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Thermodynamic Cycle
A thermodynamic cycle consists of a linked sequence of thermodynamic processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial state. In the process of passing through a cycle, the working fluid (system) may convert heat from a warm source into useful work, and dispose of the remaining heat to a cold sink, thereby acting as a heat engine. Conversely, the cycle may be reversed and use work to move heat from a cold source and transfer it to a warm sink thereby acting as a heat pump. If at every point in the cycle the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, the cycle is reversible. Whether carried out reversible or irreversibly, the net entropy change of the system is zero, as entropy is a state function. During a closed cycle, the system returns to its original thermodynamic state of temperature and pressure. Process quanti ...
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Thermodynamic System
A thermodynamic system is a body of matter and/or radiation, confined in space by walls, with defined permeabilities, which separate it from its surroundings. The surroundings may include other thermodynamic systems, or physical systems that are not thermodynamic systems. A wall of a thermodynamic system may be purely notional, when it is described as being 'permeable' to all matter, all radiation, and all forces. A state of a thermodynamic system can be fully described in several different ways, by several different sets of thermodynamic state variables. A widely used distinction is between ''isolated'', ''closed'', and ''open'' thermodynamic systems. An isolated thermodynamic system has walls that are non-conductive of heat and perfectly reflective of all radiation, that are rigid and immovable, and that are impermeable to all forms of matter and all forces. (Some writers use the word 'closed' when here the word 'isolated' is being used.) A closed thermodynamic system is c ...
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Pressure Volume Diagram
Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled ''gage'' pressure)The preferred spelling varies by country and even by industry. Further, both spellings are often used ''within'' a particular industry or country. Industries in British English-speaking countries typically use the "gauge" spelling. is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure. Some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area; the SI unit of pressure, the pascal (Pa), for example, is one newton per square metre (N/m2); similarly, the pound-force per square inch ( psi) is the traditional unit of pressure in the imperial and U.S. customary systems. Pressure may also be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure; the atmosphere (atm) is equal to this pressure, and the torr is defined as of this. Manometric un ...
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Otto Cycle
An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine. It is the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines. The Otto cycle is a description of what happens to a gas as it is subjected to changes of pressure, temperature, volume, addition of heat, and removal of heat. The gas that is subjected to those changes is called the system. The system, in this case, is defined to be the fluid (gas) within the cylinder. By describing the changes that take place within the system, it will also describe in inverse, the system's effect on the environment. In the case of the Otto cycle, the effect will be to produce enough net work from the system so as to propel an automobile and its occupants in the environment. The Otto cycle is constructed from: :Top and bottom of the loop: a pair of quasi-parallel and isentropic processes (frictionless, adiabatic reversible). :Left and right sides of the loop: ...
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Stirling Cycle
The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the general class of Stirling devices. This includes the original Stirling engine that was invented, developed and patented in 1816 by Robert Stirling with help from his brother, an engineer. The ideal Otto and Diesel cycles are not totally reversible because they involve heat transfer through a finite temperature difference during the irreversible isochoric/isobaric heat-addition and heat-rejection processes. The irreversibility renders the thermal efficiency of these cycles less than that of a Carnot engine operating within the same limits of temperature. Another cycle that features isothermal heat-addition and heat-rejection processes is the Stirling cycle, which is an altered version of the Carnot cycle in which the two isentropic processes featured in the Carnot cycle are replaced by two constant-volume regeneration processes. The cycle is reversible, meaning that if supplied with mechanical power, it can funct ...
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Reversible Process (thermodynamics)
In thermodynamics, a reversible process is a process, involving a system and its surroundings, whose direction can be reversed by infinitesimal changes in some properties of the surroundings, such as pressure or temperature. Throughout an entire reversible process, the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium, both physical and chemical, and ''nearly'' in pressure and temperature equilibrium with its surroundings. This prevents unbalanced forces and acceleration of moving system boundaries, which in turn avoids friction and other dissipation. To maintain equilibrium, reversible processes are extremely slow ( ''quasistatic''). The process must occur slowly enough that after some small change in a thermodynamic parameter, the physical processes in the system have enough time for the other parameters to self-adjust to match the new, changed parameter value. For example, if a container of water has sat in a room long enough to match the steady temperature of the surrounding air, for ...
