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Product Rule
In calculus, the product rule (or Leibniz rule or Leibniz product rule) is a formula used to find the derivatives of products of two or more functions. For two functions, it may be stated in Lagrange's notation as (u \cdot v)' = u ' \cdot v + u \cdot v' or in Leibniz's notation as \frac (u\cdot v) = \frac \cdot v + u \cdot \frac. The rule may be extended or generalized to products of three or more functions, to a rule for higher-order derivatives of a product, and to other contexts. Discovery Discovery of this rule is credited to Gottfried Leibniz, who demonstrated it using differentials. (However, J. M. Child, a translator of Leibniz's papers, argues that it is due to Isaac Barrow.) Here is Leibniz's argument: Let ''u''(''x'') and ''v''(''x'') be two differentiable functions of ''x''. Then the differential of ''uv'' is : \begin d(u\cdot v) & = (u + du)\cdot (v + dv) - u\cdot v \\ & = u\cdot dv + v\cdot du + du\cdot dv. \end Since the term ''du''·''dv'' is "negli ...
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Schema Règle Produit
The word schema comes from the Greek word ('), which means ''shape'', or more generally, ''plan''. The plural is ('). In English, both ''schemas'' and ''schemata'' are used as plural forms. Schema may refer to: Science and technology * SCHEMA (bioinformatics), an algorithm used in protein engineering * Schema (genetic algorithms), a set of programs or bit strings that have some genotypic similarity * Schema.org, a web markup vocabulary * Schema (logic) ** Axiom schema, in formal logic * Image schema, a recurring pattern of spatial sensory experience * Database schema * XML schema Other * Body schema Body schema is a concept used in several disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, sports medicine, and robotics. The neurologist Sir Henry Head originally defined it as a postural model of the body that actively organizes and m ..., a neural representation of one's own bodily posture * Galant Schemata, stock phrases in Galant music * Schema (Kant), in philos ...
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Big O Notation
Big ''O'' notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. Big O is a member of a family of notations invented by Paul Bachmann, Edmund Landau, and others, collectively called Bachmann–Landau notation or asymptotic notation. The letter O was chosen by Bachmann to stand for '' Ordnung'', meaning the order of approximation. In computer science, big O notation is used to classify algorithms according to how their run time or space requirements grow as the input size grows. In analytic number theory, big O notation is often used to express a bound on the difference between an arithmetical function and a better understood approximation; a famous example of such a difference is the remainder term in the prime number theorem. Big O notation is also used in many other fields to provide similar estimates. Big O notation characterizes functions according to their growth rate ...
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Recursion
Recursion (adjective: ''recursive'') occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type. Recursion is used in a variety of disciplines ranging from linguistics to logic. The most common application of recursion is in mathematics and computer science, where a function being defined is applied within its own definition. While this apparently defines an infinite number of instances (function values), it is often done in such a way that no infinite loop or infinite chain of references ("crock recursion") can occur. Formal definitions In mathematics and computer science, a class of objects or methods exhibits recursive behavior when it can be defined by two properties: * A simple ''base case'' (or cases) — a terminating scenario that does not use recursion to produce an answer * A ''recursive step'' — a set of rules that reduces all successive cases toward the base case. For example, the following is a recursive definition of a person's ''ancestor''. One's an ...
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Logarithmic Differentiation
In calculus, logarithmic differentiation or differentiation by taking logarithms is a method used to differentiate functions by employing the logarithmic derivative of a function ''f'', :(\ln f)' = \frac \quad \implies \quad f' = f \cdot (\ln f)'. The technique is often performed in cases where it is easier to differentiate the logarithm of a function rather than the function itself. This usually occurs in cases where the function of interest is composed of a product of a number of parts, so that a logarithmic transformation will turn it into a sum of separate parts (which is much easier to differentiate). It can also be useful when applied to functions raised to the power of variables or functions. Logarithmic differentiation relies on the chain rule as well as properties of logarithms (in particular, the natural logarithm, or the logarithm to the base '' e'') to transform products into sums and divisions into subtractions. The principle can be implemented, at least in par ...
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Logarithmic Derivative
In mathematics, specifically in calculus and complex analysis, the logarithmic derivative of a function ''f'' is defined by the formula \frac where f' is the derivative of ''f''. Intuitively, this is the infinitesimal relative change in ''f''; that is, the infinitesimal absolute change in ''f,'' namely f', scaled by the current value of ''f.'' When ''f'' is a function ''f''(''x'') of a real variable ''x'', and takes real, strictly positive values, this is equal to the derivative of ln(''f''), or the natural logarithm of ''f''. This follows directly from the chain rule: \frac\ln f(x) = \frac \frac Basic properties Many properties of the real logarithm also apply to the logarithmic derivative, even when the function does ''not'' take values in the positive reals. For example, since the logarithm of a product is the sum of the logarithms of the factors, we have (\log uv)' = (\log u + \log v)' = (\log u)' + (\log v)' . So for positive-real-valued functions, the logarithmic d ...
