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Totally Disconnected
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a totally disconnected space is a topological space that has only singletons as connected subsets. In every topological space, the singletons (and, when it is considered connected, the empty set) are connected; in a totally disconnected space, these are the ''only'' connected proper subsets. An important example of a totally disconnected space is the Cantor set, which is homeomorphic to the set of ''p''-adic integers. Another example, playing a key role in algebraic number theory, is the field of ''p''-adic numbers. Definition A topological space X is totally disconnected if the connected components in X are the one-point sets. Analogously, a topological space X is totally path-disconnected if all path-components in X are the one-point sets. Another closely related notion is that of a totally separated space, i.e. a space where quasicomponents are singletons. That is, a topological space X is totally separated space if ...
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Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a '' topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; ...
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Hausdorff Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space ( , ), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where, for any two distinct points, there exist neighbourhoods of each which are disjoint from each other. Of the many separation axioms that can be imposed on a topological space, the "Hausdorff condition" (T2) is the most frequently used and discussed. It implies the uniqueness of limits of sequences, nets, and filters. Hausdorff spaces are named after Felix Hausdorff, one of the founders of topology. Hausdorff's original definition of a topological space (in 1914) included the Hausdorff condition as an axiom. Definitions Points x and y in a topological space X can be '' separated by neighbourhoods'' if there exists a neighbourhood U of x and a neighbourhood V of y such that U and V are disjoint (U\cap V=\varnothing). X is a Hausdorff space if any two distinct points in X are separated by neighbourhoods. This condition is the third separ ...
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Product Topology
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a product space is the Cartesian product of a family of topological spaces equipped with a natural topology called the product topology. This topology differs from another, perhaps more natural-seeming, topology called the box topology, which can also be given to a product space and which agrees with the product topology when the product is over only finitely many spaces. However, the product topology is "correct" in that it makes the product space a categorical product of its factors, whereas the box topology is too fine; in that sense the product topology is the natural topology on the Cartesian product. Definition Throughout, I will be some non-empty index set and for every index i \in I, let X_i be a topological space. Denote the Cartesian product of the sets X_i by X := \prod X_ := \prod_ X_i and for every index i \in I, denote the i-th by \begin p_i :\;&& \prod_ X_j &&\;\to\; & X_i \\ .3ex && \left( ...
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Subspace (topology)
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subspace of a topological space ''X'' is a subset ''S'' of ''X'' which is equipped with a topology induced from that of ''X'' called the subspace topology (or the relative topology, or the induced topology, or the trace topology). Definition Given a topological space (X, \tau) and a subset S of X, the subspace topology on S is defined by :\tau_S = \lbrace S \cap U \mid U \in \tau \rbrace. That is, a subset of S is open in the subspace topology if and only if it is the intersection of S with an open set in (X, \tau). If S is equipped with the subspace topology then it is a topological space in its own right, and is called a subspace of (X, \tau). Subsets of topological spaces are usually assumed to be equipped with the subspace topology unless otherwise stated. Alternatively we can define the subspace topology for a subset S of X as the coarsest topology for which the inclusion map :\iota: S \hookrightarrow X is continuous. More ...
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Stone Space
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a Stone space, also known as a profinite space or profinite set, is a compact totally disconnected Hausdorff space. Stone spaces are named after Marshall Harvey Stone who introduced and studied them in the 1930s in the course of his investigation of Boolean algebras, which culminated in his representation theorem for Boolean algebras. Equivalent conditions The following conditions on the topological space X are equivalent: * X is a Stone space; * X is homeomorphic to the projective limit (in the category of topological spaces) of an inverse system of finite discrete spaces; * X is compact and totally separated; * X is compact, T0 , and zero-dimensional (in the sense of the small inductive dimension); * X is coherent and Hausdorff. Examples Important examples of Stone spaces include finite discrete spaces, the Cantor set and the space \Z_p of p-adic integers, where p is any prime number. Generalizing these examples, any prod ...
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Extremally Disconnected Space
In mathematics, an extremally disconnected space is a topological space in which the closure of every open set is open. (The term "extremally disconnected" is correct, even though the word "extremally" does not appear in most dictionaries, and is sometimes mistaken by spellcheckers for the homophone ''extremely disconnected''.) An extremally disconnected space that is also compact and Hausdorff is sometimes called a Stonean space. This is not the same as a Stone space, which is a totally disconnected compact Hausdorff space. Every Stonean space is a Stone space, but not vice versa. In the duality between Stone spaces and Boolean algebras, the Stonean spaces correspond to the complete Boolean algebras. An extremally disconnected first-countable collectionwise Hausdorff space must be discrete. In particular, for metric spaces, the property of being extremally disconnected (the closure of every open set is open) is equivalent to the property of being discrete (every set is ...