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Polytropic Process
A polytropic process is a thermodynamic process that obeys the relation: p V^ = C where ''p'' is the pressure, ''V'' is volume, ''n'' is the polytropic index, and ''C'' is a constant. The polytropic process equation describes expansion and compression processes which include heat transfer. Particular cases Some specific values of ''n'' correspond to particular cases: * n=0 for an isobaric process, * n=+\infty for an isochoric process. In addition, when the ideal gas law applies: * n=1 for an isothermal process, * n=\gamma for an isentropic process. Where \gamma is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure (C_P) to heat capacity at constant volume (C_V). Equivalence between the polytropic coefficient and the ratio of energy transfers For an ideal gas in a closed system undergoing a slow process with negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy the process is polytropic, such that p v^ = C where ''C'' is a constant, K = \frac, \gamma = \frac, and with th ...
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Isenthalpic Process
An isenthalpic process or isoenthalpic process is a process that proceeds without any change in enthalpy, ''H''; or specific enthalpy, ''h''. Overview If a steady-state, steady-flow process is analysed using a control volume, everything outside the control volume is considered to be the ''surroundings''.G. J. Van Wylen and R. E. Sonntag, ''Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics'', Section 2.1 (3rd edition). Such a process will be isenthalpic if there is no transfer of heat to or from the surroundings, no work done on or by the surroundings, and no change in the kinetic energy of the fluid.G. J. Van Wylen and R. E. Sonntag, ''Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics'', Section 5.13 (3rd edition). This is a sufficient but not necessary condition for isoenthalpy. The necessary condition for a process to be isoenthalpic is that the sum of each of the terms of the energy balance other than enthalpy (work, heat, changes in kinetic energy, etc.) cancel each other, so that the enthalpy ...
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Isentropic
In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is both adiabatic and reversible. The work transfers of the system are frictionless, and there is no net transfer of heat or matter. Such an idealized process is useful in engineering as a model of and basis of comparison for real processes. This process is idealized because reversible processes do not occur in reality; thinking of a process as both adiabatic and reversible would show that the initial and final entropies are the same, thus, the reason it is called isentropic (entropy does not change). Thermodynamic processes are named based on the effect they would have on the system (ex. isovolumetric: constant volume, isenthalpic: constant enthalpy). Even though in reality it is not necessarily possible to carry out an isentropic process, some may be approximated as such. The word "isentropic" can be interpreted in another way, since its meaning is deducible from its etymology. It means a pro ...
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Isochoric Process
In thermodynamics, an isochoric process, also called a constant-volume process, an isovolumetric process, or an isometric process, is a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant. An isochoric process is exemplified by the heating or the cooling of the contents of a sealed, inelastic container: The thermodynamic process is the addition or removal of heat; the isolation of the contents of the container establishes the closed system; and the inability of the container to deform imposes the constant-volume condition. The isochoric process here should be a quasi-static process. Formalism An isochoric thermodynamic quasi-static process is characterized by constant volume, i.e., . The process does no pressure-volume work, since such work is defined by W = P \Delta V , where is pressure. The sign convention is such that positive work is performed by the system on the environment. If the process is not quasi-static, ...
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Isobaric Process
In thermodynamics, an isobaric process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the pressure of the system stays constant: Δ''P'' = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes the internal energy (''U'') of the system. This article uses the physics sign convention for work, where positive work is work done by the system. Using this convention, by the first law of thermodynamics, : Q = \Delta U + W\, where ''W'' is work, ''U'' is internal energy, and ''Q'' is heat. Pressure-volume work by the closed system is defined as: :W = \int \! p \,dV \, where Δ means change over the whole process, whereas ''d'' denotes a differential. Since pressure is constant, this means that : W = p \Delta V\, . Applying the ideal gas law, this becomes : W = n\,R\,\Delta T with ''R'' representing the gas constant, and ''n'' representing the amount of substance, which is assumed to remain constant (e.g., there is no phase transition during a chemical rea ...
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Isothermal
In thermodynamics, an isothermal process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the temperature ''T'' of a system remains constant: Δ''T'' = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an outside thermal reservoir, and a change in the system occurs slowly enough to allow the system to be continuously adjusted to the temperature of the reservoir through heat exchange (see quasi-equilibrium). In contrast, an ''adiabatic process'' is where a system exchanges no heat with its surroundings (''Q'' = 0). Simply, we can say that in an isothermal process * T = \text * \Delta T = 0 * dT = 0 * For ideal gases only, internal energy \Delta U = 0 while in adiabatic processes: * Q = 0. Etymology The adjective "isothermal" is derived from the Greek words "ἴσος" ("isos") meaning "equal" and "θέρμη" ("therme") meaning "heat". Examples Isothermal processes can occur in any kind of system that has some means of regulating the temperature, includin ...
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