Subgroup
In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group ''G'' under a binary operation ∗, a subset ''H'' of ''G'' is called a subgroup of ''G'' if ''H'' also forms a group under the operation ∗. More precisely, ''H'' is a subgroup of ''G'' if the restriction of ∗ to is a group operation on ''H''. This is often denoted , read as "''H'' is a subgroup of ''G''". The trivial subgroup of any group is the subgroup consisting of just the identity element. A proper subgroup of a group ''G'' is a subgroup ''H'' which is a proper subset of ''G'' (that is, ). This is often represented notationally by , read as "''H'' is a proper subgroup of ''G''". Some authors also exclude the trivial group from being proper (that is, ). If ''H'' is a subgroup of ''G'', then ''G'' is sometimes called an overgroup of ''H''. The same definitions apply more generally when ''G'' is an arbitrary semigroup, but this article will only deal with subgroups of groups. Subgroup tests Suppose ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normal Subgroup
In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup (also known as an invariant subgroup or selfconjugate subgroup) is a subgroup that is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part. In other words, a subgroup N of the group G is normal in G if and only if gng^ \in N for all g \in G and n \in N. The usual notation for this relation is N \triangleleft G. Normal subgroups are important because they (and only they) can be used to construct quotient groups of the given group. Furthermore, the normal subgroups of G are precisely the kernels of group homomorphisms with domain G, which means that they can be used to internally classify those homomorphisms. Évariste Galois was the first to realize the importance of the existence of normal subgroups. Definitions A subgroup N of a group G is called a normal subgroup of G if it is invariant under conjugation; that is, the conjugation of an element of N by an element of G is always in N. The usual notation for thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Index Of A Subgroup
In mathematics, specifically group theory, the index of a subgroup ''H'' in a group ''G'' is the number of left cosets of ''H'' in ''G'', or equivalently, the number of right cosets of ''H'' in ''G''. The index is denoted , G:H, or :H/math> or (G:H). Because ''G'' is the disjoint union of the left cosets and because each left coset has the same size as ''H'', the index is related to the orders of the two groups by the formula :, G, = , G:H, , H, (interpret the quantities as cardinal numbers if some of them are infinite). Thus the index , G:H, measures the "relative sizes" of ''G'' and ''H''. For example, let G = \Z be the group of integers under addition, and let H = 2\Z be the subgroup consisting of the even integers. Then 2\Z has two cosets in \Z, namely the set of even integers and the set of odd integers, so the index , \Z:2\Z, is 2. More generally, , \Z:n\Z, = n for any positive integer ''n''. When ''G'' is finite, the formula may be written as , G:H, = , G, /, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lattice Of Subgroups
In mathematics, the lattice of subgroups of a group G is the lattice whose elements are the subgroups of G, with the partial order relation being set inclusion. In this lattice, the join of two subgroups is the subgroup generated by their union, and the meet of two subgroups is their intersection. Example The dihedral group Dih4 has ten subgroups, counting itself and the trivial subgroup. Five of the eight group elements generate subgroups of order two, and the other two nonidentity elements both generate the same cyclic subgroup of order four. In addition, there are two subgroups of the form Z2 × Z2, generated by pairs of ordertwo elements. The lattice formed by these ten subgroups is shown in the illustration. This example also shows that the lattice of all subgroups of a group is not a modular lattice in general. Indeed, this particular lattice contains the forbidden "pentagon" ''N''5 as a sublattice. Properties For any ''A'', ''B'', and ''C'' subgroups o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coset
In mathematics, specifically group theory, a subgroup of a group may be used to decompose the underlying set of into disjoint, equalsize subsets called cosets. There are ''left cosets'' and ''right cosets''. Cosets (both left and right) have the same number of elements (cardinality) as does . Furthermore, itself is both a left coset and a right coset. The number of left cosets of in is equal to the number of right cosets of in . This common value is called the index of in and is usually denoted by . Cosets are a basic tool in the study of groups; for example, they play a central role in Lagrange's theorem that states that for any finite group , the number of elements of every subgroup of divides the number of elements of . Cosets of a particular type of subgroup (a normal subgroup) can be used as the elements of another group called a quotient group or factor group. Cosets also appear in other areas of mathematics such as vector spaces and errorcorrecting codes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is associative, an identity element exists and every element has an inverse. These three axioms hold for number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of symmetries and geometric transformations: The symmetries of an object form a group, called the symmetry group of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lagrange's Theorem (group Theory)
In the mathematical field of group theory, Lagrange's theorem is a theorem that states that for any finite group , the order (number of elements) of every subgroup of divides the order of . The theorem is named after JosephLouis Lagrange. The following variant states that for a subgroup H of a finite group G, not only is , G, /, H, an integer, but its value is the index :H/math>, defined as the number of left cosets of H in G. This variant holds even if G is infinite, provided that , G, , , H, , and :H/math> are interpreted as cardinal numbers. Proof The left cosets of in are the equivalence classes of a certain equivalence relation on : specifically, call and in equivalent if there exists in such that . Therefore, the left cosets form a partition of . Each left coset has the same cardinality as because x \mapsto ax defines a bijection H \to aH (the inverse is y \mapsto a^y). The number of left cosets is the index . By the previous three sentences, :\left, G\ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Small Groups
