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Pelomedusidae
:''Alternatively, "Pelomedusidae" may refer to the Pelomedusoidea. See #Systematics and taxonomy, below for details.'' Pelomedusidae is a family (biology), family of freshwater turtles native to sub-Saharan Africa, with a single species, ''Pelomedusa subrufa'', also found in Yemen. They range in size from in carapace length, and are generally roundish in shape. They are unable to fully withdraw their heads into their shells, instead drawing them to the side and folding them beneath the upper edge of their shells, hence are called African side-necked turtles. The family contains two living genera. They are distinguished from their closest relatives by a hinge in the front section of the plastron.Obst, Fritz Jürgen (1998): [Pelomedusinae]. ''In:'' Cogger, H.G., & Zweifel, R.G. (eds.): ''Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians'': 112-113. San Diego: Academic Press. . Pelomedusidae spends most of its time in the mud at the bottom of rivers or shallow lakes, where they eat inverteb ...
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Pelomedusoidea
:''Alternatively, "Pelomedusidae" may refer to the Pelomedusoidea. See #Systematics and taxonomy, below for details.'' Pelomedusidae is a family (biology), family of freshwater turtles native to sub-Saharan Africa, with a single species, ''Pelomedusa subrufa'', also found in Yemen. They range in size from in carapace length, and are generally roundish in shape. They are unable to fully withdraw their heads into their shells, instead drawing them to the side and folding them beneath the upper edge of their shells, hence are called African side-necked turtles. The family contains two living genera. They are distinguished from their closest relatives by a hinge in the front section of the plastron.Obst, Fritz Jürgen (1998): [Pelomedusinae]. ''In:'' Cogger, H.G., & Zweifel, R.G. (eds.): ''Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians'': 112-113. San Diego: Academic Press. . Pelomedusidae spends most of its time in the mud at the bottom of rivers or shallow lakes, where they eat invertebr ...
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Pelomedusidae
:''Alternatively, "Pelomedusidae" may refer to the Pelomedusoidea. See #Systematics and taxonomy, below for details.'' Pelomedusidae is a family (biology), family of freshwater turtles native to sub-Saharan Africa, with a single species, ''Pelomedusa subrufa'', also found in Yemen. They range in size from in carapace length, and are generally roundish in shape. They are unable to fully withdraw their heads into their shells, instead drawing them to the side and folding them beneath the upper edge of their shells, hence are called African side-necked turtles. The family contains two living genera. They are distinguished from their closest relatives by a hinge in the front section of the plastron.Obst, Fritz Jürgen (1998): [Pelomedusinae]. ''In:'' Cogger, H.G., & Zweifel, R.G. (eds.): ''Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians'': 112-113. San Diego: Academic Press. . Pelomedusidae spends most of its time in the mud at the bottom of rivers or shallow lakes, where they eat inverteb ...
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Pelomedusa Subrufa
The African helmeted turtle (''Pelomedusa subrufa''), also known commonly as the marsh terrapin, the crocodile turtle, or in the pet trade as the African side-necked turtle, is a species of omnivorous Pleurodira, side-necked terrapin in the Family (biology), family Pelomedusidae. The species naturally occurs in fresh and stagnant water bodies throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa, and in southern Yemen. Description The marsh terrapin is typically a rather small turtle, with most individuals being less than in straight carapace length, but one has been recorded with a length of . It has a black or brown carapace. The top of the tail and limbs are a grayish brown, while the underside is yellowish. The male turtle is distinguished by its long, thick tail. A female tends to have a shorter tail and a broader carapace. A hatchling has a shell size of about in length, and is olive to black in color. It also has two small tubercles under the chin and musk glands in the sides of the c ...
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African Helmeted Turtle
The African helmeted turtle (''Pelomedusa subrufa''), also known commonly as the marsh terrapin, the crocodile turtle, or in the pet trade as the African side-necked turtle, is a species of omnivorous Pleurodira, side-necked terrapin in the Family (biology), family Pelomedusidae. The species naturally occurs in fresh and stagnant water bodies throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa, and in southern Yemen. Description The marsh terrapin is typically a rather small turtle, with most individuals being less than in straight carapace length, but one has been recorded with a length of . It has a black or brown carapace. The top of the tail and limbs are a grayish brown, while the underside is yellowish. The male turtle is distinguished by its long, thick tail. A female tends to have a shorter tail and a broader carapace. A hatchling has a shell size of about in length, and is olive to black in color. It also has two small tubercles under the chin and musk glands in the sides of the c ...
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Pelomedusa
The African helmeted turtle (''Pelomedusa subrufa''), also known commonly as the marsh terrapin, the crocodile turtle, or in the pet trade as the African side-necked turtle, is a species of omnivorous Pleurodira, side-necked terrapin in the Family (biology), family Pelomedusidae. The species naturally occurs in fresh and stagnant water bodies throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa, and in southern Yemen. Description The marsh terrapin is typically a rather small turtle, with most individuals being less than in straight carapace length, but one has been recorded with a length of . It has a black or brown carapace. The top of the tail and limbs are a grayish brown, while the underside is yellowish. The male turtle is distinguished by its long, thick tail. A female tends to have a shorter tail and a broader carapace. A hatchling has a shell size of about in length, and is olive to black in color. It also has two small tubercles under the chin and musk glands in the sides of the c ...
