Quartic Equation
In mathematics, a quartic equation is one which can be expressed as a ''quartic function'' equaling zero. The general form of a quartic equation is :ax^4+bx^3+cx^2+dx+e=0 \, where ''a'' ≠ 0. The quartic is the highest order polynomial equation that can be solved by radicals in the general case (i.e., one in which the coefficients can take any value). History Lodovico Ferrari is attributed with the discovery of the solution to the quartic in 1540, but since this solution, like all algebraic solutions of the quartic, requires the solution of a cubic to be found, it couldn't be published immediately. The solution of the quartic was published together with that of the cubic by Ferrari's mentor Gerolamo Cardano in the book '' Ars Magna'' (1545). The proof that this was the highest order general polynomial for which such solutions could be found was first given in the Abel–Ruffini theorem in 1824, proving that all attempts at solving the higher order polynomials would ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quartic Equation
In mathematics, a quartic equation is one which can be expressed as a ''quartic function'' equaling zero. The general form of a quartic equation is :ax^4+bx^3+cx^2+dx+e=0 \, where ''a'' ≠ 0. The quartic is the highest order polynomial equation that can be solved by radicals in the general case (i.e., one in which the coefficients can take any value). History Lodovico Ferrari is attributed with the discovery of the solution to the quartic in 1540, but since this solution, like all algebraic solutions of the quartic, requires the solution of a cubic to be found, it couldn't be published immediately. The solution of the quartic was published together with that of the cubic by Ferrari's mentor Gerolamo Cardano in the book '' Ars Magna'' (1545). The proof that this was the highest order general polynomial for which such solutions could be found was first given in the Abel–Ruffini theorem in 1824, proving that all attempts at solving the higher order polynomials would ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quartic Function
In algebra, a quartic function is a function of the form :f(x)=ax^4+bx^3+cx^2+dx+e, where ''a'' is nonzero, which is defined by a polynomial of degree four, called a quartic polynomial. A '' quartic equation'', or equation of the fourth degree, is an equation that equates a quartic polynomial to zero, of the form :ax^4+bx^3+cx^2+dx+e=0 , where . The derivative of a quartic function is a cubic function. Sometimes the term biquadratic is used instead of ''quartic'', but, usually, biquadratic function refers to a quadratic function of a square (or, equivalently, to the function defined by a quartic polynomial without terms of odd degree), having the form :f(x)=ax^4+cx^2+e. Since a quartic function is defined by a polynomial of even degree, it has the same infinite limit when the argument goes to positive or negative infinity. If ''a'' is positive, then the function increases to positive infinity at both ends; and thus the function has a global minimum. Likewise, if ''a'' is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadratic Equation
In algebra, a quadratic equation () is any equation that can be rearranged in standard form as ax^2 + bx + c = 0\,, where represents an unknown value, and , , and represent known numbers, where . (If and then the equation is linear, not quadratic.) The numbers , , and are the '' coefficients'' of the equation and may be distinguished by respectively calling them, the ''quadratic coefficient'', the ''linear coefficient'' and the ''constant'' or ''free term''. The values of that satisfy the equation are called ''solutions'' of the equation, and '' roots'' or '' zeros'' of the expression on its lefthand side. A quadratic equation has at most two solutions. If there is only one solution, one says that it is a double root. If all the coefficients are real numbers, there are either two real solutions, or a single real double root, or two complex solutions that are complex conjugates of each other. A quadratic equation always has two roots, if complex roots are included; and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Equation
In mathematics, a linear equation is an equation that may be put in the form a_1x_1+\ldots+a_nx_n+b=0, where x_1,\ldots,x_n are the variables (or unknowns), and b,a_1,\ldots,a_n are the coefficients, which are often real numbers. The coefficients may be considered as parameters of the equation, and may be arbitrary expressions, provided they do not contain any of the variables. To yield a meaningful equation, the coefficients a_1, \ldots, a_n are required to not all be zero. Alternatively, a linear equation can be obtained by equating to zero a linear polynomial over some field, from which the coefficients are taken. The solutions of such an equation are the values that, when substituted for the unknowns, make the equality true. In the case of just one variable, there is exactly one solution (provided that a_1\ne 0). Often, the term ''linear equation'' refers implicitly to this particular case, in which the variable is sensibly called the ''unknown''. In the case of two ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Durand–Kerner Method
In numerical analysis, the Weierstrass method or Durand–Kerner method, discovered by Karl Weierstrass in 1891 and rediscovered independently by Durand in 1960 and Kerner in 1966, is a rootfinding algorithm for solving polynomial equations. In other words, the method can be used to solve numerically the equation : ''f''(''x'') = 0, where ''f'' is a given polynomial, which can be taken to be scaled so that the leading coefficient is 1. Explanation This explanation considers equations of degree four. It is easily generalized to other degrees. Let the polynomial ''f'' be defined by : f(x) = x^4 + ax^3 + bx^2 + cx + d for all ''x''. The known numbers ''a'', ''b'', ''c'', ''d'' are the coefficients. Let the (complex) numbers ''P'', ''Q'', ''R'', ''S'' be the roots of this polynomial ''f''. Then : f(x) = (x  P)(x  Q)(x  R)(x  S) for all ''x''. One can isolate the value ''P'' from this equation: : P = x  \frac. So if used as a fixedpoint iteration : x_1 := x_0 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Involution (mathematics)
