Subobject Classifier
In category theory, a subobject classifier is a special object Ω of a category such that, intuitively, the subobjects of any object ''X'' in the category correspond to the morphisms from ''X'' to Ω. In typical examples, that morphism assigns "true" to the elements of the subobject and "false" to the other elements of ''X.'' Therefore, a subobject classifier is also known as a "truth value object" and the concept is widely used in the categorical description of logic. Note however that subobject classifiers are often much more complicated than the simple binary logic truth values . Introductory example As an example, the set Ω = is a subobject classifier in the category of sets and functions: to every subset ''A'' of ''S'' defined by the inclusion function '' j '' : ''A'' → ''S'' we can assign the function ''χA'' from ''S'' to Ω that maps precisely the elements of ''A'' to 1 (see characteristic function). Every function from ''S'' to Ω arises in this fashion from prec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Theory
Category theory is a general theory of mathematical structures and their relations that was introduced by Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane in the middle of the 20th century in their foundational work on algebraic topology. Nowadays, category theory is used in almost all areas of mathematics, and in some areas of computer science. In particular, many constructions of new mathematical objects from previous ones, that appear similarly in several contexts are conveniently expressed and unified in terms of categories. Examples include quotient spaces, direct products, completion, and duality. A category is formed by two sorts of objects: the objects of the category, and the morphisms, which relate two objects called the ''source'' and the ''target'' of the morphism. One often says that a morphism is an ''arrow'' that ''maps'' its source to its target. Morphisms can be ''composed'' if the target of the first morphism equals the source of the second one, and morphism com ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Open Set
In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line. In a metric space (a set along with a distance defined between any two points), open sets are the sets that, with every point , contain all points that are sufficiently near to (that is, all points whose distance to is less than some value depending on ). More generally, one defines open sets as the members of a given collection of subsets of a given set, a collection that has the property of containing every union of its members, every finite intersection of its members, the empty set, and the whole set itself. A set in which such a collection is given is called a topological space, and the collection is called a topology. These conditions are very loose, and allow enormous flexibility in the choice of open sets. For example, ''every'' subset can be open (the discrete topology), or no set can be open except the space itself and the empty set (the indiscrete topology). In practice, howe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Academic Press
Academic Press (AP) is an academic book publisher founded in 1941. It was acquired by Harcourt, Brace & World in 1969. Reed Elsevier bought Harcourt in 2000, and Academic Press is now an imprint of Elsevier. Academic Press publishes reference books, serials and online products in the subject areas of: * Communications engineering * Economics * Environmental science * Finance * Food science and nutrition * Geophysics * Life sciences * Mathematics and statistics * Neuroscience * Physical sciences * Psychology Wellknown products include the '' Methods in Enzymology'' series and encyclopedias such as ''The International Encyclopedia of Public Health'' and the ''Encyclopedia of Neuroscience''. See also * Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft (AVG) — the German predecessor, founded in 1906 by Leo Jolowicz (1868–1940), the father of Walter Jolowicz and fatherinlaw of Kurt Jacoby Kurt is a male given name of Germanic or Turkish origin. ''Kurt'' or ''Curt'' origin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

NorthHolland Publishing Company
Elsevier () is a Dutch academic publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content. Its products include journals such as ''The Lancet'', ''Cell'', the ScienceDirect collection of electronic journals, '' Trends'', the '' Current Opinion'' series, the online citation database Scopus, the SciVal tool for measuring research performance, the ClinicalKey search engine for clinicians, and the ClinicalPath evidencebased cancer care service. Elsevier's products and services also include digital tools for data management, instruction, research analytics and assessment. Elsevier is part of the RELX Group (known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier), a publicly traded company. According to RELX reports, in 2021 Elsevier published more than 600,000 articles annually in over 2,700 journals; as of 2018 its archives contained over 17 million documents and 40,000 ebooks, with over one billion annual downloads. Researchers have criticized Elsevier for its high profit margin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of the University of Oxford. It is the largest university press in the world, and its printing history dates back to the 1480s. Having been officially granted the legal right to print books by decree in 1586, it is the second oldest university press after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics known as the Delegates of the Press, who are appointed by the vicechancellor of the University of Oxford. The Delegates of the Press are led by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University Press has had a similar governance structure since the 17th century. The press is located on Walton Street, Oxford, opposite Somerville College, in the inner suburb of Jericho. For the last 500 years, OUP has primarily focused on the publication of pedagogical texts ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

SpringerVerlag
Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, ebooks and peerreviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Originally founded in 1842 in Berlin, it expanded internationally in the 1960s, and through mergers in the 1990s and a sale to venture capitalists it fused with Wolters Kluwer and eventually became part of Springer Nature in 2015. Springer has major offices in Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, and New York City. History Julius Springer founded SpringerVerlag in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's then second largest academic publisher with 65 staff in 1872.Chronology ". Springer Science+Business Media. In 1964, Springer expanded its business international ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quasitopos
In mathematics, specifically category theory, a quasitopos is a generalization of a topos. A topos has a subobject classifier In category theory, a subobject classifier is a special object Ω of a category such that, intuitively, the subobjects of any object ''X'' in the category correspond to the morphisms from ''X'' to Ω. In typical examples, that morphism assigns "true ... classifying all subobjects, but in a quasitopos, only strong subobjects are classified. Quasitoposes are also required to be finitely cocomplete and locally cartesian closed. A solid quasitopos is one for which 0 is a strong subobject of 1. References External links * Topos theory {{categorytheorystub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topos
In mathematics, a topos (, ; plural topoi or , or toposes) is a category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space (or more generally: on a site). Topoi behave much like the category of sets and possess a notion of localization; they are a direct generalization of pointset topology. The Grothendieck topoi find applications in algebraic geometry; the more general elementary topoi are used in logic. The mathematical field that studies topoi is called topos theory. Grothendieck topos (topos in geometry) Since the introduction of sheaves into mathematics in the 1940s, a major theme has been to study a space by studying sheaves on a space. This idea was expounded by Alexander Grothendieck by introducing the notion of a "topos". The main utility of this notion is in the abundance of situations in mathematics where topological heuristics are very effective, but an honest topological space is lacking; it is sometimes possible to find a topos formal ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Power Object
In mathematics, specifically in category theory, an exponential object or map object is the categorical generalization of a function space in set theory. Categories with all finite products and exponential objects are called cartesian closed categories. Categories (such as subcategories of Top) without adjoined products may still have an exponential law. Definition Let \mathbf be a category, let Z and Y be objects of \mathbf, and let \mathbf have all binary products with Y. An object Z^Y together with a morphism \mathrm\colon (Z^Y \times Y) \to Z is an ''exponential object'' if for any object X and morphism g \colon X\times Y \to Z there is a unique morphism \lambda g\colon X\to Z^Y (called the ''transpose'' of g) such that the following diagram commutes: This assignment of a unique \lambda g to each g establishes an isomorphism (bijection) of homsets, \mathrm(X\times Y,Z) \cong \mathrm(X,Z^Y). If Z^Yexists for all objects Z, Y in \mathbf, then the functor ()^Y \col ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, the abstract notion of a limit captures the essential properties of universal constructions such as products, pullbacks and inverse limits. The dual notion of a colimit generalizes constructions such as disjoint unions, direct sums, coproducts, pushouts and direct limits. Limits and colimits, like the strongly related notions of universal properties and adjoint functors, exist at a high level of abstraction. In order to understand them, it is helpful to first study the specific examples these concepts are meant to generalize. Definition Limits and colimits in a category C are defined by means of diagrams in C. Formally, a diagram of shape J in C is a functor from J to C: :F:J\to C. The category J is thought of as an index category, and the diagram F is thought of as indexing a collection of objects and morphisms in C patterned on J. One is most often interested in the case where the category J is a small or even fin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Elementary Topos
In mathematics, a topos (, ; plural topoi or , or toposes) is a category that behaves like the category of sheaves of sets on a topological space (or more generally: on a site). Topoi behave much like the category of sets and possess a notion of localization; they are a direct generalization of pointset topology. The Grothendieck topoi find applications in algebraic geometry; the more general elementary topoi are used in logic. The mathematical field that studies topoi is called topos theory. Grothendieck topos (topos in geometry) Since the introduction of sheaves into mathematics in the 1940s, a major theme has been to study a space by studying sheaves on a space. This idea was expounded by Alexander Grothendieck by introducing the notion of a "topos". The main utility of this notion is in the abundance of situations in mathematics where topological heuristics are very effective, but an honest topological space is lacking; it is sometimes possible to find a topos formal ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sieve (category Theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a sieve is a way of choosing arrows with a common codomain. It is a categorical analogue of a collection of open subsets of a fixed open set in topology. In a Grothendieck topology, certain sieves become categorical analogues of open covers in topology. Sieves were introduced by in order to reformulate the notion of a Grothendieck topology. Definition Let C be a category, and let ''c'' be an object of C. A sieve S\colon C^ \to on ''c'' is a subfunctor of Hom(−, ''c''), i.e., for all objects ''c''′ of C, ''S''(''c''′) ⊆ Hom(''c''′, ''c''), and for all arrows ''f'':''c''″→''c''′, ''S''(''f'') is the restriction of Hom(''f'', ''c''), the pullback by ''f'' (in the sense of precomposition, not of fiber products), to ''S''(''c''′); see the next section, below. Put another way, a sieve is a collection ''S'' of arrows with a common codomain that satisfies the condition, "If ''g'':''c''′ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 