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Time Scale Calculus
In mathematics, time-scale calculus is a unification of the theory of difference equations with that of differential equations, unifying integral and differential calculus with the calculus of finite differences, offering a formalism for studying hybrid systems. It has applications in any field that requires simultaneous modelling of discrete and continuous data. It gives a new definition of a derivative such that if one differentiates a function defined on the real numbers then the definition is equivalent to standard differentiation, but if one uses a function defined on the integers then it is equivalent to the forward difference operator. History Time-scale calculus was introduced in 1988 by the German mathematician Stefan Hilger. However, similar ideas have been used before and go back at least to the introduction of the Riemann–Stieltjes integral, which unifies sums and integrals. Dynamic equations Many results concerning differential equations carry over quite easily to ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Quantum Calculus
Quantum calculus, sometimes called calculus without limits, is equivalent to traditional infinitesimal calculus without the notion of limits. It defines "q-calculus" and "h-calculus", where h ostensibly stands for Planck's constant while ''q'' stands for quantum. The two parameters are related by the formula :q = e^ = e^ where \hbar = \frac is the reduced Planck constant. Differentiation In the q-calculus and h-calculus, differentials of functions are defined as :d_q(f(x)) = f(qx) - f(x) and :d_h(f(x)) = f(x + h) - f(x) respectively. Derivatives of functions are then defined as fractions by the q-derivative :D_q(f(x)) = \frac = \frac and by :D_h(f(x)) = \frac = \frac In the limit, as h goes to 0, or equivalently as q goes to 1, these expressions take on the form of the derivative of classical calculus. Integration q-integral A function ''F''(''x'') is a q-antiderivative of ''f''(''x'') if ''D''q''F''(''x'') = ''f''(''x''). The q-antiderivative (or q-integ ...
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Partial Difference Equation
In mathematics, a recurrence relation is an equation according to which the nth term of a sequence of numbers is equal to some combination of the previous terms. Often, only k previous terms of the sequence appear in the equation, for a parameter k that is independent of n; this number k is called the ''order'' of the relation. If the values of the first k numbers in the sequence have been given, the rest of the sequence can be calculated by repeatedly applying the equation. In ''linear recurrences'', the th term is equated to a linear function of the k previous terms. A famous example is the recurrence for the Fibonacci numbers, F_n=F_+F_ where the order k is two and the linear function merely adds the two previous terms. This example is a linear recurrence with constant coefficients, because the coefficients of the linear function (1 and 1) are constants that do not depend on n. For these recurrences, one can express the general term of the sequence as a closed-form expression of ...
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Partial Differential Equation
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation which imposes relations between the various partial derivatives of a multivariable function. The function is often thought of as an "unknown" to be solved for, similarly to how is thought of as an unknown number to be solved for in an algebraic equation like . However, it is usually impossible to write down explicit formulas for solutions of partial differential equations. There is, correspondingly, a vast amount of modern mathematical and scientific research on methods to numerically approximate solutions of certain partial differential equations using computers. Partial differential equations also occupy a large sector of pure mathematical research, in which the usual questions are, broadly speaking, on the identification of general qualitative features of solutions of various partial differential equations, such as existence, uniqueness, regularity, and stability. Among the many open questions are the ex ...
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Z-transform
In mathematics and signal processing, the Z-transform converts a discrete-time signal, which is a sequence of real or complex numbers, into a complex frequency-domain (z-domain or z-plane) representation. It can be considered as a discrete-time equivalent of the Laplace transform (s-domain). This similarity is explored in the theory of time-scale calculus. Whereas the continuous-time Fourier transform is evaluated on the Laplace s-domain's imaginary line, the discrete-time Fourier transform is evaluated over the unit circle of the z-domain. What is roughly the s-domain's left half-plane, is now the inside of the complex unit circle; what is the z-domain's outside of the unit circle, roughly corresponds to the right half-plane of the s-domain. One of the means of designing digital filters is to take analog designs, subject them to a bilinear transform which maps them from the s-domain to the z-domain, and then produce the digital filter by inspection, manipulation, or numeric ...
