Second Derivative
In calculus, the second derivative, or the second order derivative, of a function is the derivative of the derivative of . Roughly speaking, the second derivative measures how the rate of change of a quantity is itself changing; for example, the second derivative of the position of an object with respect to time is the instantaneous acceleration of the object, or the rate at which the velocity of the object is changing with respect to time. In Leibniz notation: :\mathbf = \frac = \frac, where ''a'' is acceleration, ''v'' is velocity, ''t'' is time, ''x'' is position, and d is the instantaneous "delta" or change. The last expression \tfrac is the second derivative of position (x) with respect to time. On the graph of a function, the second derivative corresponds to the curvature or concavity of the graph. The graph of a function with a positive second derivative is upwardly concave, while the graph of a function with a negative second derivative curves in the opposite way ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

4 Fonctions Du Second Degré
4 (four) is a number, numeral and digit. It is the natural number following 3 and preceding 5. It is the smallest semiprime and composite number, and is considered unlucky in many East Asian cultures. In mathematics Four is the smallest composite number, its proper divisors being and . Four is the sum and product of two with itself: 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 x 2, the only number b such that a + a = b = a x a, which also makes four the smallest squared prime number p^. In Knuth's uparrow notation, , and so forth, for any number of up arrows. By consequence, four is the only square one more than a prime number, specifically three. The sum of the first four prime numbers two + three + five + seven is the only sum of four consecutive prime numbers that yields an odd prime number, seventeen, which is the fourth superprime. Four lies between the first proper pair of twin primes, three and five, which are the first two Fermat primes, like seventeen, which is the third. On the othe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Concave Down
In mathematics, a concave function is the negative of a convex function. A concave function is also synonymously called concave downwards, concave down, convex upwards, convex cap, or upper convex. Definition A realvalued function f on an interval (or, more generally, a convex set in vector space) is said to be ''concave'' if, for any x and y in the interval and for any \alpha \in ,1/math>, :f((1\alpha )x+\alpha y)\geq (1\alpha ) f(x)+\alpha f(y) A function is called ''strictly concave'' if :f((1\alpha )x + \alpha y) > (1\alpha) f(x) + \alpha f(y)\, for any \alpha \in (0,1) and x \neq y. For a function f: \mathbb \to \mathbb, this second definition merely states that for every z strictly between x and y, the point (z, f(z)) on the graph of f is above the straight line joining the points (x, f(x)) and (y, f(y)). A function f is quasiconcave if the upper contour sets of the function S(a)=\ are convex sets. Properties Functions of a single variable # A differentiabl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Taylor Polynomial
In mathematics, the Taylor series or Taylor expansion of a function is an infinite sum of terms that are expressed in terms of the function's derivatives at a single point. For most common functions, the function and the sum of its Taylor series are equal near this point. Taylor series are named after Brook Taylor, who introduced them in 1715. A Taylor series is also called a Maclaurin series, when 0 is the point where the derivatives are considered, after Colin Maclaurin, who made extensive use of this special case of Taylor series in the mid18th century. The partial sum formed by the first terms of a Taylor series is a polynomial of degree that is called the th Taylor polynomial of the function. Taylor polynomials are approximations of a function, which become generally better as increases. Taylor's theorem gives quantitative estimates on the error introduced by the use of such approximations. If the Taylor series of a function is convergent, its sum is the limit of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadratic Function
In mathematics, a quadratic polynomial is a polynomial of degree two in one or more variables. A quadratic function is the polynomial function defined by a quadratic polynomial. Before 20th century, the distinction was unclear between a polynomial and its associated polynomial function; so "quadratic polynomial" and "quadratic function" were almost synonymous. This is still the case in many elementary courses, where both terms are often abbreviated as "quadratic". For example, a univariate (singlevariable) quadratic function has the form :f(x)=ax^2+bx+c,\quad a \ne 0, where is its variable. The graph of a univariate quadratic function is a parabola, a curve that has an axis of symmetry parallel to the axis. If a quadratic function is equated with zero, then the result is a quadratic equation. The solutions of a quadratic equation are the zeros of the corresponding quadratic function. The bivariate case in terms of variables and has the form : f(x,y) = a x^2 + bx y ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadratic Approximation
In calculus, Taylor's theorem gives an approximation of a ''k''times differentiable function around a given point by a polynomial of degree ''k'', called the ''k''thorder Taylor polynomial. For a smooth function, the Taylor polynomial is the truncation at the order ''k'' of the Taylor series of the function. The firstorder Taylor polynomial is the linear approximation of the function, and the secondorder Taylor polynomial is often referred to as the quadratic approximation. There are several versions of Taylor's theorem, some giving explicit estimates of the approximation error of the function by its Taylor polynomial. Taylor's theorem is named after the mathematician Brook Taylor, who stated a version of it in 1715, although an earlier version of the result was already mentioned in 1671 by James Gregory. Taylor's theorem is taught in introductorylevel calculus courses and is one of the central elementary tools in mathematical analysis. It gives simple arithmetic formula ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Approximation
