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Punitive
Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behavior that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable. It is, however, possible to distinguish between various different understandings of what punishment is. The reasoning for punishment may be to condition a child to avoid self-endangerment, to impose social conformity (in particular, in the contexts of compulsory education or military discipline), to defend norms, to protect against future harms (in particular, those from violent crime), and to maintain the law—and respect for rule of law—under which the social group is governed. and violates the law or rules by which the group is governed. Punishment may be self-inflicted as with self-flagellation and mortification of the flesh in the religious setting, but is most of ...
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Child Discipline
Child discipline is the methods used to prevent future unwanted behaviour in children. The word ''discipline'' is defined as imparting knowledge and skill, in other words, to teach. In its most general sense, discipline refers to systematic instruction given to a disciple. ''To discipline'' means to instruct a person to follow a particular code of conduct. Discipline is used by parents to teach their children about expectations, guidelines and principles. Child discipline can involve rewards and punishments to teach self-control, increase desirable behaviors and decrease undesirable behaviors. While the purpose of child discipline is to develop and entrench desirable social habits in children, the ultimate goal is to foster particular judgement and morals so the child develops and maintains self-discipline throughout the rest of their life. Because the values, beliefs, education, customs and cultures of people vary so widely, along with the age and temperament of the child, me ...
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Chapeltown Stocks
Chapeltown may refer to: *Chapeltown, Lancashire, a village in the borough of Blackburn with Darwen * Chapeltown, South Yorkshire, a suburb of Sheffield *Chapeltown, Leeds, a suburb of Leeds *Chapeltown, County Kerry Chapeltown ( ga, An Caol) is a village on Valentia Island in the south-west of County Kerry. It is the second major settlement on the Island, the other being Knightstown 4 kilometers away. Chapeltown is located in the centre of the Island, a ..., a village on Valentia Island See also * Chapelton (other) * Chapeltoun, estate in East Ayrshire, Scotland {{geodis ...
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Imprisonment
Imprisonment is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority. In the latter case it is " false imprisonment". Imprisonment does not necessarily imply a place of confinement, with bolts and bars, but may be exercised by any use or display of force (such as placing one in handcuffs), lawfully or unlawfully, wherever displayed, even in the open street. People become prisoners, wherever they may be, by the mere word or touch of a duly authorized officer directed to that end. Usually, however, imprisonment is understood to imply an actual confinement in a jail or prison employed for the purpose according to the provisions of the law. Sometimes gender imbalances occur in imprisonment rates, with incarceration of males proportionately more likely than incarceration of females. History Africa Before colonisation, imprisonment was used in sub-Saharan Africa for pre-trial detentio ...
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Incarceration
Imprisonment is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority. In the latter case it is " false imprisonment". Imprisonment does not necessarily imply a place of confinement, with bolts and bars, but may be exercised by any use or display of force (such as placing one in handcuffs), lawfully or unlawfully, wherever displayed, even in the open street. People become prisoners, wherever they may be, by the mere word or touch of a duly authorized officer directed to that end. Usually, however, imprisonment is understood to imply an actual confinement in a jail or prison employed for the purpose according to the provisions of the law. Sometimes gender imbalances occur in imprisonment rates, with incarceration of males proportionately more likely than incarceration of females. History Africa Before colonisation, imprisonment was used in sub-Saharan Africa for pre-trial detentio ...
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Liberty
Liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom. In modern politics, liberty is understood as the state of being free within society from control or oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one's way of life, behavior, or political views. In theology, liberty is freedom from the effects of "sin, spiritual servitude, rworldly ties". Sometimes liberty is differentiated from freedom by using the word "freedom" primarily, if not exclusively, to mean the ability to do as one wills and what one has the power to do; and using the word "liberty" to mean the absence of arbitrary restraints, taking into account the rights of all involved. In this sense, the exercise of liberty is subject to capability and limited by the rights of others. Thus liberty entails the responsible use of freedom under the rule of law without depriving anyone else of their freedom. Liberty can be ...
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Reprimands
A reprimand is a severe, formal or official reproof. Reprimanding takes in different forms in different legal systems. A reprimand in custody may be a formal legal action issued by a government agency or professional governing board (e.g. medical board, bar council). It may also be an administrative warning issued by an employer or school. United Kingdom From 1998 until 2013 in the UK, young people aged 10–17 years old could receive a reprimand (provided they had not previously been given a reprimand, a final warning or been found guilty at court). A reprimand was a formal verbal warning given by a police officer to a young person who admitted they are guilty of a 'minor' first offence. The police passed on the details to the local Youth Offending Team of those young people given a reprimand. Sometimes the young person would be referred to the YOT to take part in a voluntary programme to help them address their offending behaviour. Reprimands and final warnings were crimina ...