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Pleurodira
The Pleurodira are one of the two living suborder In biological classification, the order ( la, wikt:ordo#Latin, ordo) is # a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. The well-known ranks in descending order are: life, domain (biology), do ...s of turtles Turtles are an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, ..., the other being the Cryptodira The Cryptodira ('' el, hidden neck'') are a suborder of Testudines that includes most living tortoises and turtles. Cryptodira differ from Pleurodira (side-necked turtles) in that they lower their necks and pull the heads straight back into the .... The division between these two suborders represents a very deep evolutionary divide between two very different types of turtles. The physic ...
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Turtle Families
Turtles are an Order (biology), order of reptiles known as Testudines, characterized by a turtle shell, shell developed mainly from their ribs. Modern turtles are divided into two major groups, the Pleurodira, side-necked turtles and Cryptodira, hidden neck turtles which differ in the way the head retracts. There are 360 living and recently extinct species of turtles, including tortoises and terrapins. They are found on most continents, some islands and much of the ocean. Like other reptiles, birds, and mammals, they breathe air and do not lay eggs underwater, although many species live in or around water. Genetic evidence typically places them in close relation to crocodilians and birds. Turtle shells are made mostly of bone; the upper part is the domed Turtle shell#Carapace, carapace, while the underside is the flatter plastron or belly-plate. Its outer surface is covered in scales made of keratin, the material of hair, horns, and claws. The carapace bones develop from ribs ...
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Bothremydidae
Bothremydidae is an extinct family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ... of side-necked turtles The Pleurodira are one of the two living Suborder (biology), suborders of Testudines, turtles, the other being the Cryptodira. The division between these two suborders represents a very deep evolutionary divide between two very different types of .... They belong to suborder Pleurodira The Pleurodira are one of the two living Suborder (biology), suborders of Testudines, turtles, the other being the Cryptodira. The division between these two suborders represents a very deep evolutionary divide between two very different types of ... and the order Testudines Turtles are reptile Reptiles are tetrapod Tetrapods (; from Greek 'four' and 'foot') are four-lim ...
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Podocnemididae
Podocnemididae is a family (biology), family of Pleurodira, pleurodire (side-necked) turtles, once widely distributed. Most of its 20 genera and 30 species are now extinct. Seven of its eight surviving species are native to South America: the genus ''Peltocephalus'', with only one species (''P. dumerilianus'', the big-headed Amazon River turtle); and the genus ''Podocnemis'', with six living species of South American side-necked river turtles. There is also one genus native to Madagascar: ''Erymnochelys'', the Madagascan big-headed turtle, whose single species ''E. madagascariensis''. Like other pleurodire turtles, podocs have a "side-necked" defensive posture, turning the head sideways to hide it under the shell. Another characteristic of pleurodires is that the pelvis is fused to the shell which prevents pelvic motion, making it difficult to walk on land. Podocnemididae turtles live in aquatic environments and have shells streamlined to aid in swimming. Taxonomy and systemati ...
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Plastron
The turtle shell is a shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles (the Order (biology), order Testudines), completely enclosing all the vital organs of the turtle and in some cases even the head. It is constructed of modified bony elements such as the ribs, parts of the pelvis and other bones found in most reptiles. The bone of the shell consists of both skeletal and dermal bone, showing that the complete enclosure of the shell probably evolved by including dermal armor into the rib cage. The shell of the turtle is an important study, not just because of the obvious protection it provides for the animal, but also as an identification tool, in particular with fossils as the shell is one of the likely parts of a turtle to survive fossilization. Hence understanding the structure of the shell in living species provides comparable material with fossils. The shell of the hawksbill turtle, among other species, has been used as a material for a wide range of small decorative and pr ...
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Chelidae
Chelidae is one of three living families of the turtle suborder Pleurodira, and are commonly called Austro-South American side-neck turtles. The family is distributed in Australia, New Guinea, parts of Indonesia, and throughout most of South America. It is a large family of turtles with a significant fossil history dating back to the Cretaceous. The family is entirely Gondwanan in origin, with no members found outside Gondwana, either in the present day or as a fossil.Georges, A. & Thomson, S. (2006). "Evolution and Zoogeography of Australian freshwater turtles". In: Merrick, J. R.; Archer, M.; Hickey, G. & Lee, M. (eds.) ''Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates''. Sydney: Australia. Description Like all pleurodirous turtles, the chelids withdraw their necks sideways into their shells, differing from cryptodires that fold their necks in the vertical plane. They are all highly aquatic species with webbed feet and the capacity to stay submerged for long periods of t ...
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Turtle
Turtles are an order Order, ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is a quality that is characterized by a person’s interest in keeping their surroundings and themselves well organized, and is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness a ... of reptile Reptiles, as most commonly defined, are the animals in the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or ...s known as Testudines, characterized by a shell Shell may refer to: Architecture and design * Shell (structure)A shell is a type of structural element which is characterized by its geometry, being a three-dimensional solid whose thickness is very small when compared with other dimensions, and ... developed mainly from their ribs. Modern turtles are divided into two major groups, the side-necked turtles and hidden neck turtles which differ in ...
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