Smooth Surface
In mathematics, the differential geometry of surfaces deals with the differential geometry of smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a Riemannian metric. Surfaces have been extensively studied from various perspectives: ''extrinsically'', relating to their embedding in Euclidean space and ''intrinsically'', reflecting their properties determined solely by the distance within the surface as measured along curves on the surface. One of the fundamental concepts investigated is the Gaussian curvature, first studied in depth by Carl Friedrich Gauss, who showed that curvature was an intrinsic property of a surface, independent of its isometric embedding in Euclidean space. Surfaces naturally arise as graphs of functions of a pair of variables, and sometimes appear in parametric form or as loci associated to space curves. An important role in their study has been played by Lie groups (in the spirit of the Erlangen program), namely the symmetry groups of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bendixen  Carl Friedrich Gauß, 1828
Bendixen is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Aage Bendixen (1887–1973), Danish actor * Alfred Bendixen, American literatary scholar * Fanny Bendixen ( – 1899), Canadian goldrush hotelier * Finn Bendixen (born 1949), Norwegian longjumper * Friedrich Bendixen (1864–1920), German banker * Harry Bendixen (1901–1954), Danish footballer and journalist * Niclas Bendixen (born 1972), Danish theatre director *Ole Bendixen Ole Bendixen (1869–1958) was a Danish explorer, merchant, and author who served as Royal Inspector of South Greenland from 1903 to 1914. Bendixen was active in Greenland from the early 1890s, and rose through the ranks of the Royal Greenland ... (1869–1958), Danish explorer * Ole Christian Bendixen (born 1947), Norwegian sailor * Ulla Bendixen, Danish folktronic musician {{surname Danishlanguage surnames ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetry Group
In group theory, the symmetry group of a geometric object is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant, endowed with the group operation of composition. Such a transformation is an invertible mapping of the ambient space which takes the object to itself, and which preserves all the relevant structure of the object. A frequent notation for the symmetry group of an object ''X'' is ''G'' = Sym(''X''). For an object in a metric space, its symmetries form a subgroup of the isometry group of the ambient space. This article mainly considers symmetry groups in Euclidean geometry, but the concept may also be studied for more general types of geometric structure. Introduction We consider the "objects" possessing symmetry to be geometric figures, images, and patterns, such as a wallpaper pattern. For symmetry of physical objects, one may also take their physical composition as part of the pattern. (A pattern may be specified formally as a scalar fiel ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a welldefined limit. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including codifying the idea of limits, put these developments on a more solid conceptual footing. Today, calculus has widespread uses in scienc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Archimedes
Archimedes of Syracuse (;; ) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor from the ancient city of Syracuse in Sicily. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Considered the greatest mathematician of ancient history, and one of the greatest of all time,* * * * * * * * * * Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems. These include the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, the area of an ellipse, the area under a parabola, the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution, the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution, and the area of a spiral. Heath, Thomas L. 1897. ''Works of Archimedes''. Archimedes' other mathematical achievements include deriving an approximation of pi, defining ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Surface Of Revolution
A surface of revolution is a surface in Euclidean space created by rotating a curve (the generatrix) around an axis of rotation. Examples of surfaces of revolution generated by a straight line are cylindrical and conical surfaces depending on whether or not the line is parallel to the axis. A circle that is rotated around any diameter generates a sphere of which it is then a great circle, and if the circle is rotated around an axis that does not intersect the interior of a circle, then it generates a torus which does not intersect itself (a ring torus). Properties The sections of the surface of revolution made by planes through the axis are called ''meridional sections''. Any meridional section can be considered to be the generatrix in the plane determined by it and the axis. The sections of the surface of revolution made by planes that are perpendicular to the axis are circles. Some special cases of hyperboloids (of either one or two sheets) and elliptic paraboloids are sur ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadric Surface
