Symmetric Difference
In mathematics, the symmetric difference of two sets, also known as the disjunctive union, is the set of elements which are in either of the sets, but not in their intersection. For example, the symmetric difference of the sets \ and \ is \. The symmetric difference of the sets ''A'' and ''B'' is commonly denoted by A \ominus B, or A\operatorname \triangle B. The power set of any set becomes an abelian group under the operation of symmetric difference, with the empty set as the neutral element of the group and every element in this group being its own inverse. The power set of any set becomes a Boolean ring, with symmetric difference as the addition of the ring and intersection as the multiplication of the ring. Properties The symmetric difference is equivalent to the union of both relative complements, that is: :A\,\triangle\,B = \left(A \setminus B\right) \cup \left(B \setminus A\right), The symmetric difference can also be expressed using the XOR operation ⊕ on the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Venn Diagram
A Venn diagram is a widely used diagram style that shows the logical relation between sets, popularized by John Venn (1834–1923) in the 1880s. The diagrams are used to teach elementary set theory, and to illustrate simple set relationships in probability, logic, statistics, linguistics and computer science. A Venn diagram uses simple closed curves drawn on a plane to represent sets. Very often, these curves are circles or ellipses. Similar ideas had been proposed before Venn. Christian Weise in 1712 (''Nucleus Logicoe Wiesianoe'') and Leonhard Euler ('' Letters to a German Princess'') in 1768, for instance, came up with similar ideas. The idea was popularised by Venn in ''Symbolic Logic'', Chapter V "Diagrammatic Representation", 1881. Details A Venn diagram may also be called a ''set diagram'' or ''logic diagram''. It is a diagram that shows ''all'' possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets. These diagrams depict elements as points i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Union (set Theory)
In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection. It is one of the fundamental operations through which sets can be combined and related to each other. A refers to a union of zero (0) sets and it is by definition equal to the empty set. For explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Union of two sets The union of two sets ''A'' and ''B'' is the set of elements which are in ''A'', in ''B'', or in both ''A'' and ''B''. In setbuilder notation, :A \cup B = \. For example, if ''A'' = and ''B'' = then ''A'' ∪ ''B'' = . A more elaborate example (involving two infinite sets) is: : ''A'' = : ''B'' = : A \cup B = \ As another example, the number 9 is ''not'' contained in the union of the set of prime numbers and the set of even numbers , because 9 is neither prime nor even. Sets cannot have duplicate elements, so the union of the sets and is . Multiple ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Associativity
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations, which means that rearranging the parentheses in an expression will not change the result. In propositional logic, associativity is a valid rule of replacement for expressions in logical proofs. Within an expression containing two or more occurrences in a row of the same associative operator, the order in which the operations are performed does not matter as long as the sequence of the operands is not changed. That is (after rewriting the expression with parentheses and in infix notation if necessary), rearranging the parentheses in such an expression will not change its value. Consider the following equations: \begin (2 + 3) + 4 &= 2 + (3 + 4) = 9 \,\\ 2 \times (3 \times 4) &= (2 \times 3) \times 4 = 24 . \end Even though the parentheses were rearranged on each line, the values of the expressions were not altered. Since this holds true when performing addition and multiplication on any rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Commutativity
In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result. It is a fundamental property of many binary operations, and many mathematical proofs depend on it. Most familiar as the name of the property that says something like or , the property can also be used in more advanced settings. The name is needed because there are operations, such as division and subtraction, that do not have it (for example, ); such operations are ''not'' commutative, and so are referred to as ''noncommutative operations''. The idea that simple operations, such as the multiplication and addition of numbers, are commutative was for many years implicitly assumed. Thus, this property was not named until the 19th century, when mathematics started to become formalized. A similar property exists for binary relations; a binary relation is said to be symmetric if the relation applies regardless of the order of its operands; for example, equality ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partition Of A Set
In mathematics, a partition of a set is a grouping of its elements into nonempty subsets, in such a way that every element is included in exactly one subset. Every equivalence relation on a set defines a partition of this set, and every partition defines an equivalence relation. A set equipped with an equivalence relation or a partition is sometimes called a setoid, typically in type theory and proof theory. Definition and Notation A partition of a set ''X'' is a set of nonempty subsets of ''X'' such that every element ''x'' in ''X'' is in exactly one of these subsets (i.e., ''X'' is a disjoint union of the subsets). Equivalently, a family of sets ''P'' is a partition of ''X'' if and only if all of the following conditions hold: *The family ''P'' does not contain the empty set (that is \emptyset \notin P). *The union of the sets in ''P'' is equal to ''X'' (that is \textstyle\bigcup_ A = X). The sets in ''P'' are said to exhaust or cover ''X''. See also collectively ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Disjoint Sets
