Surface (mathematics)
In mathematics, a surface is a mathematical model of the common concept of a surface. It is a generalization of a plane, but, unlike a plane, it may be curved; this is analogous to a curve generalizing a straight line. There are several more precise definitions, depending on the context and the mathematical tools that are used for the study. The simplest mathematical surfaces are planes and spheres in the Euclidean 3space. The exact definition of a surface may depend on the context. Typically, in algebraic geometry, a surface may cross itself (and may have other singularities), while, in topology and differential geometry, it may not. A surface is a topological space of dimension two; this means that a moving point on a surface may move in two directions (it has two degrees of freedom). In other words, around almost every point, there is a '' coordinate patch'' on which a twodimensional coordinate system is defined. For example, the surface of the Earth resembles (idea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sphere And Ball
A sphere () is a geometrical object that is a threedimensional analogue to a twodimensional circle. A sphere is the set of points that are all at the same distance from a given point in threedimensional space.. That given point is the centre of the sphere, and is the sphere's radius. The earliest known mentions of spheres appear in the work of the ancient Greek mathematicians. The sphere is a fundamental object in many fields of mathematics. Spheres and nearlyspherical shapes also appear in nature and industry. Bubbles such as soap bubbles take a spherical shape in equilibrium. The Earth is often approximated as a sphere in geography, and the celestial sphere is an important concept in astronomy. Manufactured items including pressure vessels and most curved mirrors and lenses are based on spheres. Spheres roll smoothly in any direction, so most balls used in sports and toys are spherical, as are ball bearings. Basic terminology As mentioned earlier is the sphere ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coordinate System
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system that uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space. The order of the coordinates is significant, and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the ''x''coordinate". The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers or elements of a more abstract system such as a commutative ring. The use of a coordinate system allows problems in geometry to be translated into problems about numbers and ''vice versa''; this is the basis of analytic geometry. Common coordinate systems Number line The simplest example of a coordinate system is the identification of points on a line with real numbers using the '' number line''. In this system, an arbitrary point ''O'' (the ''origin'') is chosen on a given line. The coordinate of a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unit Sphere
In mathematics, a unit sphere is simply a sphere of radius one around a given center. More generally, it is the set of points of distance 1 from a fixed central point, where different norms can be used as general notions of "distance". A unit ball is the closed set of points of distance less than or equal to 1 from a fixed central point. Usually the center is at the origin of the space, so one speaks of "the unit ball" or "the unit sphere". Special cases are the unit circle and the unit disk. The importance of the unit sphere is that any sphere can be transformed to a unit sphere by a combination of translation and scaling. In this way the properties of spheres in general can be reduced to the study of the unit sphere. Unit spheres and balls in Euclidean space In Euclidean space of ''n'' dimensions, the dimensional unit sphere is the set of all points (x_1, \ldots, x_n) which satisfy the equation : x_1^2 + x_2^2 + \cdots + x_n ^2 = 1. The ''n''dimensional open unit ball ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Surface
In mathematics, an algebraic surface is an algebraic variety of dimension two. In the case of geometry over the field of complex numbers, an algebraic surface has complex dimension two (as a complex manifold, when it is nonsingular) and so of dimension four as a smooth manifold. The theory of algebraic surfaces is much more complicated than that of algebraic curves (including the compact Riemann surfaces, which are genuine surfaces of (real) dimension two). Many results were obtained, however, in the Italian school of algebraic geometry, and are up to 100 years old. Classification by the Kodaira dimension In the case of dimension one varieties are classified by only the topological genus, but dimension two, the difference between the arithmetic genus p_a and the geometric genus p_g turns to be important because we cannot distinguish birationally only the topological genus. Then we introduce the irregularity for the classification of them. A summary of the results (in d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polynomial
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of indeterminates (also called variables) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and positiveinteger powers of variables. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate is . An example with three indeterminates is . Polynomials appear in many areas of mathematics and science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated scientific problems; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, which are central concepts in algebra and algebraic geometry. Etymology The word ''polynomial'' joins tw ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Implicit Equation