In mathematics, an involution, involutory function, or selfinverse function is a function that is its own inverse, : for all in the domain of . Equivalently, applying twice produces the original value. General properties Any involution is a bijection. The identity map is a trivial example of an involution. Examples of nontrivial involutions include negation (x \mapsto x), reciprocation (x \mapsto 1/x), and complex conjugation (z \mapsto \bar z) in arithmetic; reflection, halfturn rotation, and circle inversion in geometry; complementation in set theory Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of mathematics, is mostly concern ...; and reciprocal ciphers such as the ROT13 transformation and the Beaufort cipher, Beaufort polyalphabetic cipher. The Function composition, composition of two invol ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hadamard Matrix
In mathematics, a Hadamard matrix, named after the French mathematician Jacques Hadamard, is a square matrix whose entries are either +1 or −1 and whose rows are mutually orthogonal. In geometric terms, this means that each pair of rows in a Hadamard matrix represents two perpendicular vectors, while in combinatorial terms, it means that each pair of rows has matching entries in exactly half of their columns and mismatched entries in the remaining columns. It is a consequence of this definition that the corresponding properties hold for columns as well as rows. The ''n''dimensional parallelotope spanned by the rows of an ''n''×''n'' Hadamard matrix has the maximum possible ''n''dimensional volume among parallelotopes spanned by vectors whose entries are bounded in absolute value by 1. Equivalently, a Hadamard matrix has maximal determinant among matrices with entries of absolute value less than or equal to 1 and so is an extremal solution of Hadamard's maximal deter ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normal Subgroup
In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup (also known as an invariant subgroup or selfconjugate subgroup) is a subgroup that is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part. In other words, a subgroup N of the group G is normal in G if and only if gng^ \in N for all g \in G and n \in N. The usual notation for this relation is N \triangleleft G. Normal subgroups are important because they (and only they) can be used to construct quotient groups of the given group. Furthermore, the normal subgroups of G are precisely the kernels of group homomorphisms with domain G, which means that they can be used to internally classify those homomorphisms. Évariste Galois was the first to realize the importance of the existence of normal subgroups. Definitions A subgroup N of a group G is called a normal subgroup of G if it is invariant under conjugation; that is, the conjugation of an element of N by an element of G is always in N. The usual notation for thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Klein Fourgroup
In mathematics, the Klein fourgroup is a group with four elements, in which each element is selfinverse (composing it with itself produces the identity) and in which composing any two of the three nonidentity elements produces the third one. It can be described as the symmetry group of a nonsquare rectangle (with the three nonidentity elements being horizontal and vertical reflection and 180degree rotation), as the group of bitwise exclusive or operations on twobit binary values, or more abstractly as , the direct product of two copies of the cyclic group of order 2. It was named ''Vierergruppe'' (meaning fourgroup) by Felix Klein in 1884. It is also called the Klein group, and is often symbolized by the letter V or as K4. The Klein fourgroup, with four elements, is the smallest group that is not a cyclic group. There is only one other group of order four, up to isomorphism, the cyclic group of order 4. Both are abelian groups. The smallest nonabelian group is the sy ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetric Group
In abstract algebra, the symmetric group defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions. In particular, the finite symmetric group \mathrm_n defined over a finite set of n symbols consists of the permutations that can be performed on the n symbols. Since there are n! (n factorial) such permutation operations, the order (number of elements) of the symmetric group \mathrm_n is n!. Although symmetric groups can be defined on infinite sets, this article focuses on the finite symmetric groups: their applications, their elements, their conjugacy classes, a finite presentation, their subgroups, their automorphism groups, and their representation theory. For the remainder of this article, "symmetric group" will mean a symmetric group on a finite set. The symmetric group is important to diverse areas of mathematics such as Galois theory, invariant theory, the repres ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Conjugate
In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. That is, (if a and b are real, then) the complex conjugate of a + bi is equal to a  bi. The complex conjugate of z is often denoted as \overline or z^*. In polar form, the conjugate of r e^ is r e^. This can be shown using Euler's formula. The product of a complex number and its conjugate is a real number: a^2 + b^2 (or r^2 in polar coordinates). If a root of a univariate polynomial with real coefficients is complex, then its complex conjugate is also a root. Notation The complex conjugate of a complex number z is written as \overline z or z^*. The first notation, a vinculum, avoids confusion with the notation for the conjugate transpose of a matrix, which can be thought of as a generalization of the complex conjugate. The second is preferred in physics, where dagger (†) is used for the conjugate ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 