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 picture info Risk Aversion In economics and finance, risk aversion is the tendency of people to prefer outcomes with low uncertainty to those outcomes with high uncertainty, even if the average outcome of the latter is equal to or higher in monetary value than the more certain outcome. Risk aversion explains the inclination to agree to a situation with a more predictable, but possibly lower payoff, rather than another situation with a highly unpredictable, but possibly higher payoff. For example, a risk-averse investor might choose to put their money into a bank account with a low but guaranteed interest rate, rather than into a stock that may have high expected returns, but also involves a chance of losing value. Example A person is given the choice between two scenarios: one with a guaranteed payoff, and one with a risky payoff with same average value. In the former scenario, the person receives $50. In the uncertain scenario, a coin is flipped to decide whether the person receives$100 or nothing. Th ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Affine Transformation In Euclidean geometry, an affine transformation or affinity (from the Latin, ''affinis'', "connected with") is a geometric transformation that preserves lines and parallelism, but not necessarily Euclidean distances and angles. More generally, an affine transformation is an automorphism of an affine space (Euclidean spaces are specific affine spaces), that is, a function which maps an affine space onto itself while preserving both the dimension of any affine subspaces (meaning that it sends points to points, lines to lines, planes to planes, and so on) and the ratios of the lengths of parallel line segments. Consequently, sets of parallel affine subspaces remain parallel after an affine transformation. An affine transformation does not necessarily preserve angles between lines or distances between points, though it does preserve ratios of distances between points lying on a straight line. If is the point set of an affine space, then every affine transformation on can b ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Isoelastic Utility In economics, the isoelastic function for utility, also known as the isoelastic utility function, or power utility function, is used to express utility in terms of consumption or some other economic variable that a decision-maker is concerned with. The isoelastic utility function is a special case of hyperbolic absolute risk aversion and at the same time is the only class of utility functions with constant relative risk aversion, which is why it is also called the CRRA utility function. It is : u(c) = \begin \frac & \eta \ge 0, \eta \neq 1 \\ \ln(c) & \eta = 1 \end where c is consumption, u(c) the associated utility, and \eta is a constant that is positive for risk averse agents. Since additive constant terms in objective functions do not affect optimal decisions, the term –1 in the numerator can be, and usually is, omitted (except when establishing the limiting case of \ln(c) as below). When the context involves risk, the utility function is viewed as a von Neumann–Morge ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Elasticity Of Intertemporal Substitution Elasticity of intertemporal substitution (or intertemporal elasticity of substitution, EIS, IES) is a measure of responsiveness of the growth rate of consumption to the real interest rate. If the real interest rate rises, current consumption may decrease due to increased return on savings; but current consumption may also increase as the household decides to consume more immediately, as it is feeling richer. The net effect on current consumption is the elasticity of intertemporal substitution. Mathematical definition The definition depends on whether one is working in discrete or continuous time. We will see that for CRRA utility, the two approaches yield the same answer. The below functional forms assume that utility from consumption is time additively separable. Discrete time Total lifetime utility is given by :U=\sum_^\beta^u(c_t) In this setting, the gross real interest rate R will be given by the following condition: :Qu'(c_t) = Q\beta Ru'(c_) A quantity of money Q investe ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Intertemporal Choice Intertemporal choice is the process by which people make decisions about what and how much to do at various points in time, when choices at one time influence the possibilities available at other points in time. These choices are influenced by the relative value people assign to two or more payoffs at different points in time. Most choices require decision-makers to trade off costs and benefits at different points in time. These decisions may be about saving, work effort, education, nutrition, exercise, health care and so forth. Greater preference for immediate smaller rewards has been associated with many negative outcomes ranging from lower salary to drug addiction. Since early in the twentieth century, economists have analyzed intertemporal decisions using the discounted utility model, which assumes that people evaluate the pleasures and pains resulting from a decision in much the same way that financial markets evaluate losses and gains, exponentially 'discounting' the value of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] American Economic Review The ''American Economic Review'' is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Economic Association. First published in 1911, it is considered one of the most prestigious and highly distinguished journals in the field of economics. The current editor-in-chief is Esther Duflo, an economic professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The journal is based in Pittsburgh. In 2004, the ''American Economic Review'' began requiring "data and code sufficient to permit replication" of a paper's results, which is then posted on the journal's website. Exceptions are made for proprietary data. Until 2017, the May issue of the ''American Economic Review'', titled the ''Papers and Proceedings'' issue, featured the papers presented at the American Economic Association's annual meeting that January. After being selected for presentation, the papers in the ''Papers and Proceedings'' issue did not undergo a formal process of peer