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Laplace Transform
In mathematics, the Laplace transform, named after its discoverer Pierre-Simon Laplace (), is an integral transform that converts a function of a real variable (usually t, in the '' time domain'') to a function of a complex variable s (in the complex frequency domain, also known as ''s''-domain, or s-plane). The transform has many applications in science and engineering because it is a tool for solving differential equations. In particular, it transforms ordinary differential equations into algebraic equations and convolution into multiplication. For suitable functions ''f'', the Laplace transform is the integral \mathcal\(s) = \int_0^\infty f(t)e^ \, dt. History The Laplace transform is named after mathematician and astronomer Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace, who used a similar transform in his work on probability theory. Laplace wrote extensively about the use of generating functions in ''Essai philosophique sur les probabilités'' (1814), and the integral form of t ...
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Forward Difference Operator
A finite difference is a mathematical expression of the form . If a finite difference is divided by , one gets a difference quotient. The approximation of derivatives by finite differences plays a central role in finite difference methods for the numerical solution of differential equations, especially boundary value problems. The difference operator, commonly denoted \Delta is the operator that maps a function to the function \Delta /math> defined by :\Delta x)= f(x+1)-f(x). A difference equation is a functional equation that involves the finite difference operator in the same way as a differential equation involves derivatives. There are many similarities between difference equations and differential equations, specially in the solving methods. Certain recurrence relations can be written as difference equations by replacing iteration notation with finite differences. In numerical analysis, finite differences are widely used for approximating derivatives, and the term "fini ...
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Banach Space
In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced ) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well-defined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. Maurice René Fréchet was the first to use the term "Banach space" and Banach in turn then coined the term " Fréchet space." Banach spaces originally grew out of the study of function spaces by Hilbert, Fréchet, and Riesz earlier in the century. Banach spaces play a central role in functional analysis. In other areas of analysis, the spaces under study are often Banach spaces. Definition A Banach space is a complete n ...
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Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ...
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Timescales Point Classifications
Time scale may refer to: *Time standard, a specification of either the rate at which time passes, points in time, or both *A duration or quantity of time: **Orders of magnitude (time) as a power of 10 in seconds; **A specific unit of time * Geological time scale, a scale that divides up the history of Earth into scientifically meaningful periods In astronomy and physics: *Dynamical time scale, in stellar physics, the time in which changes in one part of a body can be communicated to the rest of that body, or in celestial mechanics, a realization of a time-like argument based on a dynamical theory *Nuclear timescale, an estimate of the lifetime of a star based solely on its rate of fuel consumption *Thermal time scale, an estimate of the lifetime of a star once the fuel reserves at its center are used up In cosmology and particle physics: * Planck time, the time scale beneath which quantum effects are comparable in significance to gravitational effects In mathematics: *Time-scale ...
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Timescales Jump Operators
Time scale may refer to: *Time standard, a specification of either the rate at which time passes, points in time, or both *A duration or quantity of time: **Orders of magnitude (time) as a power of 10 in seconds; **A specific unit of time * Geological time scale, a scale that divides up the history of Earth into scientifically meaningful periods In astronomy and physics: * Dynamical time scale, in stellar physics, the time in which changes in one part of a body can be communicated to the rest of that body, or in celestial mechanics, a realization of a time-like argument based on a dynamical theory * Nuclear timescale, an estimate of the lifetime of a star based solely on its rate of fuel consumption * Thermal time scale, an estimate of the lifetime of a star once the fuel reserves at its center are used up In cosmology and particle physics: * Planck time, the time scale beneath which quantum effects are comparable in significance to gravitational effects In mathematics: * Time-sc ...
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Discrete Time
In mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which variables that evolve over time are modeled. Discrete time Discrete time views values of variables as occurring at distinct, separate "points in time", or equivalently as being unchanged throughout each non-zero region of time ("time period")—that is, time is viewed as a discrete variable. Thus a non-time variable jumps from one value to another as time moves from one time period to the next. This view of time corresponds to a digital clock that gives a fixed reading of 10:37 for a while, and then jumps to a new fixed reading of 10:38, etc. In this framework, each variable of interest is measured once at each time period. The number of measurements between any two time periods is finite. Measurements are typically made at sequential integer values of the variable "time". A discrete signal or discrete-time signal is a time series consisting of a sequence of quantities ...
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