In mathematics, a quadric or quadric surface (quadric hypersurface in higher dimensions), is a generalization of conic sections ( ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas). It is a hypersurface (of dimension ''D'') in a dimensional space, and it is defined as the zero set of an irreducible polynomial of degree two in ''D'' + 1 variables; for example, in the case of conic sections. When the defining polynomial is not absolutely irreducible, the zero set is generally not considered a quadric, although it is often called a ''degenerate quadric'' or a ''reducible quadric''. In coordinates , the general quadric is thus defined by the algebraic equationSilvio LevQuadricsin "Geometry Formulas and Facts", excerpted from 30th Edition of ''CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulas'', CRC Press, from The Geometry Center at University of Minnesota : \sum_^ x_i Q_ x_j + \sum_^ P_i x_i + R = 0 which may be compactly written in vector and matrix notation as: : x Q x^\mathrm + P x^\m ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Portrait Of Bernhard Riemann (18261866), Mathematician (2551069295)
A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expressions are predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is generally not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait often shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most successfully engage the subject with the viewer. History Prehistorical portraiture Plastered human skulls were reconstructed human skulls that were made in the ancient Levant between 9000 and 6000 BC in the PrePottery Neolithic B period. They represent some of the oldest forms of art in the Middle East and demonstrate that the prehistoric population took great care in burying their ancestors below their homes. The skulls denote some of the earliest sculptural examples of portraiture in the history of art. Historical por ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Minimal Surfaces
In mathematics, a minimal surface is a surface that locally minimizes its area. This is equivalent to having zero mean curvature (see definitions below). The term "minimal surface" is used because these surfaces originally arose as surfaces that minimized total surface area subject to some constraint. Physical models of areaminimizing minimal surfaces can be made by dipping a wire frame into a soap solution, forming a soap film, which is a minimal surface whose boundary is the wire frame. However, the term is used for more general surfaces that may selfintersect or do not have constraints. For a given constraint there may also exist several minimal surfaces with different areas (for example, see minimal surface of revolution): the standard definitions only relate to a local optimum, not a global optimum. Definitions Minimal surfaces can be defined in several equivalent ways in R3. The fact that they are equivalent serves to demonstrate how minimal surface theory lies at ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geodesics
In geometry, a geodesic () is a curve representing in some sense the shortest path ( arc) between two points in a surface, or more generally in a Riemannian manifold. The term also has meaning in any differentiable manifold with a connection. It is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line". The noun ''geodesic'' and the adjective ''geodetic'' come from ''geodesy'', the science of measuring the size and shape of Earth, though many of the underlying principles can be applied to any ellipsoidal geometry. In the original sense, a geodesic was the shortest route between two points on the Earth's surface. For a spherical Earth, it is a segment of a great circle (see also greatcircle distance). The term has since been generalized to more abstract mathematical spaces; for example, in graph theory, one might consider a geodesic between two vertices/nodes of a graph. In a Riemannian manifold or submanifold, geodesics are characterised by the property of having vanishing ge ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus Of Variations
The calculus of variations (or Variational Calculus) is a field of mathematical analysis that uses variations, which are small changes in functions and functionals, to find maxima and minima of functionals: mappings from a set of functions to the real numbers. Functionals are often expressed as definite integrals involving functions and their derivatives. Functions that maximize or minimize functionals may be found using the Euler–Lagrange equation of the calculus of variations. A simple example of such a problem is to find the curve of shortest length connecting two points. If there are no constraints, the solution is a straight line between the points. However, if the curve is constrained to lie on a surface in space, then the solution is less obvious, and possibly many solutions may exist. Such solutions are known as '' geodesics''. A related problem is posed by Fermat's principle: light follows the path of shortest optical length connecting two points, which depend ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Connection (mathematics)
In geometry, the notion of a connection makes precise the idea of transporting local geometric objects, such as tangent vectors or tensors in the tangent space, along a curve or family of curves in a ''parallel'' and consistent manner. There are various kinds of connections in modern geometry, depending on what sort of data one wants to transport. For instance, an affine connection, the most elementary type of connection, gives a means for parallel transport of tangent vectors on a manifold from one point to another along a curve. An affine connection is typically given in the form of a covariant derivative, which gives a means for taking directional derivatives of vector fields, measuring the deviation of a vector field from being parallel in a given direction. Connections are of central importance in modern geometry in large part because they allow a comparison between the local geometry at one point and the local geometry at another point. Differential geometry embraces severa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 