseppe Peano, in 1898. An inner product naturally induces an associated norm, (denoted , x, and , y, in the picture); so, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistics
Statistics (from German: '' Statistik'', "description of a state, a country") is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Populations can be diverse groups of people or objects such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.Dodge, Y. (2006) ''The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms'', Oxford University Press. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs and survey samples. Representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can reasonably extend from the sample to the population as a whole. An ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Matrix Calculus
In mathematics, matrix calculus is a specialized notation for doing multivariable calculus, especially over spaces of matrices. It collects the various partial derivatives of a single function with respect to many variables, and/or of a multivariate function with respect to a single variable, into vectors and matrices that can be treated as single entities. This greatly simplifies operations such as finding the maximum or minimum of a multivariate function and solving systems of differential equations. The notation used here is commonly used in statistics and engineering, while the tensor index notation is preferred in physics. Two competing notational conventions split the field of matrix calculus into two separate groups. The two groups can be distinguished by whether they write the derivative of a scalar with respect to a vector as a column vector or a row vector. Both of these conventions are possible even when the common assumption is made that vectors shoul ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Positive Definite Matrix
In mathematics, a symmetric matrix M with real entries is positivedefinite if the real number z^\textsfMz is positive for every nonzero real column vector z, where z^\textsf is the transpose of More generally, a Hermitian matrix (that is, a complex matrix equal to its conjugate transpose) is positivedefinite if the real number z^* Mz is positive for every nonzero complex column vector z, where z^* denotes the conjugate transpose of z. Positive semidefinite matrices are defined similarly, except that the scalars z^\textsfMz and z^* Mz are required to be positive ''or zero'' (that is, nonnegative). Negativedefinite and negative semidefinite matrices are defined analogously. A matrix that is not positive semidefinite and not negative semidefinite is sometimes called indefinite. A matrix is thus positivedefinite if and only if it is the matrix of a positivedefinite quadratic form or Hermitian form. In other words, a matrix is positivedefinite if and only if it defines ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cauchy–Schwarz Inequality
The Cauchy–Schwarz inequality (also called Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality) is considered one of the most important and widely used inequalities in mathematics. The inequality for sums was published by . The corresponding inequality for integrals was published by and . Schwarz gave the modern proof of the integral version. Statement of the inequality The Cauchy–Schwarz inequality states that for all vectors \mathbf and \mathbf of an inner product space it is true that where \langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle is the inner product. Examples of inner products include the real and complex dot product; see the examples in inner product. Every inner product gives rise to a norm, called the or , where the norm of a vector \mathbf is denoted and defined by: \, \mathbf\, := \sqrt so that this norm and the inner product are related by the defining condition \, \mathbf\, ^2 = \langle \mathbf, \mathbf \rangle, where \langle \mathbf, \mathbf \rangle is always a nonnegativ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Frobenius Norm
In mathematics, a matrix norm is a vector norm in a vector space whose elements (vectors) are matrices (of given dimensions). Preliminaries Given a field K of either real or complex numbers, let K^ be the vector space of matrices with m rows and n columns and entries in the field K. A matrix norm is a norm on K^. This article will always write such norms with double vertical bars (like so: \, A\, ). Thus, the matrix norm is a function \, \cdot\, : K^ \to \R that must satisfy the following properties: For all scalars \alpha \in K and matrices A, B \in K^, *\, A\, \ge 0 (''positivevalued'') *\, A\, = 0 \iff A=0_ (''definite'') *\left\, \alpha A\right\, =\left, \alpha\ \left\, A\right\, (''absolutely homogeneous'') *\, A+B\, \le \, A\, +\, B\, (''subadditive'' or satisfying the ''triangle inequality'') The only feature distinguishing matrices from rearranged vectors is multiplication. Matrix norms are particularly useful if they are also submultiplicative: *\le ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Norm (mathematics)
In mathematics, a norm is a function from a real or complex vector space to the nonnegative real numbers that behaves in certain ways like the distance from the origin: it commutes with scaling, obeys a form of the triangle inequality, and is zero only at the origin. In particular, the Euclidean distance of a vector from the origin is a norm, called the Euclidean norm, or 2norm, which may also be defined as the square root of the inner product of a vector with itself. A seminorm satisfies the first two properties of a norm, but may be zero for vectors other than the origin. A vector space with a specified norm is called a normed vector space. In a similar manner, a vector space with a seminorm is called a ''seminormed vector space''. The term pseudonorm has been used for several related meanings. It may be a synonym of "seminorm". A pseudonorm may satisfy the same axioms as a norm, with the equality replaced by an inequality "\,\leq\," in the homogeneity axiom. It can als ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 