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Tensor Tympani Muscle
The tensor tympani is a muscle within the middle ear, located in the bony canal above the bony part of the auditory tube, and connects to the malleus bone. Its role is to dampen loud sounds, such as those produced from chewing, shouting, or thunder. Because its reaction time is not fast enough, the muscle cannot protect against hearing damage caused by sudden loud sounds, like explosions or gunshots. Structure The tensor tympani is a muscle that is present in the middle ear. It arises from the cartilaginous part of the auditory tube, and the adjacent great wing of the sphenoid. It then passes through its own canal, and ends in the tympanic cavity as a slim tendon that connects to the handle of the malleus. The tendon makes a sharp bend around the ''processus cochleariformis'', part of the wall of its cavity, before it joins with the malleus. The tensor tympani receives blood from the middle meningeal artery via the superior tympanic branch. It is one of two muscles in the ...
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Auditory Tube
Auditory means of or relating to the process of hearing: * Auditory system, the neurological structures and pathways of sound perception ** Auditory bulla, part of auditory system found in mammals other than primates ** Auditory nerve, also known as the cochlear nerve is one of two parts of a cranial nerve ** Auditory ossicles, three bones in the middle ear that transmit sounds * Hearing (sense), the auditory sense, the sense by which sound is perceived * Ear, the auditory end organ * Cochlea, the auditory branch of the inner ear * Sound, the physical signal perceived by the auditory system * External auditory meatus, the ear canal * Primary auditory cortex, the part of the higher-level of the brain that serves hearing * Auditory agnosia * Auditory exclusion, a form of temporary hearing loss under high stress * Auditory feedback, an aid to control speech production and singing * Auditory hallucination, perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus * Auditory illusion, sound trick ...
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Stapedius
The stapedius is the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body. At just over one millimeter in length, its purpose is to stabilize the smallest bone in the body, the stapes or strirrup bone of the middle ear. Structure The stapedius emerges from a pinpoint foramen or opening in the apex of the pyramidal eminence (a hollow, cone-shaped prominence in the posterior wall of the tympanic cavity), and inserts into the neck of the stapes. Nerve supply The stapedius is supplied by the nerve to stapedius, a branch of the facial nerve. Function The stapedius dampens the vibrations of the stapes by pulling on the neck of that bone. As one of the muscles involved in the acoustic reflex it prevents excess movement of the stapes, helping to control the amplitude of sound waves from the general external environment to the inner ear. Clinical significance Paralysis of the stapedius allows wider oscillation of the stapes, resulting in heightened reaction of the auditory ossicles ...
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Hearing
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds through an organ, such as an ear, by detecting vibrations as periodic changes in the pressure of a surrounding medium. The academic field concerned with hearing is auditory science. Sound may be heard through solid, liquid, or gaseous matter. It is one of the traditional five senses. Partial or total inability to hear is called hearing loss. In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is performed primarily by the auditory system: mechanical waves, known as vibrations, are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain (primarily in the temporal lobe). Like touch, audition requires sensitivity to the movement of molecules in the world outside the organism. Both hearing and touch are types of mechanosensation. Hearing mechanism There are three main components of the human auditory system: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. Outer ear Th ...
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Acoustic Shock
Acoustic shock is the set of symptoms a person may experience after hearing an unexpected, loud sound. The loud sound, called an acoustic incident, can be caused by feedback oscillation, fax tones, or signalling tones. Telemarketers and call centre employees are thought to be most at risk.ITU-T Recommendation p.10 (12/98): Vocabulary of terms on telephone transmission quality and telephone sets, Geneva, 1998. Reported symptoms During the exposure, most people experience discomfort and pain. After the exposure, some people might report shock, nausea and anxiety or depression.Acoustic Shock
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Hyperacusis
Hyperacusis is the increased sensitivity to sound and a low tolerance for environmental noise. Definitions of hyperacusis can vary significantly; it can refer to normal noises being perceived as: loud, annoying, painful, fear-inducing, or a combination of those, and is often categorized into four subtypes: loudness, pain, annoyance, and fear. It can be a highly debilitating hearing disorder. Hyperacusis is often coincident with tinnitus. The latter is more common and there are important differences between their involved mechanisms. Little is known about the prevalence of hyperacusis, in part due to the degree of variation in the term's definition. Reported prevalence in children and adolescents ranges from 3% to 17%. Signs and symptoms In hyperacusis, the symptoms are ear pain, annoyance, distortions, and general intolerance to many sounds that most people are unaffected by. Crying spells or panic attacks may result from the experience of hyperacusis. It may affect only one o ...