review. Starting in 2018, papers ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Hyperbolic Function In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogues of the ordinary trigonometric functions, but defined using the hyperbola rather than the circle. Just as the points form a circle with a unit radius, the points form the right half of the unit hyperbola. Also, similarly to how the derivatives of and are and respectively, the derivatives of and are and respectively. Hyperbolic functions occur in the calculations of angles and distances in hyperbolic geometry. They also occur in the solutions of many linear differential equations (such as the equation defining a catenary), cubic equations, and Laplace's equation in Cartesian coordinates. Laplace's equations are important in many areas of physics, including electromagnetic theory, heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and special relativity. The basic hyperbolic functions are: * hyperbolic sine "" (), * hyperbolic cosine "" (),''Collins Concise Dictionary'', p. 328 from which are derived: * hyperbolic tangent "" (), * ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Hyperbolic Absolute Risk Aversion In finance, economics, and decision theory, hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA) (Chapter I of his Ph.D. dissertation; Chapter 5 in his ''Continuous-Time Finance'').Ljungqvist & Sargent, Recursive Macroeconomic Theory, MIT Press, Second Edition refers to a type of risk aversion that is particularly convenient to model mathematically and to obtain empirical predictions from. It refers specifically to a property of von Neumann–Morgenstern utility functions, which are typically functions of final wealth (or some related variable), and which describe a decision-maker's degree of satisfaction with the outcome for wealth. The final outcome for wealth is affected both by random variables and by decisions. Decision-makers are assumed to make their decisions (such as, for example, portfolio allocations) so as to maximize the expected value of the utility function. Notable special cases of HARA utility functions include the quadratic utility function, the exponential utility funct ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Exponential Utility In economics and finance, exponential utility is a specific form of the utility function, used in some contexts because of its convenience when risk (sometimes referred to as uncertainty) is present, in which case expected utility is maximized. Formally, exponential utility is given by: :u(c) = \begin (1-e^)/a & a \neq 0 \\ c & a = 0 \\ \end c is a variable that the economic decision-maker prefers more of, such as consumption, and a is a constant that represents the degree of risk preference (a>0 for risk aversion, a=0 for risk-neutrality, or a of final wealth ''W'' subject to :W = x'r + (W_0 - x'k) \cdot r_f where the prime sign indicates a vector transpose and where W_0 is initial wealth, ''x'' is a column vector of quantities placed in the ''n'' risky assets, ''r'' is a random vector of stochastic returns on the ''n'' assets, ''k'' is a vector of ones (so W_0 - x'k is the quantity placed in the risk-free asset), and ''r''''f'' is the known scalar return on the risk-free ass ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] John W John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname) John may also refer to: New Testament Works * Gospel of John, a title often shortened to John * First Epistle of John, often shortened to 1 John * Second Epistle of John, often shortened to 2 John * Third Epistle of John, often shortened to 3 John People * John the Baptist (died c. AD 30), regarded as a prophet and the forerunner of Jesus Christ * John the Apostle (lived c. AD 30), one of the twelve apostles of Jesus * John the Evangelist, assigned author of the Fourth Gospel, once identified with the Apostle * John of Patmos, also known as John the Divine or John the Revelator, the author of the Book of Revelation, once identified with the Apostle * John the Presbyter, a figure either identified with or distinguished from the Apostle, the Evangelist and John of Patmos Other people with the given name Religious figures * John, father of Andrew the Apostle and Saint Peter * ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Kenneth Arrow Kenneth Joseph Arrow (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist. He was the joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with John Hicks in 1972. In economics, he was a major figure in post-World War II neo-classical economic theory. Many of his former graduate students have gone on to win the Nobel Memorial Prize themselves. His most significant works are his contributions to social choice theory, notably "Arrow's impossibility theorem", and his work on general equilibrium analysis. He has also provided foundational work in many other areas of economics, including endogenous growth theory and the economics of information. Education and early career Arrow was born on 23 August 1921, in New York City. Arrow's mother, Lilian (Greenberg), was from Iași, Romania, and his father, Harry Arrow, was from nearby Podu Iloaiei. The Arrow family were Romanian Jews. His family was very supportive of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Affine Transformations In Euclidean geometry, an affine transformation or affinity (from the Latin, ''affinis'', "connected with") is a geometric transformation that preserves lines and parallelism, but not necessarily Euclidean distances and angles. More generally, an affine transformation is an automorphism of an affine space (Euclidean spaces are specific affine spaces), that is, a function which maps an affine space onto itself while preserving both the dimension of any affine subspaces (meaning that it sends points to points, lines to lines, planes to planes, and so on) and the ratios of the lengths of parallel line segments. Consequently, sets of parallel affine subspaces remain parallel after an affine transformation. An affine transformation does not necessarily preserve angles between lines or distances between points, though it does preserve ratios of distances between points lying on a straight line. If is the point set of an affine space, then every affine transformation on can be rep ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]