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 Perfect Set In general topology, a subset of a topological space is perfect if it is closed and has no isolated points. Equivalently: the set S is perfect if S=S', where S' denotes the set of all Limit point, limit points of S, also known as the derived set of S. In a perfect set, every point can be approximated arbitrarily well by other points from the set: given any point of S and any neighborhood of the point, there is another point of S that lies within the neighborhood. Furthermore, any point of the space that can be so approximated by points of S belongs to S. Note that the term ''perfect space'' is also used, incompatibly, to refer to other properties of a topological space, such as being a Gδ space. As another possible source of confusion, also note that having the perfect set property is not the same as being a perfect set. Examples Examples of perfect subsets of the real line \mathbb are the empty set, all closed intervals, the real line itself, and the Cantor set. The ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info General Topology In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic set-theoretic definitions and constructions used in topology. It is the foundation of most other branches of topology, including differential topology, geometric topology, and algebraic topology. Another name for general topology is point-set topology. The fundamental concepts in point-set topology are ''continuity'', ''compactness'', and ''connectedness'': * Continuous functions, intuitively, take nearby points to nearby points. * Compact sets are those that can be covered by finitely many sets of arbitrarily small size. * Connected sets are sets that cannot be divided into two pieces that are far apart. The terms 'nearby', 'arbitrarily small', and 'far apart' can all be made precise by using the concept of open sets. If we change the definition of 'open set', we change what continuous functions, compact sets, and connected sets are. Each choice of definition for 'open set' is called a ''top ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Polish Space In the mathematical discipline of general topology, a Polish space is a separable completely metrizable topological space; that is, a space homeomorphic to a complete metric space that has a countable dense subset. Polish spaces are so named because they were first extensively studied by Polish topologists and logicians— Sierpiński, Kuratowski, Tarski and others. However, Polish spaces are mostly studied today because they are the primary setting for descriptive set theory, including the study of Borel equivalence relations. Polish spaces are also a convenient setting for more advanced measure theory, in particular in probability theory. Common examples of Polish spaces are the real line, any separable Banach space, the Cantor space, and the Baire space. Additionally, some spaces that are not complete metric spaces in the usual metric may be Polish; e.g., the open interval (0, 1) is Polish. Between any two uncountable Polish spaces, there is a Borel isomorphism; t ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Finite Intersection Property In general topology, a branch of mathematics, a non-empty family ''A'' of subsets of a set X is said to have the finite intersection property (FIP) if the intersection over any finite subcollection of A is non-empty. It has the strong finite intersection property (SFIP) if the intersection over any finite subcollection of A is infinite. Sets with the finite intersection property are also called centered systems and filter subbases. The finite intersection property can be used to reformulate topological compactness in terms of closed sets; this is its most prominent application. Other applications include proving that certain perfect sets are uncountable, and the construction of ultrafilters. Definition Let X be a set and \mathcal a nonempty family of subsets of that is, \mathcal is a subset of the power set of Then \mathcal is said to have the finite intersection property if every nonempty finite subfamily has nonempty intersection; it is said to have the strong finit ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Dense-in-itself In general topology, a subset A of a topological space is said to be dense-in-itself or crowded if A has no isolated point. Equivalently, A is dense-in-itself if every point of A is a limit point of A. Thus A is dense-in-itself if and only if A\subseteq A', where A' is the derived set of A. A dense-in-itself closed set is called a perfect set. (In other words, a perfect set is a closed set without isolated point.) The notion of dense set is unrelated to ''dense-in-itself''. This can sometimes be confusing, as "X is dense in X" (always true) is not the same as "X is dense-in-itself" (no isolated point). Examples A simple example of a set that is dense-in-itself but not closed (and hence not a perfect set) is the set of irrational numbers (considered as a subset of the real numbers). This set is dense-in-itself because every neighborhood of an irrational number x contains at least one other irrational number y \neq x. On the other hand, the set of irrationals is not closed be ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Injective Function In mathematics, an injective function (also known as injection, or one-to-one function) is a function that maps distinct elements of its domain to distinct elements; that is, implies . (Equivalently, implies in the equivalent contrapositive statement.) In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. The term must not be confused with that refers to bijective functions, which are functions such that each element in the codomain is an image of exactly one element in the domain. A homomorphism between algebraic structures is a function that is compatible with the operations of the structures. For all common algebraic structures, and, in particular for vector spaces, an is also called a . However, in the more general context of category theory, the definition of a monomorphism differs from that of an injective homomorphism. This is thus a theorem that they are equivalent for algebraic structures; see for more details. ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Hausdorff Space In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space ( , ), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where, for any two distinct points, there exist neighbourhoods of each which are disjoint from each other. Of the many separation axioms that can be imposed on a topological space, the "Hausdorff condition" (T2) is the most frequently used and discussed. It implies the uniqueness of limits of sequences, nets, and filters. Hausdorff spaces are named after Felix Hausdorff, one of the founders of topology. Hausdorff's original definition of a topological space (in 1914) included the Hausdorff condition as an axiom. Definitions Points x and y in a topological space X can be '' separated by neighbourhoods'' if there exists a neighbourhood U of x and a neighbourhood V of y such that U and V are disjoint (U\cap V=\varnothing). X is a Hausdorff space if any two distinct points in X are separated by neighbourhoods. This condition is the third separati ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Locally Compact In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space is called locally compact if, roughly speaking, each small portion of the space looks like a small portion of a compact space. More precisely, it is a topological space in which every point has a compact neighborhood. In mathematical analysis locally compact spaces that are Hausdorff are of particular interest; they are abbreviated as LCH spaces. Formal definition Let ''X'' be a topological space. Most commonly ''X'' is called locally compact if every point ''x'' of ''X'' has a compact neighbourhood, i.e., there exists an open set ''U'' and a compact set ''K'', such that x\in U\subseteq K. There are other common definitions: They are all equivalent if ''X'' is a Hausdorff space (or preregular). But they are not equivalent in general: :1. every point of ''X'' has a compact neighbourhood. :2. every point of ''X'' has a closed compact neighbourhood. :2′. every point of ''X'' has a relatively compact neighbourhood ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Separable Space In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence \_^ of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence. Like the other axioms of countability, separability is a "limitation on size", not necessarily in terms of cardinality (though, in the presence of the Hausdorff axiom, this does turn out to be the case; see below) but in a more subtle topological sense. In particular, every continuous function on a separable space whose image is a subset of a Hausdorff space is determined by its values on the countable dense subset. Contrast separability with the related notion of second countability, which is in general stronger but equivalent on the class of metrizable spaces. First examples Any topological space that is itself finite or countably infinite is separable, for the whole space is a countable dense subset of itself. An impo ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Continuous Function In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Cantor Space In mathematics, a Cantor space, named for Georg Cantor, is a topological abstraction of the classical Cantor set: a topological space is a Cantor space if it is homeomorphic to the Cantor set. In set theory, the topological space 2ω is called "the" Cantor space. Examples The Cantor set itself is a Cantor space. But the canonical example of a Cantor space is the countably infinite topological product of the discrete 2-point space . This is usually written as 2^\mathbb or 2ω (where 2 denotes the 2-element set with the discrete topology). A point in 2ω is an infinite binary sequence, that is a sequence which assumes only the values 0 or 1. Given such a sequence ''a''0, ''a''1, ''a''2,..., one can map it to the real number :\sum_^\infty \frac. This mapping gives a homeomorphism from 2ω onto the Cantor set, demonstrating that 2ω is indeed a Cantor space. Cantor spaces occur abundantly in real analysis. For example, they exist as subspaces in every perfect, complete metri ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Complete Metric Space In mathematical analysis, a metric space is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in has a limit that is also in . Intuitively, a space is complete if there are no "points missing" from it (inside or at the boundary). For instance, the set of rational numbers is not complete, because e.g. \sqrt is "missing" from it, even though one can construct a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers that converges to it (see further examples below). It is always possible to "fill all the holes", leading to the ''completion'' of a given space, as explained below. Definition Cauchy sequence A sequence x_1, x_2, x_3, \ldots in a metric space (X, d) is called Cauchy if for every positive real number r > 0 there is a positive integer N such that for all positive integers m, n > N, d\left(x_m, x_n\right) < r. Complete space A metric space $\left(X, d\right)$ is complete if any of the following equivalent conditions are satisfied: :#Every [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Descriptive Set Theory In mathematical logic, descriptive set theory (DST) is the study of certain classes of " well-behaved" subsets of the real line and other Polish spaces. As well as being one of the primary areas of research in set theory, it has applications to other areas of mathematics such as functional analysis, ergodic theory, the study of operator algebras and group actions, and mathematical logic. Polish spaces Descriptive set theory begins with the study of Polish spaces and their Borel sets. A Polish space is a second-countable topological space that is metrizable with a complete metric. Heuristically, it is a complete separable metric space whose metric has been "forgotten". Examples include the real line \mathbb, the Baire space \mathcal, the Cantor space \mathcal, and the Hilbert cube I^. Universality properties The class of Polish spaces has several universality properties, which show that there is no loss of generality in considering Polish spaces of certain restricted f ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]