Singleton (mathematics)
In mathematics, a singleton, also known as a unit set or onepoint set, is a set with exactly one element. For example, the set \ is a singleton whose single element is 0. Properties Within the framework of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, the axiom of regularity guarantees that no set is an element of itself. This implies that a singleton is necessarily distinct from the element it contains, thus 1 and are not the same thing, and the empty set is distinct from the set containing only the empty set. A set such as \ is a singleton as it contains a single element (which itself is a set, however, not a singleton). A set is a singleton if and only if its cardinality is . In von Neumann's settheoretic construction of the natural numbers, the number 1 is ''defined'' as the singleton \. In axiomatic set theory, the existence of singletons is a consequence of the axiom of pairing: for any set ''A'', the axiom applied to ''A'' and ''A'' asserts the existence of \, which is the sa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ultrafilter Lemma
In the mathematical field of set theory, an ultrafilter is a ''maximal proper filter'': it is a filter U on a given nonempty set X which is a certain type of nonempty family of subsets of X, that is not equal to the power set \wp(X) of X (such filters are called ) and that is also "maximal" in that there does not exist any other proper filter on X that contains it as a proper subset. Said differently, a proper filter U is called an ultrafilter if there exists proper filter that contains it as a subset, that proper filter (necessarily) being U itself. More formally, an ultrafilter U on X is a proper filter that is also a maximal filter on X with respect to set inclusion, meaning that there does not exist any proper filter on X that contains U as a proper subset. Ultrafilters on sets are an important special instance of ultrafilters on partially ordered sets, where the partially ordered set consists of the power set \wp(X) and the partial order is subset inclusion \,\sub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity Element
In mathematics, an identity element, or neutral element, of a binary operation operating on a set is an element of the set that leaves unchanged every element of the set when the operation is applied. This concept is used in algebraic structures such as groups and rings. The term ''identity element'' is often shortened to ''identity'' (as in the case of additive identity and multiplicative identity) when there is no possibility of confusion, but the identity implicitly depends on the binary operation it is associated with. Definitions Let be a set equipped with a binary operation ∗. Then an element of is called a if for all in , and a if for all in . If is both a left identity and a right identity, then it is called a , or simply an . An identity with respect to addition is called an (often denoted as 0) and an identity with respect to multiplication is called a (often denoted as 1). These need not be ordinary addi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a set and an operation that combines any two elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is associative, an identity element exists and every element has an inverse. These three axioms hold for number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of symmetries and geometric transformations: The symmetries of an object form a group, called the symmetry group of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points, along with an additional structure called a topology, which can be defined as a set of neighbourhoods for each point that satisfy some axioms formalizing the concept of closeness. There are several equivalent definitions of a topology, the most commonly used of which is the definition through open sets, which is easier than the others to manipulate. A topological space is the most general type of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of limits, continuity, and connectedness. Common types of topological spaces include Euclidean spaces, metric spaces and manifolds. Although very general, the concept of topological spaces is fundamental, and used in virtually every branch of modern mathematics. The study of topologic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category Of Sets
In the mathematical field of category theory, the category of sets, denoted as Set, is the category whose objects are sets. The arrows or morphisms between sets ''A'' and ''B'' are the total functions from ''A'' to ''B'', and the composition of morphisms is the composition of functions. Many other categories (such as the category of groups, with group homomorphisms as arrows) add structure to the objects of the category of sets and/or restrict the arrows to functions of a particular kind. Properties of the category of sets The axioms of a category are satisfied by Set because composition of functions is associative, and because every set ''X'' has an identity function id''X'' : ''X'' → ''X'' which serves as identity element for function composition. The epimorphisms in Set are the surjective maps, the monomorphisms are the injective maps, and the isomorphisms are the bijective maps. The empty set serves as the initial object in Set with empty functions as morphisms. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Category (category Theory)
In mathematics, a category (sometimes called an abstract category to distinguish it from a concrete category) is a collection of "objects" that are linked by "arrows". A category has two basic properties: the ability to compose the arrows associatively and the existence of an identity arrow for each object. A simple example is the category of sets, whose objects are sets and whose arrows are functions. ''Category theory'' is a branch of mathematics that seeks to generalize all of mathematics in terms of categories, independent of what their objects and arrows represent. Virtually every branch of modern mathematics can be described in terms of categories, and doing so often reveals deep insights and similarities between seemingly different areas of mathematics. As such, category theory provides an alternative foundation for mathematics to set theory and other proposed axiomatic foundations. In general, the objects and arrows may be abstract entities of any kind, and the no ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zero Object
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, an initial object of a category is an object in such that for every object in , there exists precisely one morphism . The dual notion is that of a terminal object (also called terminal element): is terminal if for every object in there exists exactly one morphism . Initial objects are also called coterminal or universal, and terminal objects are also called final. If an object is both initial and terminal, it is called a zero object or null object. A pointed category is one with a zero object. A strict initial object is one for which every morphism into is an isomorphism. Examples * The empty set is the unique initial object in Set, the category of sets. Every oneelement set ( singleton) is a terminal object in this category; there are no zero objects. Similarly, the empty space is the unique initial object in Top, the category of topological spaces and every onepoint space is a terminal object in this category. * In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partitions Of A Set
Partition may refer to: Computing Hardware * Disk partitioning, the division of a hard disk drive * Memory partition, a subdivision of a computer's memory, usually for use by a single job Software * Partition (database), the division of a database * Logical partition (LPAR), a subset of a computer's resources, virtualized as a separate computer Problems * Binary space partitioning * Partition problem, an NPcomplete problem in computer science Mathematics * Partition (number theory), a way to write a number as a sum of other numbers * Multiplicative partition, a way to write a number as a product of other numbers * Partition of an interval * Partition of a set * Partition of unity, a certain kind of set of functions on a topological space * Plane partition * Graph partition Natural science * Partition function (quantum field theory) * Partition function (statistical mechanics) * Partition coefficient, a concept in organic chemistry Law and politics * Partition (law ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bell Number
In combinatorial mathematics, the Bell numbers count the possible partitions of a set. These numbers have been studied by mathematicians since the 19th century, and their roots go back to medieval Japan. In an example of Stigler's law of eponymy, they are named after Eric Temple Bell, who wrote about them in the 1930s. The Bell numbers are denoted B_n, where n is an integer greater than or equal to zero. Starting with B_0 = B_1 = 1, the first few Bell numbers are :1, 1, 2, 5, 15, 52, 203, 877, 4140, ... . The Bell number B_n counts the number of different ways to partition a set that has exactly n elements, or equivalently, the number of equivalence relations on it. B_n also counts the number of different rhyme schemes for n line poems. As well as appearing in counting problems, these numbers have a different interpretation, as moments of probability distributions. In particular, B_n is the n th moment of a Poisson distribution with mean 1. Counting Set partitions In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ultranet (math)
In mathematics, more specifically in general topology and related branches, a net or Moore–Smith sequence is a generalization of the notion of a sequence. In essence, a sequence is a function whose domain is the natural numbers. The codomain of this function is usually some topological space. The motivation for generalizing the notion of a sequence is that, in the context of topology, sequences do not fully encode all information about functions between topological spaces. In particular, the following two conditions are, in general, not equivalent for a map f between topological spaces X and Y: #The map f is continuous in the topological sense; #Given any point x in X, and any sequence in X converging to x, the composition of f with this sequence converges to f(x) (continuous in the sequential sense). While it is necessarily true that condition 1 implies condition 2 (The truth of the condition 1 ensures the truth of the conditions 2.), the reverse implication is not nec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 