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 Skeleton (topology) In mathematics, particularly in algebraic topology, the of a topological space presented as a simplicial complex (resp. CW complex) refers to the subspace that is the union of the simplices of (resp. cells of ) of dimensions In other words, given an inductive definition of a complex, the is obtained by stopping at the . These subspaces increase with . The is a discrete space, and the a topological graph. The skeletons of a space are used in obstruction theory, to construct spectral sequences by means of filtrations, and generally to make inductive arguments. They are particularly important when has infinite dimension, in the sense that the do not become constant as In geometry In geometry, a of P (functionally represented as skel''k''(''P'')) consists of all elements of dimension up to ''k''. For example: : skel0(cube) = 8 vertices : skel1(cube) = 8 vertices, 12 edges : skel2(cube) = 8 vertices, 12 edges, 6 square faces For simplicial sets The above d ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Mathematical Induction Mathematical induction is a method for proving that a statement ''P''(''n'') is true for every natural number ''n'', that is, that the infinitely many cases ''P''(0), ''P''(1), ''P''(2), ''P''(3), ...  all hold. Informal metaphors help to explain this technique, such as falling dominoes or climbing a ladder: A proof by induction consists of two cases. The first, the base case, proves the statement for ''n'' = 0 without assuming any knowledge of other cases. The second case, the induction step, proves that ''if'' the statement holds for any given case ''n'' = ''k'', ''then'' it must also hold for the next case ''n'' = ''k'' + 1. These two steps establish that the statement holds for every natural number ''n''. The base case does not necessarily begin with ''n'' = 0, but often with ''n'' = 1, and possibly with any fixed natural number ''n'' = ''N'', establishing the truth of the statement for all natu ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Springer-Verlag Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Originally founded in 1842 in Berlin, it expanded internationally in the 1960s, and through mergers in the 1990s and a sale to venture capitalists it fused with Wolters Kluwer and eventually became part of Springer Nature in 2015. Springer has major offices in Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, and New York City. History Julius Springer founded Springer-Verlag in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's then second largest academic publisher with 65 staff in 1872.Chronology". Springer Science+Business Media. In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Algebraic Geometry Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials. Modern algebraic geometry is based on the use of abstract algebraic techniques, mainly from commutative algebra, for solving geometrical problems about these sets of zeros. The fundamental objects of study in algebraic geometry are algebraic varieties, which are geometric manifestations of solutions of systems of polynomial equations. Examples of the most studied classes of algebraic varieties are: plane algebraic curves, which include lines, circles, parabolas, ellipses, hyperbolas, cubic curves like elliptic curves, and quartic curves like lemniscates and Cassini ovals. A point of the plane belongs to an algebraic curve if its coordinates satisfy a given polynomial equation. Basic questions involve the study of the points of special interest like the singular points, the inflection points and the points at infinity. More advanced questions involve the topology of the ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Homotopical Algebra In mathematics, homotopical algebra is a collection of concepts comprising the ''nonabelian'' aspects of homological algebra as well as possibly the abelian aspects as special cases. The ''homotopical'' nomenclature stems from the fact that a common approach to such generalizations is via abstract homotopy theory, as in nonabelian algebraic topology, and in particular the theory of closed model categories. This subject has received much attention in recent years due to new foundational work of Vladimir Voevodsky, Eric Friedlander, Andrei Suslin, and others resulting in the A1 homotopy theory for quasiprojective varieties over a field. Voevodsky has used this new algebraic homotopy theory to prove the Milnor conjecture (for which he was awarded the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place ever ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Hypercovering In mathematics, and in particular homotopy theory, a hypercovering (or hypercover) is a simplicial object that generalises the Čech nerve of a cover. For the Čech nerve of an open cover one can show that if the space X is compact and if every intersection of open sets in the cover is contractible, then one can contract these sets and get a simplicial set that is weakly equivalent to X in a natural way. For the étale topology and other sites, these conditions fail. The idea of a hypercover is to instead of only working with n-fold intersections of the sets of the given open cover \mathcal U, to allow the pairwise intersections of the sets in \mathcal U=\mathcal U_0 to be covered by an open cover \mathcal U_1, and to let the triple intersections of this cover to be covered by yet another open cover \mathcal U_2, and so on, iteratively. Hypercoverings have a central role in étale homotopy and other areas where homotopy theory is applied to algebraic geometry, such as motivic homoto ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Fiber Product In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a pullback (also called a fiber product, fibre product, fibered product or Cartesian square) is the limit of a diagram consisting of two morphisms and