The following list in mathematics contains the finite groups of small order up to group isomorphism. Counts For ''n'' = 1, 2, … the number of nonisomorphic groups of order ''n'' is : 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 5, 2, 2, 1, 5, 1, 2, 1, 14, 1, 5, 1, 5, ... For labeled groups, see . Glossary Each group is named by their Small Groups library as G''o''''i'', where ''o'' is the order of the group, and ''i'' is the index of the group within that order. Common group names: * Z''n'': the cyclic group of order ''n'' (the notation C''n'' is also used; it is isomorphic to the additive group of Z/''n''Z). * Dih''n'': the dihedral group of order 2''n'' (often the notation D''n'' or D2''n'' is used ) ** K4: the Klein fourgroup of order 4, same as and Dih2. * S''n'': the symmetric group of degree ''n'', containing the ''n''! permutations of ''n'' elements. * A''n'': the alternating group of degree ''n'', containing the even permutations of ''n'' elements, of order 1 for , and order ''n''!/ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Generating Set Of A Group
In abstract algebra, a generating set of a group is a subset of the group set such that every element of the group can be expressed as a combination (under the group operation) of finitely many elements of the subset and their inverses. In other words, if ''S'' is a subset of a group ''G'', then , the ''subgroup generated by S'', is the smallest subgroup of ''G'' containing every element of ''S'', which is equal to the intersection over all subgroups containing the elements of ''S''; equivalently, is the subgroup of all elements of ''G'' that can be expressed as the finite product of elements in ''S'' and their inverses. (Note that inverses are only needed if the group is infinite; in a finite group, the inverse of an element can be expressed as a power of that element.) If ''G'' = , then we say that ''S'' ''generates'' ''G'', and the elements in ''S'' are called ''generators'' or ''group generators''. If ''S'' is the empty set, then is the trivial group , since we consider t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Order (group Theory)
In mathematics, the order of a finite group is the number of its elements. If a group is not finite, one says that its order is ''infinite''. The ''order'' of an element of a group (also called period length or period) is the order of the subgroup generated by the element. If the group operation is denoted as a multiplication, the order of an element of a group, is thus the smallest positive integer such that , where denotes the identity element of the group, and denotes the product of copies of . If no such exists, the order of is infinite. The order of a group is denoted by or , and the order of an element is denoted by or , instead of \operatorname(\langle a\rangle), where the brackets denote the generated group. Lagrange's theorem states that for any subgroup of a finite group , the order of the subgroup divides the order of the group; that is, is a divisor of . In particular, the order of any element is a divisor of . Example The symmetric group S3 h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Semigroup
In mathematics, a semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative internal binary operation on it. The binary operation of a semigroup is most often denoted multiplicatively: ''x''·''y'', or simply ''xy'', denotes the result of applying the semigroup operation to the ordered pair . Associativity is formally expressed as that for all ''x'', ''y'' and ''z'' in the semigroup. Semigroups may be considered a special case of magmas, where the operation is associative, or as a generalization of groups, without requiring the existence of an identity element or inverses. The closure axiom is implied by the definition of a binary operation on a set. Some authors thus omit it and specify three axioms for a group and only one axiom (associativity) for a semigroup. As in the case of groups or magmas, the semigroup operation need not be commutative, so ''x''·''y'' is not necessarily equal to ''y''·''x''; a wellknown example of an operation that is as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Theory
In abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups. The concept of a group is central to abstract algebra: other wellknown algebraic structures, such as rings, fields, and vector spaces, can all be seen as groups endowed with additional operations and axioms. Groups recur throughout mathematics, and the methods of group theory have influenced many parts of algebra. Linear algebraic groups and Lie groups are two branches of group theory that have experienced advances and have become subject areas in their own right. Various physical systems, such as crystals and the hydrogen atom, and three of the four known fundamental forces in the universe, may be modelled by symmetry groups. Thus group theory and the closely related representation theory have many important applications in physics, chemistry, and materials science. Group theory is also central to public key cryptography. The early history of group theory dates from the 19th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complete Lattice
In mathematics, a complete lattice is a partially ordered set in which ''all'' subsets have both a supremum (join) and an infimum (meet). A lattice which satisfies at least one of these properties is known as a ''conditionally complete lattice.'' Specifically, every nonempty finite lattice is complete. Complete lattices appear in many applications in mathematics and computer science. Being a special instance of lattices, they are studied both in order theory and universal algebra. Complete lattices must not be confused with complete partial orders (''cpo''s), which constitute a strictly more general class of partially ordered sets. More specific complete lattices are complete Boolean algebras and complete Heyting algebras (''locales''). Formal definition A partially ordered set (''L'', ≤) is a ''complete lattice'' if every subset ''A'' of ''L'' has both a greatest lower bound (the infimum, also called the ''meet'') and a least upper bound (the supremum, also called the ' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 