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Erdős Space
In mathematics, Erdős space is a topological space named after Paul Erdős, who described it in 1940. Erdős space is defined as a subspace E\subset\ell^2 of the Hilbert space of square summable sequences, consisting of the sequences whose elements are all rational numbers. Erdős space is a totally disconnected, one-dimensional topological space. The space E is homeomorphic to E\times E in the product topology. If the set of all homeomorphisms of the Euclidean space \mathbb^n (for n\ge 2) that leave invariant the set \mathbb^n of rational vectors is endowed with the compact-open topology, it becomes homeomorphic to the Erdős space. Erdős space also surfaces in complex dynamics Complex dynamics is the study of dynamical systems defined by iteration of functions on complex number spaces. Complex analytic dynamics is the study of the dynamics of specifically analytic functions. Techniques *General **Montel's theorem **P ... via iteration of the function f(z)=e^z-1. L ...
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Small Inductive Dimension
In the mathematical field of topology, the inductive dimension of a topological space ''X'' is either of two values, the small inductive dimension ind(''X'') or the large inductive dimension Ind(''X''). These are based on the observation that, in ''n''-dimensional Euclidean space ''R''''n'', (''n'' − 1)-dimensional spheres (that is, the boundaries of ''n''-dimensional balls) have dimension ''n'' − 1. Therefore it should be possible to define the dimension of a space inductively in terms of the dimensions of the boundaries of suitable open sets. The small and large inductive dimensions are two of the three most usual ways of capturing the notion of "dimension" for a topological space, in a way that depends only on the topology (and not, say, on the properties of a metric space). The other is the Lebesgue covering dimension. The term "topological dimension" is ordinarily understood to refer to the Lebesgue covering dimension. For "sufficiently nice ...
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Sorgenfrey Line
In mathematics, the lower limit topology or right half-open interval topology is a topology defined on the set \mathbb of real numbers; it is different from the standard topology on \mathbb (generated by the open intervals) and has a number of interesting properties. It is the topology generated by the basis of all half-open intervals ''a'',''b''),_where_''a''_and_''b''_are_real_numbers. The_resulting_topological_space.html" ;"title="/nowiki>''a'',''b''), where ''a'' and ''b'' are real numbers. The resulting topological space">/nowiki>''a'',''b''), where ''a'' and ''b'' are real numbers. The resulting topological space is called the Sorgenfrey line after Robert Sorgenfrey or the arrow and is sometimes written \mathbb_l. Like the Cantor set and the long line (topology), long line, the Sorgenfrey line often serves as a useful counterexample to many otherwise plausible-sounding conjectures in general topology. The product of \mathbb_l with itself is also a useful counterexample, ...
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Baire Space (set Theory)
In set theory, the Baire space is the set of all infinite sequences of natural numbers with a certain topology. This space is commonly used in descriptive set theory, to the extent that its elements are often called "reals". It is denoted NN, ωω, by the symbol \mathcal or also ωω, not to be confused with the countable ordinal obtained by ordinal exponentiation. The Baire space is defined to be the Cartesian product of countably infinitely many copies of the set of natural numbers, and is given the product topology (where each copy of the set of natural numbers is given the discrete topology). The Baire space is often represented using the tree of finite sequences of natural numbers. The Baire space can be contrasted with Cantor space, the set of infinite sequences of binary digits. Topology and trees The product topology used to define the Baire space can be described more concretely in terms of trees. The basic open sets of the product topology are cylinder sets ...
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Cantor Space
In mathematics, a Cantor space, named for Georg Cantor, is a topological abstraction of the classical Cantor set: a topological space is a Cantor space if it is homeomorphic to the Cantor set. In set theory, the topological space 2ω is called "the" Cantor space. Examples The Cantor set itself is a Cantor space. But the canonical example of a Cantor space is the countably infinite topological product of the discrete 2-point space . This is usually written as 2^\mathbb or 2ω (where 2 denotes the 2-element set with the discrete topology). A point in 2ω is an infinite binary sequence, that is a sequence which assumes only the values 0 or 1. Given such a sequence ''a''0, ''a''1, ''a''2,..., one can map it to the real number :\sum_^\infty \frac. This mapping gives a homeomorphism from 2ω onto the Cantor set, demonstrating that 2ω is indeed a Cantor space. Cantor spaces occur abundantly in real analysis. For example, they exist as subspaces in every perfect, complete metri ...
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Profinite Group
In mathematics, a profinite group is a topological group that is in a certain sense assembled from a system of finite groups. The idea of using a profinite group is to provide a "uniform", or "synoptic", view of an entire system of finite groups. Properties of the profinite group are generally speaking uniform properties of the system. For example, the profinite group is finitely generated (as a topological group) if and only if there exists d\in\N such that every group in the system can be generated by d elements. Many theorems about finite groups can be readily generalised to profinite groups; examples are Lagrange's theorem and the Sylow theorems. To construct a profinite group one needs a system of finite groups and group homomorphisms between them. Without loss of generality, these homomorphisms can be assumed to be surjective, in which case the finite groups will appear as quotient groups of the resulting profinite group; in a sense, these quotients approximate the profi ...
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