In mathematics, a linear approximation is an approximation of a general function using a linear function (more precisely, an affine function). They are widely used in the method of finite differences to produce first order methods for solving or approximating solutions to equations. Definition Given a twice continuously differentiable function f of one real variable, Taylor's theorem for the case n = 1 states that f(x) = f(a) + f'(a)(x  a) + R_2 where R_2 is the remainder term. The linear approximation is obtained by dropping the remainder: f(x) \approx f(a) + f'(a)(x  a). This is a good approximation when x is close enough to since a curve, when closely observed, will begin to resemble a straight line. Therefore, the expression on the righthand side is just the equation for the tangent line to the graph of f at (a,f(a)). For this reason, this process is also called the tangent line approximation. If f is concave down in the interval between x and a, the approximatio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sign Function
In mathematics, the sign function or signum function (from '' signum'', Latin for "sign") is an odd mathematical function that extracts the sign of a real number. In mathematical expressions the sign function is often represented as . To avoid confusion with the sine function, this function is usually called the signum function. Definition The signum function of a real number is a piecewise function which is defined as follows: \sgn x :=\begin 1 & \text x 0. \end Properties Any real number can be expressed as the product of its absolute value and its sign function: x = , x, \sgn x. It follows that whenever is not equal to 0 we have \sgn x = \frac = \frac\,. Similarly, for ''any'' real number , , x, = x\sgn x. We can also ascertain that: \sgn x^n=(\sgn x)^n. The signum function is the derivative of the absolute value function, up to (but not including) the indeterminacy at zero. More formally, in integration theory it is a weak derivative, and in convex functio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sequence (mathematics)
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order matters. Like a set, it contains members (also called ''elements'', or ''terms''). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the ''length'' of the sequence. Unlike a set, the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in a sequence, and unlike a set, the order does matter. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function from natural numbers (the positions of elements in the sequence) to the elements at each position. The notion of a sequence can be generalized to an indexed family, defined as a function from an ''arbitrary'' index set. For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters with the letter 'M' first and 'Y' last. This sequence differs from (A, R, M, Y). Also, the sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be ''finite'', as in these examples, or ''infi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Second Difference
In mathematics, a recurrence relation is an equation according to which the nth term of a sequence of numbers is equal to some combination of the previous terms. Often, only k previous terms of the sequence appear in the equation, for a parameter k that is independent of n; this number k is called the ''order'' of the relation. If the values of the first k numbers in the sequence have been given, the rest of the sequence can be calculated by repeatedly applying the equation. In ''linear recurrences'', the th term is equated to a linear function of the k previous terms. A famous example is the recurrence for the Fibonacci numbers, F_n=F_+F_ where the order k is two and the linear function merely adds the two previous terms. This example is a linear recurrence with constant coefficients, because the coefficients of the linear function (1 and 1) are constants that do not depend on n. For these recurrences, one can express the general term of the sequence as a closedform expression of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Difference Quotient
In singlevariable calculus, the difference quotient is usually the name for the expression : \frac which when taken to the limit as ''h'' approaches 0 gives the derivative of the function ''f''. The name of the expression stems from the fact that it is the quotient of the difference of values of the function by the difference of the corresponding values of its argument (the latter is (''x'' + ''h'')  ''x'' = ''h'' in this case). The difference quotient is a measure of the average rate of change of the function over an interval (in this case, an interval of length ''h''). The limit of the difference quotient (i.e., the derivative) is thus the instantaneous rate of change. By a slight change in notation (and viewpoint), for an interval 'a'', ''b'' the difference quotient : \frac is called the mean (or average) value of the derivative of ''f'' over the interval 'a'', ''b'' This name is justified by the mean value theorem, which states that for a differentiable function '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Second Symmetric Derivative
In mathematics, the symmetric derivative is an operation generalizing the ordinary derivative. It is defined asThomson, p. 1. : \lim_ \frac. The expression under the limit is sometimes called the symmetric difference quotient. A function is said to be symmetrically differentiable at a point ''x'' if its symmetric derivative exists at that point. If a function is differentiable (in the usual sense) at a point, then it is also symmetrically differentiable, but the converse is not true. A wellknown counterexample is the absolute value function , which is not differentiable at , but is symmetrically differentiable here with symmetric derivative 0. For differentiable functions, the symmetric difference quotient does provide a better numerical approximation of the derivative than the usual difference quotient. The symmetric derivative at a given point equals the arithmetic mean of the left and right derivatives at that point, if the latter two both exist. Neither Rolle's theorem nor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit (mathematics)
In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) approaches as the input (or index) approaches some value. Limits are essential to calculus and mathematical analysis, and are used to define continuity, derivatives, and integrals. The concept of a limit of a sequence is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to limit and direct limit in category theory. In formulas, a limit of a function is usually written as : \lim_ f(x) = L, (although a few authors may use "Lt" instead of "lim") and is read as "the limit of of as approaches equals ". The fact that a function approaches the limit as approaches is sometimes denoted by a right arrow (→ or \rightarrow), as in :f(x) \to L \text x \to c, which reads "f of x tends to L as x tends to c". History Grégoire de SaintVincent gave the first definition of limit (terminus) of a geometric series in his work ''Opus Geometricum'' (1647): "The ''terminus'' of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 