with a common codomain. The pullback is often written : and comes equipped with two natural morphisms and . The pullback of two morphisms and need not exist, but if it does, it is essentially uniquely defined by the two morphisms. In many situations, may intuitively be thought of as consisting of pairs of elements with in , in , and . For the general definition, a universal property is used, which essentially expresses the fact that the pullback is the "most general" way to complete the two given morphisms to a commutative square. The dual concept of the pullback is the '' pushout''. Universal property Explicitly, a pullback of the morphisms and consists of an object and two morphisms and for which the diagram : commutes. Moreover, the pullback must be universal ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Nerve (category Theory) In category theory, a discipline within mathematics, the nerve ''N''(''C'') of a small category ''C'' is a simplicial set constructed from the objects and morphisms of ''C''. The geometric realization of this simplicial set is a topological space, called the classifying space of the category ''C''. These closely related objects can provide information about some familiar and useful categories using algebraic topology, most often homotopy theory. Motivation The nerve of a category is often used to construct topological versions of moduli spaces. If ''X'' is an object of ''C'', its moduli space should somehow encode all objects isomorphic to ''X'' and keep track of the various isomorphisms between all of these objects in that category. This can become rather complicated, especially if the objects have many non-identity automorphisms. The nerve provides a combinatorial way of organizing this data. Since simplicial sets have a good homotopy theory, one can ask questions about the m ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Image Functors For Sheaves In mathematics, especially in sheaf theory—a domain applied in areas such as topology, logic and algebraic geometry—there are four image functors for sheaves that belong together in various senses. Given a continuous mapping ''f'': ''X'' → ''Y'' of topological spaces, and the category Sh(–) of sheaves of abelian groups on a topological space. The functors in question are * direct image ''f''∗ : Sh(''X'') → Sh(''Y'') * inverse image ''f''∗ : Sh(''Y'') → Sh(''X'') * direct image with compact support ''f''! : Sh(''X'') → Sh(''Y'') * exceptional inverse image ''Rf''! : ''D''(Sh(''Y'')) → ''D''(Sh(''X'')). The exclamation mark is often pronounced " shriek" (slang for exclamation mark), and the maps called "''f'' shriek" or "''f'' lower shriek" and "''f'' upper shriek"—see also shriek map. The exceptional inverse image is in general defined on the level of derived categories only. Similar considerations apply to étale sheaves on schemes. Adjointness The ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Simplicial Set In mathematics, a simplicial set is an object composed of ''simplices'' in a specific way. Simplicial sets are higher-dimensional generalizations of directed graphs, partially ordered sets and categories. Formally, a simplicial set may be defined as a contravariant functor from the simplex category to the category of sets. Simplicial sets were introduced in 1950 by Samuel Eilenberg and Joseph A. Zilber. Every simplicial set gives rise to a "nice" topological space, known as its geometric realization. This realization consists of geometric simplices, glued together according to the rules of the simplicial set. Indeed, one may view a simplicial set as a purely combinatorial construction designed to capture the essence of a "well-behaved" topological space for the purposes of homotopy theory. Specifically, the category of simplicial sets carries a natural model structure, and the corresponding homotopy category is equivalent to the familiar homotopy category of topological spaces ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Egon Schulte Egon Schulte (born January 7, 1955 in Heggen ( Kreis Olpe), Germany) is a mathematician and a professor of Mathematics at Northeastern University in Boston Boston (), officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financial center of the New England region of the United States. It is the 24th- m .... He received his Ph.D. in 1980 from the Technical University of Dortmund; his doctoral dissertation was on ''Regular Incidence Complexes'' ( abstract regular polytopes). Selected publications * External links * Egon Schulte, Professor, Northeastern University, Department of MathematicsSchulte Publications 1984 - 2010 Living people 1955 births Northeastern University faculty Combinatorialists Technical University of Dortmund alumni People from Olpe (district) {{US-mathematician-stub ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Peter McMullen Peter McMullen (born 11 May 1942) is a British mathematician, a professor emeritus of mathematics at University College London. Education and career McMullen earned bachelor's and master's degrees from Trinity College, Cambridge, and studied at the University of Birmingham, where he received his doctorate in 1968. and taught at Western Washington University from 1968 to 1969. In 1978 he earned his Doctor of Science at University College London where he still works as a professor emeritus. In 2006 he was accepted as a corresponding member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Contributions McMullen is known for his work in polyhedral combinatorics and discrete geometry, and in particular for proving what was then called the upper bound conjecture and now is the upper bound theorem. This result states that cyclic polytopes have the maximum possible number of faces among all polytopes with a given dimension and number of vertices. McMullen also formulated the g-conjecture, later ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]