Reduced Planck Constant
The Planck constant, or Planck's constant, is a fundamental physical constant of foundational importance in quantum mechanics. The constant gives the relationship between the energy of a photon and its frequency, and by the massenergy equivalence, the relationship between mass and frequency. Specifically, a photon's energy is equal to its frequency multiplied by the Planck constant. The constant is generally denoted by h. The reduced Planck constant, or Dirac constant, equal to the constant divided by 2 \pi, is denoted by \hbar. In metrology it is used, together with other constants, to define the kilogram, the SI unit of mass. The SI units are defined in such a way that, when the Planck constant is expressed in SI units, it has the exact value The constant was first postulated by Max Planck in 1900 as part of a solution to the ultraviolet catastrophe. At the end of the 19th century, accurate measurements of the spectrum of black body radiation existed, but the distribution ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Physical Constant
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time. It is contrasted with a mathematical constant, which has a fixed numerical value, but does not directly involve any physical measurement. There are many physical constants in science, some of the most widely recognized being the speed of light in a vacuum ''c'', the gravitational constant ''G'', the Planck constant ''h'', the electric constant ''ε''0, and the elementary charge ''e''. Physical constants can take many dimensional forms: the speed of light signifies a maximum speed for any object and its dimension is length divided by time; while the finestructure constant ''α'', which characterizes the strength of the electromagnetic interaction, is dimensionless. The term ''fundamental physical constant'' is sometimes used to refer to universalbutdimensioned physical constants suc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Joule
The joule ( , ; symbol: J) is the unit of energy in the International System of Units (SI). It is equal to the amount of work done when a force of 1 newton displaces a mass through a distance of 1 metre in the direction of the force applied. It is also the energy dissipated as heat when an electric current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818–1889). Definition In terms of SI base units and in terms of SI derived units with special names, the joule is defined as One joule can also be defined by any of the following: * The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one volt, or one coulombvolt (C⋅V). This relationship can be used to define the volt. * The work required to produce one watt of power for one second, or one wattsecond (W⋅s) (compare kilowatthour, which is 3.6 megajoules). This relationship can ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Harmonic Oscillator
In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force ''F'' proportional to the displacement ''x'': \vec F = k \vec x, where ''k'' is a positive constant. If ''F'' is the only force acting on the system, the system is called a simple harmonic oscillator, and it undergoes simple harmonic motion: sinusoidal oscillations about the equilibrium point, with a constant amplitude and a constant frequency (which does not depend on the amplitude). If a frictional force (damping) proportional to the velocity is also present, the harmonic oscillator is described as a damped oscillator. Depending on the friction coefficient, the system can: * Oscillate with a frequency lower than in the undamped case, and an amplitude decreasing with time (underdamped oscillator). * Decay to the equilibrium position, without oscillations (overdamped oscillator). The boundary solution between an underdamped oscill ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rayleigh–Jeans Law
In physics, the Rayleigh–Jeans law is an approximation to the spectral radiance of electromagnetic radiation as a function of wavelength from a black body at a given temperature through classical arguments. For wavelength λ, it is: B_ (T) = \frac, where B_ is the spectral radiance, the power emitted per unit emitting area, per steradian, per unit wavelength; c is the speed of light; k_ is the Boltzmann constant; and T is the temperature in kelvin. For frequency \nu, the expression is instead B_(T) = \frac. The Rayleigh–Jeans law agrees with experimental results at large wavelengths (low frequencies) but strongly disagrees at short wavelengths (high frequencies). This inconsistency between observations and the predictions of classical physics is commonly known as the ultraviolet catastrophe. Its resolution in 1900 with the derivation by Max Planck of Planck's law, which gives the correct radiation at all frequencies, was a foundational aspect of the development of quantum ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lord Rayleigh
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (; 12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was an English mathematician and physicist who made extensive contributions to science. He spent all of his academic career at the University of Cambridge. Among many honors, he received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies." He served as president of the Royal Society from 1905 to 1908 and as chancellor of the University of Cambridge from 1908 to 1919. Rayleigh provided the first theoretical treatment of the elastic scattering of light by particles much smaller than the light's wavelength, a phenomenon now known as "Rayleigh scattering", which notably explains why the sky is blue. He studied and described transverse surface waves in solids, now known as " Rayleigh waves". He contributed extensively to fluid dynamics, with concepts such as the Rayleigh number (a dimens ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wien Approximation
