Regular Polygon
In Euclidean geometry, a regular polygon is a polygon that is direct equiangular (all angles are equal in measure) and equilateral (all sides have the same length). Regular polygons may be either convex, star or skew. In the limit, a sequence of regular polygons with an increasing number of sides approximates a circle, if the perimeter or area is fixed, or a regular apeirogon (effectively a straight line), if the edge length is fixed. General properties ''These properties apply to all regular polygons, whether convex or star.'' A regular ''n''sided polygon has rotational symmetry of order ''n''. All vertices of a regular polygon lie on a common circle (the circumscribed circle); i.e., they are concyclic points. That is, a regular polygon is a cyclic polygon. Together with the property of equallength sides, this implies that every regular polygon also has an inscribed circle or incircle that is tangent to every side at the midpoint. Thus a regular polygon is a tangential ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Edge (geometry)
In geometry, an edge is a particular type of line segment joining two vertices in a polygon, polyhedron, or higherdimensional polytope. In a polygon, an edge is a line segment on the boundary, and is often called a polygon side. In a polyhedron or more generally a polytope, an edge is a line segment where two faces (or polyhedron sides) meet. A segment joining two vertices while passing through the interior or exterior is not an edge but instead is called a diagonal. Relation to edges in graphs In graph theory, an edge is an abstract object connecting two graph vertices, unlike polygon and polyhedron edges which have a concrete geometric representation as a line segment. However, any polyhedron can be represented by its skeleton or edgeskeleton, a graph whose vertices are the geometric vertices of the polyhedron and whose edges correspond to the geometric edges. Conversely, the graphs that are skeletons of threedimensional polyhedra can be characterized by Steinitz's the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Convex Polygon
In geometry, a convex polygon is a polygon that is the boundary of a convex set. This means that the line segment between two points of the polygon is contained in the union of the interior and the boundary of the polygon. In particular, it is a simple polygon (not selfintersecting). Equivalently, a polygon is convex if every line that does not contain any edge intersects the polygon in at most two points. A strictly convex polygon is a convex polygon such that no line contains two of its edges. In a convex polygon, all interior angles are less than or equal to 180 degrees, while in a strictly convex polygon all interior angles are strictly less than 180 degrees. Properties The following properties of a simple polygon are all equivalent to convexity: *Every internal angle is strictly less than 180 degrees. *Every point on every line segment between two points inside or on the boundary of the polygon remains inside or on the boundary. *The polygon is entirely contained ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Incircle
In geometry, the incircle or inscribed circle of a triangle is the largest circle that can be contained in the triangle; it touches (is tangent to) the three sides. The center of the incircle is a triangle center called the triangle's incenter. An excircle or escribed circle of the triangle is a circle lying outside the triangle, tangent to one of its sides and tangent to the extensions of the other two. Every triangle has three distinct excircles, each tangent to one of the triangle's sides. The center of the incircle, called the incenter, can be found as the intersection of the three internal angle bisectors. The center of an excircle is the intersection of the internal bisector of one angle (at vertex , for example) and the external bisectors of the other two. The center of this excircle is called the excenter relative to the vertex , or the excenter of . Because the internal bisector of an angle is perpendicular to its external bisector, it follows that the center of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cyclic Polygon
In geometry, the circumscribed circle or circumcircle of a polygon is a circle that passes through all the vertices of the polygon. The center of this circle is called the circumcenter and its radius is called the circumradius. Not every polygon has a circumscribed circle. A polygon that does have one is called a cyclic polygon, or sometimes a concyclic polygon because its vertices are concyclic. All triangles, all regular simple polygons, all rectangles, all isosceles trapezoids, and all right kites are cyclic. A related notion is the one of a minimum bounding circle, which is the smallest circle that completely contains the polygon within it, if the circle's center is within the polygon. Every polygon has a unique minimum bounding circle, which may be constructed by a linear time algorithm. Even if a polygon has a circumscribed circle, it may be different from its minimum bounding circle. For example, for an obtuse triangle, the minimum bounding circle has the longest ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Circumscribed Circle
In geometry, the circumscribed circle or circumcircle of a polygon is a circle that passes through all the vertices of the polygon. The center of this circle is called the circumcenter and its radius is called the circumradius. Not every polygon has a circumscribed circle. A polygon that does have one is called a cyclic polygon, or sometimes a concyclic polygon because its vertices are concyclic. All triangles, all regular simple polygons, all rectangles, all isosceles trapezoids, and all right kites are cyclic. A related notion is the one of a minimum bounding circle, which is the smallest circle that completely contains the polygon within it, if the circle's center is within the polygon. Every polygon has a unique minimum bounding circle, which may be constructed by a linear time algorithm. Even if a polygon has a circumscribed circle, it may be different from its minimum bounding circle. For example, for an obtuse triangle, the minimum bounding circle has the longest sid ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rotational Symmetry
Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in geometry, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn. An object's degree of rotational symmetry is the number of distinct orientations in which it looks exactly the same for each rotation. Certain geometric objects are partially symmetrical when rotated at certain angles such as squares rotated 90°, however the only geometric objects that are fully rotationally symmetric at any angle are spheres, circles and other spheroids. Formal treatment Formally the rotational symmetry is symmetry with respect to some or all rotations in ''m''dimensional Euclidean space. Rotations are direct isometries, i.e., isometries preserving orientation. Therefore, a symmetry group of rotational symmetry is a subgroup of ''E''+(''m'') (see Euclidean group). Symmetry with respect to all rotations about all points implies translational symmetry with respect to all translations, so space is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Regular Star Polygons
In geometry, a star polygon is a type of nonconvex polygon. Regular star polygons have been studied in depth; while star polygons in general appear not to have been formally defined, certain notable ones can arise through truncation operations on regular simple and star polygons. Branko Grünbaum identified two primary definitions used by Johannes Kepler, one being the regular star polygons with intersecting edges that don't generate new vertices, and the second being simple isotoxal concave polygons. The first usage is included in polygrams which includes polygons like the pentagram but also compound figures like the hexagram. One definition of a ''star polygon'', used in turtle graphics, is a polygon having 2 or more turns (turning number and density), like in spirolaterals.Abelson, Harold, diSessa, Andera, 1980, ''Turtle Geometry'', MIT Press, p.24 Etymology Star polygon names combine a numeral prefix, such as '' penta'', with the Greek suffix ''gram'' (in this c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Line (geometry)
In geometry, a line is an infinitely long object with no width, depth, or curvature. Thus, lines are onedimensional objects, though they may exist in two, three, or higher dimension spaces. The word ''line'' may also refer to a line segment in everyday life, which has two points to denote its ends. Lines can be referred by two points that lay on it (e.g., \overleftrightarrow) or by a single letter (e.g., \ell). Euclid described a line as "breadthless length" which "lies evenly with respect to the points on itself"; he introduced several postulates as basic unprovable properties from which he constructed all of geometry, which is now called Euclidean geometry to avoid confusion with other geometries which have been introduced since the end of the 19th century (such as nonEuclidean, projective and affine geometry). In modern mathematics, given the multitude of geometries, the concept of a line is closely tied to the way the geometry is described. For instance, in analy ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Apeirogon
In geometry, an apeirogon () or infinite polygon is a generalized polygon with a countably infinite number of sides. Apeirogons are the twodimensional case of infinite polytopes. In some literature, the term "apeirogon" may refer only to the regular apeirogon, with an infinite dihedral group of symmetries. Definitions Classical constructive definition Given a point ''A0'' in a Euclidean space and a translation ''S'', define the point ''Ai'' to be the point obtained from ''i'' applications of the translation ''S'' to ''A0'', so ''Ai = Si(A0)''. The set of vertices ''Ai'' with ''i'' any integer, together with edges connecting adjacent vertices, is a sequence of equallength segments of a line, and is called the regular apeirogon as defined by H. S. M. Coxeter. A regular apeirogon can be defined as a partition of the Euclidean line ''E1'' into infinitely many equallength segments, generalizing the regular ''n''gon, which can be defined as a partition of the circle ''S1' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Area
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a region on the plane or on a curved surface. The area of a plane region or ''plane area'' refers to the area of a shape or planar lamina, while '' surface area'' refers to the area of an open surface or the boundary of a threedimensional object. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat. It is the twodimensional analogue of the length of a curve (a onedimensional concept) or the volume of a solid (a threedimensional concept). The area of a shape can be measured by comparing the shape to squares of a fixed size. In the International System of Units (SI), the standard unit of area is the square metre (written as m2), which is the area of a square whose sides are one metre long. A shape with an area of three square metres would have the same area as three such s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Perimeter
A perimeter is a closed path that encompasses, surrounds, or outlines either a two dimensional shape or a onedimensional length. The perimeter of a circle or an ellipse is called its circumference. Calculating the perimeter has several practical applications. A calculated perimeter is the length of fence required to surround a yard or garden. The perimeter of a wheel/circle (its circumference) describes how far it will roll in one revolution. Similarly, the amount of string wound around a spool is related to the spool's perimeter; if the length of the string was exact, it would equal the perimeter. Formulas The perimeter is the distance around a shape. Perimeters for more general shapes can be calculated, as any path, with \int_0^L \mathrms, where L is the length of the path and ds is an infinitesimal line element. Both of these must be replaced by algebraic forms in order to be practically calculated. If the perimeter is given as a closed piecewise smooth plane curv ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Circle
A circle is a shape consisting of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre. Equivalently, it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any point of the circle and the centre is called the radius. Usually, the radius is required to be a positive number. A circle with r=0 (a single point) is a degenerate case. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. Specifically, a circle is a simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior; in strict technical usage, the circle is only the boundary and the whole figure is called a '' disc''. A circle may also be defined as a specia ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 