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Tonic Tensor Tympani Syndrome
Tonic tensor tympani syndrome is a disease of the tensor tympani muscle, described by Klochoff et al in 1971.Klockhoff I. Impedance fluctuation and a ''Tensor Tympani Syndrome''. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Acoustic Measurements, Lisbon, 1979:69�76. It involves a decrease in the contraction threshold of the tensor tympani. This hypercontraction (or spasms) leads to chronic ear pain, in particular in the case of hyperacusis and acoustic shock.Westcott M. Acoustic shock injury (ASI). Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2006 Dec;(556):54-8. Review. Symptoms Symptoms include a sensation of fullness in the ear, otalgia, tinnitus, dysacusis, tension headache and vertigo Vertigo is a condition where a person has the sensation of movement or of surrounding objects moving when they are not. Often it feels like a spinning or swaying movement. This may be associated with nausea, vomiting, sweating, or difficulties w .... References {{reflist Diseases of the ear and ...
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Benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of depressant drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. They are prescribed to treat conditions such as anxiety disorders, insomnia, and seizures. The first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955 and was made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, who soon followed with diazepam (Valium) in 1963. By 1977, benzodiazepines were the most prescribed medications globally; the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), among other factors, decreased rates of prescription, but they remain frequently used worldwide. Benzodiazepines are depressants that enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABAA receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic ( sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. High d ...
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LDV AR Measurement USAARL
LDV may refer to: *LDV Group, formerly Leyland DAF Vans, UK ** The Football League Trophy was called LDV Vans Trophy 2000-2007 * LDV USA Manufacturer of the iconic Snap-on vans & Custom Specialty Vehicles in USA *Local Defence Volunteers, renamed Home Guard (United Kingdom) * Lansing Derby Vixens, a roller derby league, Michigan, US *Laser Doppler vibrometer, for measuring vibration *Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus *Lisa De Vanna Lisa Marie De Vanna (born 14 November 1984) is an Australian professional soccer player who plays as a forward for Perth Glory. She has previously played for Adelaide Sensation, Western Waves, Doncaster Rovers Belles, AIK, Perth Glory, Washin ..., an Australian soccer player * Leonardo da Vinci In transport: * Light Duty Vehicle, a light commercial vehicle ** “Light delivery vehicle” in South Africa: motor vehicle designed or adapted for the conveyance of persons and freight with no heavy axle. {{disambig ...
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Acoustic Reflex
The acoustic reflex (also known as the stapedius reflex, stapedial reflex, auditory reflex, middle-ear-muscle reflex (MEM reflex, MEMR), attenuation reflex, cochleostapedial reflex or intra-aural reflex) is an involuntary muscle contraction that occurs in the middle ear in response to loud sound stimuli or when the person starts to vocalize. When presented with an intense sound stimulus, the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles of the ossicles contract. The stapedius stiffens the ossicular chain by pulling the stapes (stirrup) of the middle ear away from the oval window of the cochlea and the tensor tympani muscle stiffens the ossicular chain by loading the tympanic membrane when it pulls the malleus (hammer) in toward the middle ear. The reflex decreases the transmission of vibrational energy to the cochlea, where it is converted into electrical impulses to be processed by the brain. Acoustic reflex threshold The acoustic reflex threshold (ART) is the sound pressure level (SPL) ...
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Amplitude
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change in a single period (such as time or spatial period). The amplitude of a non-periodic signal is its magnitude compared with a reference value. There are various definitions of amplitude (see below), which are all functions of the magnitude of the differences between the variable's extreme values. In older texts, the phase of a periodic function is sometimes called the amplitude. Definitions Peak amplitude & semi-amplitude For symmetric periodic waves, like sine waves, square waves or triangle waves ''peak amplitude'' and ''semi amplitude'' are the same. Peak amplitude In audio system measurements, telecommunications and others where the measurand is a signal that swings above and below a reference value but is not sinusoidal, peak amplitude is often used. If the reference is zero, this is the maximum absolute value of the signal; if the reference is a mean value (DC component), the peak amplitude is th ...
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Ossicles
The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bones in either middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body. They serve to transmit sounds from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth (cochlea). The absence of the auditory ossicles would constitute a moderate-to-severe hearing loss. The term "ossicle" literally means "tiny bone". Though the term may refer to any small bone throughout the body, it typically refers to the malleus, incus, and stapes (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) of the middle ear. Structure The ossicles are, in order from the eardrum to the inner ear (from superficial to deep): the malleus, incus, and stapes, terms that in Latin are translated as "the hammer, anvil, and stirrup". * The malleus ( la, "hammer") articulates with the incus through the incudomalleolar joint and is attached to the tympanic membrane ( eardrum), from which vibrational sound pressure motion is passed. * The incus ( la, "anvil") is connected to both the ...
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Oscillation
Oscillation is the repetitive or periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. Familiar examples of oscillation include a swinging pendulum and alternating current. Oscillations can be used in physics to approximate complex interactions, such as those between atoms. Oscillations occur not only in mechanical systems but also in dynamic systems in virtually every area of science: for example the beating of the human heart (for circulation), business cycles in economics, predator–prey population cycles in ecology, geothermal geysers in geology, vibration of strings in guitar and other string instruments, periodic firing of nerve cells in the brain, and the periodic swelling of Cepheid variable stars in astronomy. The term ''vibration'' is precisely used to describe a mechanical oscillation. Oscillation, especially rapid oscillation, may be an undesirable phenomeno ...
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