Wien's approximation (also sometimes called Wien's law or the Wien distribution law) is a law of physics used to describe the spectrum of thermal radiation (frequently called the blackbody function). This law was first derived by Wilhelm Wien in 1896. The equation does accurately describe the short wavelength (high frequency) spectrum of thermal emission from objects, but it fails to accurately fit the experimental data for long wavelengths (low frequency) emission. Details Wien derived his law from thermodynamic arguments, several years before Planck introduced the quantization of radiation. Wien's original paper did not contain the Planck constant. In this paper, Wien took the wavelength of black body radiation and combined it with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution for atoms. The exponential curve was created by the use of Euler's number e raised to the power of the temperature multiplied by a constant. Fundamental constants were later introduced by Max Planck. Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electromagnetic Radiation
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves of the electromagnetic (EM) field, which propagate through space and carry momentum and electromagnetic radiant energy. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, Xrays, and gamma rays. All of these waves form part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Classically, electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves, which are synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields. Depending on the frequency of oscillation, different wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum are produced. In a vacuum, electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light, commonly denoted ''c''. In homogeneous, isotropic media, the oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation, forming a transverse wave. The position of an electromagnetic wave within the electromagnetic spectrum can be characterized by either its ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Physical Body
In common usage and classical mechanics, a physical object or physical body (or simply an object or body) is a collection of matter within a defined contiguous boundary in threedimensional space. The boundary must be defined and identified by the properties of the material. The boundary may change over time. The boundary is usually the visible or tangible surface of the object. The matter in the object is constrained (to a greater or lesser degree) to move as one object. The boundary may move in space relative to other objects that it is not attached to (through translation and rotation). An object's boundary may also deform and change over time in other ways. Also in common usage, an object is not constrained to consist of the same collection of matter. Atoms or parts of an object may change over time. An object usually meant to be defined by the simplest representation of the boundary consistent with the observations. However the laws of physics only apply directly to objects ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gustav Kirchhoff
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (; 12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of blackbody radiation by heated objects. He coined the term blackbody radiation in 1862. Several different sets of concepts are named "Kirchhoff's laws" after him, concerning such diverse subjects as blackbody radiation and spectroscopy, electrical circuits, and thermochemistry. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after him and his colleague, Robert Bunsen. Life and work Gustav Kirchhoff was born on 12 March 1824 in Königsberg, Prussia, the son of Friedrich Kirchhoff, a lawyer, and Johanna Henriette Wittke. His family were Lutherans in the Evangelical Church of Prussia. He graduated from the Albertus University of Königsberg in 1847 where he attended the mathematicophysical seminar directed by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Franz Ernst Neumann and Friedrich Juliu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Blackbody Radiation
Blackbody radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within, or surrounding, a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, emitted by a black body (an idealized opaque, nonreflective body). It has a specific, continuous spectrum of wavelengths, inversely related to intensity, that depend only on the body's temperature, which is assumed, for the sake of calculations and theory, to be uniform and constant., Chapter 13. A perfectly insulated enclosure which is in thermal equilibrium internally contains blackbody radiation, and will emit it through a hole made in its wall, provided the hole is small enough to have a negligible effect upon the equilibrium. The thermal radiation spontaneously emitted by many ordinary objects can be approximated as blackbody radiation. Of particular importance, although planets and stars (including the Earth and Sun) are neither in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings nor perfect black bodies, blackbody radiation is st ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wiens Law , an equation that describes the relationship between the temperature of an object and the peak wavelength or frequency of the emitted light
{{disambiguation ...
Wien's law or Wien law may refer to: * Wien approximation, an equation used to describe the shortwavelength (high frequency) spectrum of thermal radiation * Wien's displacement law Wien's displacement law states that the blackbody radiation curve for different temperatures will peak at different wavelengths that are inversely proportional to the temperature. The shift of that peak is a direct consequence of the Planck r ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Max Planck Wirkungsquantums 20050815
Max or MAX may refer to: Animals * Max (dog) (1983–2013), at one time purported to be the world's oldest living dog * Max (English Springer Spaniel), the first pet dog to win the PDSA Order of Merit (animal equivalent of OBE) * Max (gorilla) (1971–2004), a western lowland gorilla at the Johannesburg Zoo who was shot by a criminal in 1997 Brands and enterprises * Australian Max Beer * Max Hamburgers, a fastfood corporation * MAX Index, a Hungarian domestic government bond index * Max Fashion, an Indian clothing brand Computing * MAX (operating system), a Spanishlanguage Linux version * Max (software), a music programming language * Commodore MAX Machine * Multimedia Acceleration eXtensions, extensions for HP PARISC Films * ''Max'' (1994 film), a Canadian film by Charles Wilkinson * ''Max'' (2002 film), a film about Adolf Hitler * ''Max'' (2015 film), an American war drama film Games * ''Dancing Stage Max'', a 2005 game in the ''Dance Dance Revolution'' series * '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 