In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common. Equivalently, two disjoint sets are sets whose intersection is the empty set.. For example, and are ''disjoint sets,'' while and are not disjoint. A collection of two or more sets is called disjoint if any two distinct sets of the collection are disjoint. Generalizations This definition of disjoint sets can be extended to a family of sets \left(A_i\right)_: the family is pairwise disjoint, or mutually disjoint if A_i \cap A_j = \varnothing whenever i \neq j. Alternatively, some authors use the term disjoint to refer to this notion as well. For families the notion of pairwise disjoint or mutually disjoint is sometimes defined in a subtly different manner, in that repeated identical members are allowed: the family is pairwise disjoint if A_i \cap A_j = \varnothing whenever A_i \neq A_j (every two ''distinct'' sets in the family are disjoint).. For example, the collection of sets is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

If And Only If
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, "if and only if" (shortened as "iff") is a biconditional logical connective between statements, where either both statements are true or both are false. The connective is biconditional (a statement of material equivalence), and can be likened to the standard material conditional ("only if", equal to "if ... then") combined with its reverse ("if"); hence the name. The result is that the truth of either one of the connected statements requires the truth of the other (i.e. either both statements are true, or both are false), though it is controversial whether the connective thus defined is properly rendered by the English "if and only if"—with its preexisting meaning. For example, ''P if and only if Q'' means that ''P'' is true whenever ''Q'' is true, and the only case in which ''P'' is true is if ''Q'' is also true, whereas in the case of ''P if Q'', there could be other scenarios where ''P'' is true and ''Q' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subset
In mathematics, set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset of ''B''. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion (or sometimes containment). ''A'' is a subset of ''B'' may also be expressed as ''B'' includes (or contains) ''A'' or ''A'' is included (or contained) in ''B''. A ''k''subset is a subset with ''k'' elements. The subset relation defines a partial order on sets. In fact, the subsets of a given set form a Boolean algebra under the subset relation, in which the join and meet are given by intersection and union, and the subset relation itself is the Boolean inclusion relation. Definition If ''A'' and ''B'' are sets and every element of ''A'' is also an element of ''B'', then: :*''A'' is a subset of ''B'', denoted by A \subseteq B, or equivalently, :* ''B'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Iverson Bracket
In mathematics, the Iverson bracket, named after Kenneth E. Iverson, is a notation that generalises the Kronecker delta, which is the Iverson bracket of the statement . It maps any statement to a function of the free variables in that statement. This function is defined to take the value 1 for the values of the variables for which the statement is true, and takes the value 0 otherwise. It is generally denoted by putting the statement inside square brackets: = \begin 1 & \text P \text \\ 0 & \text \end In other words, the Iverson bracket of a statement is the indicator function of the set of values for which the statement is true. The Iverson bracket allows using capitalsigma notation without summation index. That is, for any property P(k) of the integer k, \sum_kf(k)\, (k)= \sum_f(k). By convention, f(k) does not need to be defined for the values of for which the Iverson bracket equals ; that is, a summand f(k) textbf/math> must evaluate to 0 regardless of whether f(k) is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Modular Arithmetic
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" when reaching a certain value, called the modulus. The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book '' Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'', published in 1801. A familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12hour clock, in which the day is divided into two 12hour periods. If the time is 7:00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3:00. Simple addition would result in , but clocks "wrap around" every 12 hours. Because the hour number starts over at zero when it reaches 12, this is arithmetic ''modulo'' 12. In terms of the definition below, 15 is ''congruent'' to 3 modulo 12, so "15:00" on a 24hour clock is displayed "3:00" on a 12hour clock. Congruence Given an integer , called a modulus, two integers and are said to be congruent modulo , if is a divisor of their difference (that is, if there is an integer such that ). Congruence modu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Indicator Function
In mathematics, an indicator function or a characteristic function of a subset of a set is a function that maps elements of the subset to one, and all other elements to zero. That is, if is a subset of some set , one has \mathbf_(x)=1 if x\in A, and \mathbf_(x)=0 otherwise, where \mathbf_A is a common notation for the indicator function. Other common notations are I_A, and \chi_A. The indicator function of is the Iverson bracket of the property of belonging to ; that is, :\mathbf_(x)= \in A For example, the Dirichlet function is the indicator function of the rational numbers as a subset of the real numbers. Definition The indicator function of a subset of a set is a function \mathbf_A \colon X \to \ defined as \mathbf_A(x) := \begin 1 ~&\text~ x \in A~, \\ 0 ~&\text~ x \notin A~. \end The Iverson bracket provides the equivalent notation, \in A/math> or to be used instead of \mathbf_(x)\,. The function \mathbf_A is sometimes denoted , , , or even just . Not ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Setbuilder Notation
In set theory and its applications to logic, mathematics, and computer science, setbuilder notation is a mathematical notation for describing a set by enumerating its elements, or stating the properties that its members must satisfy. Defining sets by properties is also known as set comprehension, set abstraction or as defining a set's intension. Sets defined by enumeration A set can be described directly by enumerating all of its elements between curly brackets, as in the following two examples: * \ is the set containing the four numbers 3, 7, 15, and 31, and nothing else. * \=\ is the set containing , , and , and nothing else (there is no order among the elements of a set). This is sometimes called the "roster method" for specifying a set. When it is desired to denote a set that contains elements from a regular sequence, an ellipses notation may be employed, as shown in the next examples: * \ is the set of integers between 1 and 100 inclusive. * \ is the set of natur ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 