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Sanctions (law)
Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations. Criminal sanctions can take the form of serious punishment, such as corporal or capital punishment, incarceration, or severe fines. Within the context of civil law, sanctions are usually monetary fines, levied against a party to a lawsuit or their attorney, for violating rules of procedure, or for abusing the judicial process. The most severe sanction in a civil lawsuit is the involuntary dismissal, with prejudice, of a complaining party's cause of action, or of the responding party's answer. This has the effect of deciding the entire action against the sanctioned party without recourse, except to the degree that an appeal or trial ''de novo'' may be allowed because of reversible error. As a noun, the term is usually used in the plural form, even if it only refers to a single event: if a judge fines ...
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Spite (sentiment)
Spite or spitefulness as a sentiment, action, or a personality trait has several possible meanings. According to the American Psychological Association there is "no standard definition of spitefulness. Spite can be broadly defined to include any vindictive or mean-spirited actions. Alternatively, a narrower definition includes the requirement that spiteful acts involve some degree of self-harm." One possible definition of spite is to intentionally annoy, hurt, or upset even when there might be no (apparent) gain, and even when those actions might cause the person spiting harm, as well. ''Spiteful'' words or actions are delivered in such a way that it is clear that the person is delivering them just to annoy, hurt, or upset. In his 1929 examination of emotional disturbances, ''Psychology and Morals: An Analysis of Character'', J. A. Hadfield uses deliberately spiteful acts to illustrate the difference between disposition and sentiment. Spite has also been studied as a trait of ...
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Revenge
Revenge is committing a harmful action against a person or group in response to a grievance, be it real or perceived. Francis Bacon described revenge as a kind of "wild justice" that "does... offend the law ndputteth the law out of office." Primitive justice or retributive justice is often differentiated from more formal and refined forms of justice such as distributive justice and divine judgment. Function in society Social psychologist Ian Mckee states that the desire for the sustenance of power motivates vengeful behavior as a means of impression management: "People who are more vengeful tend to be those who are motivated by power, by authority and by the desire for status. They don't want to lose face". Vengeful behavior has been found across a majority of human societies. Some societies encourage vengeful behavior, which is called a feud. These societies usually regard the honor of individuals and groups as of central importance. Thus, while protecting of their re ...
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Incapacitation (penology)
Incapacitation in the context of criminal sentencing philosophy is one of the functions of punishment. It involves capital punishment, sending an offender to prison, or possibly restricting their freedom in the community, to protect society and prevent that person from committing further crimes. Incarceration, as the primary mechanism for incapacitation, is also used as to try to deter future offending. Purpose Incapacitation is used primarily to protect the public from offenders who are seen as sufficiently dangerous that they need to be 'removed' from society for a period of time, which is achieved usually by sending the offender to prison ( incarceration). In most countries, prison sentences are applied for a range of different crimes but are almost certain to be applied to those who commit serious assaults, murder or sex crimes. However, the risk that offenders pose to society is largely a matter of perception. As a result, how the justice system in one country treats a ...
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Rehabilitation (penology)
Rehabilitation is the process of re-educating and retraining those who commit crime. It generally involves psychological approaches which target the cognitive distortions associated with specific kinds of crime committed by particular offenders – but may also involve more general education such as literacy skills and work training. The goal is to re-integrate offenders back into society. Methods A successful rehabilitation of a prisoner is also helped if convicted persons: * are not placed in health-threateningly bad conditions, enjoy access to medical care and are protected from other forms of serious ill-treatment,Clare Ovey, Ensuring respect of the rights of prisoners under the European Convention on Human Rights as part of their reintegration process'', Registry of the European Court of Human Rights. * are able to maintain ties to the outside world, * learn new skills to assist them with working life on the outside, * enjoy clear and detailed statutory regulations clarif ...
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Deterrence (legal)
Deterrence in relation to criminal offending is the idea or theory that the threat of punishment will deter people from committing crime and reduce the probability and/or level of offending in society. It is one of five objectives that punishment is thought to achieve; the other four objectives are denunciation, incapacitation (for the protection of society), retribution and rehabilitation. Criminal deterrence theory has two possible applications: the first is that punishments imposed on individual offenders will deter or prevent that particular offender from committing further crimes; the second is that public knowledge that certain offences will be punished has a generalised deterrent effect which prevents others from committing crimes. Two different aspects of punishment may have an impact on deterrence, the first being the ''certainty of punishment'', by increasing the likelihood of apprehension and punishment, this may have a deterrent effect. The second relates to the ''s ...
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