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Natural Logarithm
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant , which is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to . The natural logarithm of is generally written as , , or sometimes, if the base is implicit, simply . Parentheses are sometimes added for clarity, giving , , or . This is done particularly when the argument to the logarithm is not a single symbol, so as to prevent ambiguity. The natural logarithm of is the power to which would have to be raised to equal . For example, is , because . The natural logarithm of itself, , is , because , while the natural logarithm of is , since . The natural logarithm can be defined for any positive real number as the area under the curve from to (with the area being negative when ). The simplicity of this definition, which is matched in many other formulas involving the natural logarithm, leads to the term "natural". The definition of the natural logarithm can the ...
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Transcendental Law Of Homogeneity
In mathematics, the transcendental law of homogeneity (TLH) is a heuristic principle enunciated by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz most clearly in a 1710 text entitled ''Symbolismus memorabilis calculi algebraici et infinitesimalis in comparatione potentiarum et differentiarum, et de lege homogeneorum transcendentali''. Henk J. M. Bos describes it as the principle to the effect that in a sum involving infinitesimals of different orders, only the lowest-order term must be retained, and the remainder discarded. Thus, if a is finite and dx is infinitesimal, then one sets :a+dx=a. Similarly, :u\,dv+v\,du+du\,dv=u\,dv+v\,du, where the higher-order term ''du'' ''dv'' is discarded in accordance with the TLH. A recent study argues that Leibniz's TLH was a precursor of the standard part function over the hyperreals In mathematics, the system of hyperreal numbers is a way of treating infinite and infinitesimal (infinitely small but non-zero) quantities. The hyperreals, or nonstan ...
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Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz . ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and diplomat. He is one of the most prominent figures in both the history of philosophy and the history of mathematics. He wrote works on philosophy, theology, ethics, politics, law, history and philology. Leibniz also made major contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in probability theory, biology, medicine, geology, psychology, linguistics and computer science. In addition, he contributed to the field of library science: while serving as overseer of the Wolfenbüttel library in Germany, he devised a cataloging system that would have served as a guide for many of Europe's largest libraries. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters and in unpublished manuscripts. He wrote in several languages, primarily in L ...
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Finite Number
Finite number may refer to: * A countable number less than infinity, being the cardinality of a finite set – i.e., some natural number, possibly 0 * A real number In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' one-dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every ..., such as may result from a measurement (of time, length, area, etc.) * In mathematical parlance, a value other than infinite or infinitesimal values and distinct from the value 0 See also * Finite (other) {{disambiguation ...
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Standard Part Function
In nonstandard analysis, the standard part function is a function from the limited (finite) hyperreal numbers to the real numbers. Briefly, the standard part function "rounds off" a finite hyperreal to the nearest real. It associates to every such hyperreal x, the unique real x_0 infinitely close to it, i.e. x-x_0 is infinitesimal. As such, it is a mathematical implementation of the historical concept of adequality introduced by Pierre de Fermat,Karin Usadi Katz and Mikhail G. Katz (2011) A Burgessian Critique of Nominalistic Tendencies in Contemporary Mathematics and its Historiography. Foundations of Science.Searxiv The authors refer to the Fermat-Robinson standard part. as well as Leibniz's Transcendental law of homogeneity. The standard part function was first defined by Abraham Robinson who used the notation ^x for the standard part of a hyperreal x (see Robinson 1974). This concept plays a key role in defining the concepts of the calculus, such as continuity, the deri ...
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Hyperreal Number
In mathematics, the system of hyperreal numbers is a way of treating infinite and infinitesimal (infinitely small but non-zero) quantities. The hyperreals, or nonstandard reals, *R, are an extension of the real numbers R that contains numbers greater than anything of the form :1 + 1 + \cdots + 1 (for any finite number of terms). Such numbers are infinite, and their reciprocals are infinitesimals. The term "hyper-real" was introduced by Edwin Hewitt in 1948. The hyperreal numbers satisfy the transfer principle, a rigorous version of Leibniz's heuristic law of continuity. The transfer principle states that true first-order statements about R are also valid in *R. For example, the commutative law of addition, , holds for the hyperreals just as it does for the reals; since R is a real closed field, so is *R. Since \sin()=0 for all integers ''n'', one also has \sin()=0 for all hyperintegers H. The transfer principle for ultrapowers is a consequence of Łoś' theorem ...
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Non-standard Analysis
The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal numbers. The standard way to resolve these debates is to define the operations of calculus using epsilon–delta procedures rather than infinitesimals. Nonstandard analysis instead reformulates the calculus using a logically rigorous notion of infinitesimal numbers. Nonstandard analysis originated in the early 1960s by the mathematician Abraham Robinson. He wrote: ... the idea of infinitely small or ''infinitesimal'' quantities seems to appeal naturally to our intuition. At any rate, the use of infinitesimals was widespread during the formative stages of the Differential and Integral Calculus. As for the objection ... that the distance between two distinct real numbers cannot be infinitely small, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz argued that the theory of infinitesimals implies the introduction of ideal numbers which might be infinitely small or infinitely ...
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