In mathematics, an implicit equation is a relation of the form R(x_1, \dots, x_n) = 0, where is a function of several variables (often a polynomial). For example, the implicit equation of the unit circle is x^2 + y^2  1 = 0. An implicit function is a function that is defined by an implicit equation, that relates one of the variables, considered as the value of the function, with the others considered as the arguments. For example, the equation x^2 + y^2  1 = 0 of the unit circle defines as an implicit function of if , and is restricted to nonnegative values. The implicit function theorem provides conditions under which some kinds of implicit equations define implicit functions, namely those that are obtained by equating to zero multivariable functions that are continuously differentiable. Examples Inverse functions A common type of implicit function is an inverse function. Not all functions have a unique inverse function. If is a function of that has a unique inver ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Implicit Surface
In mathematics, an implicit surface is a surface in Euclidean space defined by an equation : F(x,y,z)=0. An ''implicit surface'' is the set of zeros of a function of three variables. ''Implicit'' means that the equation is not solved for or or . The graph of a function is usually described by an equation z=f(x,y) and is called an ''explicit'' representation. The third essential description of a surface is the '' parametric'' one: (x(s,t),y(s,t), z(s,t)), where the ,  and coordinates of surface points are represented by three functions x(s,t)\, , y(s,t)\, , z(s,t) depending on common parameters s,t. Generally the change of representations is simple only when the explicit representation z=f(x,y) is given: zf(x,y)=0 (implicit), (s,t,f(s,t)) (parametric). ''Examples'': #The plane x+2y3z+1=0. #The sphere x^2+y^2+z^24=0. #The torus (x^2+y^2+z^2+R^2a^2)^24R^2(x^2+y^2)=0. #A surface of genus 2: 2y(y^23x^2)(1z^2)+(x^2+y^2)^2(9z^21)(1z^2)=0 (see diagram). #The ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Of A Function
In mathematics, a zero (also sometimes called a root) of a real, complex, or generally vectorvalued function f, is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) ''vanishes'' at x; that is, the function f attains the value of 0 at x, or equivalently, x is the solution to the equation f(x) = 0. A "zero" of a function is thus an input value that produces an output of 0. A root of a polynomial is a zero of the corresponding polynomial function. The fundamental theorem of algebra shows that any nonzero polynomial has a number of roots at most equal to its degree, and that the number of roots and the degree are equal when one considers the complex roots (or more generally, the roots in an algebraically closed extension) counted with their multiplicities. For example, the polynomial f of degree two, defined by f(x)=x^25x+6 has the two roots (or zeros) that are 2 and 3. f(2)=2^25\times 2+6= 0\textf(3)=3^25\times 3+6=0. If the function maps real numbers to real numbers, th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilonâ€“delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Graph Of A Function
In mathematics, the graph of a function f is the set of ordered pairs (x, y), where f(x) = y. In the common case where x and f(x) are real numbers, these pairs are Cartesian coordinates of points in twodimensional space and thus form a subset of this plane. In the case of functions of two variables, that is functions whose domain consists of pairs (x, y), the graph usually refers to the set of ordered triples (x, y, z) where f(x,y) = z, instead of the pairs ((x, y), z) as in the definition above. This set is a subset of threedimensional space; for a continuous realvalued function of two real variables, it is a surface. In science, engineering, technology, finance, and other areas, graphs are tools used for many purposes. In the simplest case one variable is plotted as a function of another, typically using rectangular axes; see '' Plot (graphics)'' for details. A graph of a function is a special case of a relation. In the modern foundations of mathematics, and, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coordinate
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system that uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space. The order of the coordinates is significant, and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the ''x''coordinate". The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers or elements of a more abstract system such as a commutative ring. The use of a coordinate system allows problems in geometry to be translated into problems about numbers and ''vice versa''; this is the basis of analytic geometry. Common coordinate systems Number line The simplest example of a coordinate system is the identification of points on a line with real numbers using the '' number line''. In this system, an arbitrary point ''O'' (the ''origin'') is chosen on a given line. The coordinate of a po ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equation
In mathematics, an equation is a formula that expresses the equality of two expressions, by connecting them with the equals sign . The word ''equation'' and its cognates in other languages may have subtly different meanings; for example, in French an ''Ă©quation'' is defined as containing one or more variables, while in English, any wellformed formula consisting of two expressions related with an equals sign is an equation. ''Solving'' an equation containing variables consists of determining which values of the variables make the equality true. The variables for which the equation has to be solved are also called unknowns, and the values of the unknowns that satisfy the equality are called solutions of the equation. There are two kinds of equations: identities and conditional equations. An identity is true for all values of the variables. A conditional equation is only true for particular values of the variables. An equation is written as two expressions, connected by a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 