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Ordinal Number
In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is a generalization of ordinal numerals (first, second, th, etc.) aimed to extend enumeration to infinite sets. A finite set can be enumerated by successively labeling each element with the least natural number that has not been previously used. To extend this process to various infinite sets, ordinal numbers are defined more generally as linearly ordered labels that include the natural numbers and have the property that every set of ordinals has a least element (this is needed for giving a meaning to "the least unused element"). This more general definition allows us to define an ordinal number \omega that is greater than every natural number, along with ordinal numbers \omega + 1, \omega + 2, etc., which are even greater than \omega. A linear order such that every subset has a least element is called a well-order. The axiom of choice implies that every set can be well-ordered, and given two well-ordered sets, one is isomorph ...
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Set (mathematics)
A set is the mathematical model for a collection of different things; a set contains '' elements'' or ''members'', which can be mathematical objects of any kind: numbers, symbols, points in space, lines, other geometrical shapes, variables, or even other sets. The set with no element is the empty set; a set with a single element is a singleton. A set may have a finite number of elements or be an infinite set. Two sets are equal if they have precisely the same elements. Sets are ubiquitous in modern mathematics. Indeed, set theory, more specifically Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, has been the standard way to provide rigorous foundations for all branches of mathematics since the first half of the 20th century. History The concept of a set emerged in mathematics at the end of the 19th century. The German word for set, ''Menge'', was coined by Bernard Bolzano in his work '' Paradoxes of the Infinite''. Georg Cantor, one of the founders of set theory, gave the followi ...
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Transfinite Induction
Transfinite induction is an extension of mathematical induction to well-ordered sets, for example to sets of ordinal numbers or cardinal numbers. Its correctness is a theorem of ZFC. Induction by cases Let P(\alpha) be a property defined for all ordinals \alpha. Suppose that whenever P(\beta) is true for all \beta < \alpha, then P(\alpha) is also true. Then transfinite induction tells us that P is true for all ordinals. Usually the proof is broken down into three cases: * Zero case: Prove that P(0) is true. * Successor case: Prove that for any successor ordinal \alpha+1, P(\alpha+1) follows from P(\alpha) (and, if necessary, P(\beta) for all \beta < \alpha). * Limit case: Prove that for any
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First Uncountable Ordinal
In mathematics, the first uncountable ordinal, traditionally denoted by \omega_1 or sometimes by \Omega, is the smallest ordinal number that, considered as a set, is uncountable. It is the supremum (least upper bound) of all countable ordinals. When considered as a set, the elements of \omega_1 are the countable ordinals (including finite ordinals), of which there are uncountably many. Like any ordinal number (in von Neumann's approach), \omega_1 is a well-ordered set, with set membership serving as the order relation. \omega_1 is a limit ordinal, i.e. there is no ordinal \alpha such that \omega_1 = \alpha+1. The cardinality of the set \omega_1 is the first uncountable cardinal number, \aleph_1 (aleph-one). The ordinal \omega_1 is thus the initial ordinal of \aleph_1. Under the continuum hypothesis, the cardinality of \omega_1 is \beth_1, the same as that of \mathbb—the set of real numbers. In most constructions, \omega_1 and \aleph_1 are considered equal as sets. To ge ...
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Uncountable Set
In mathematics, an uncountable set (or uncountably infinite set) is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable. The uncountability of a set is closely related to its cardinal number: a set is uncountable if its cardinal number is larger than that of the set of all natural numbers. Characterizations There are many equivalent characterizations of uncountability. A set ''X'' is uncountable if and only if any of the following conditions hold: * There is no injective function (hence no bijection) from ''X'' to the set of natural numbers. * ''X'' is nonempty and for every ω-sequence of elements of ''X'', there exists at least one element of X not included in it. That is, ''X'' is nonempty and there is no surjective function from the natural numbers to ''X''. * The cardinality of ''X'' is neither finite nor equal to \aleph_0 ( aleph-null, the cardinality of the natural numbers). * The set ''X'' has cardinality strictly greater than \aleph_0. The first th ...
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Epsilon Numbers (mathematics)
In mathematics, the epsilon numbers are a collection of transfinite numbers whose defining property is that they are fixed points of an exponential map. Consequently, they are not reachable from 0 via a finite series of applications of the chosen exponential map and of "weaker" operations like addition and multiplication. The original epsilon numbers were introduced by Georg Cantor in the context of ordinal arithmetic; they are the ordinal numbers ''ε'' that satisfy the equation :\varepsilon = \omega^\varepsilon, \, in which ω is the smallest infinite ordinal. The least such ordinal is ''ε''0 (pronounced epsilon nought or epsilon zero), which can be viewed as the "limit" obtained by transfinite recursion from a sequence of smaller limit ordinals: :\varepsilon_0 = \omega^ = \sup \\,, where is the supremum function, which is equivalent to set union in the case of the von Neumann representation of ordinals. Larger ordinal fixed points of the exponential map are inde ...
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Ordinal Ww
Ordinal may refer to: * Ordinal data, a statistical data type consisting of numerical scores that exist on an arbitrary numerical scale * Ordinal date, a simple form of expressing a date using only the year and the day number within that year * Ordinal Priority Approach, a multiple-criteria decision analysis method that aids in solving the group decision-making problems * Ordinal indicator, the sign adjacent to a numeral denoting that it is an ordinal number * Ordinal number in set theory, a number type with order structures * Ordinal number (linguistics), a word representing the rank of a number * Ordinal scale, ranking things that are not necessarily numbers * Ordinal utility (economics): a utility function which is used only to describe the preference ordering between different outcomes. Government * Regnal ordinal, used to distinguish monarchs and popes with the same regnal name Religion * Edwardine Ordinals, two early liturgical books of the Church of England * Ord ...
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Downward Closed
In mathematics, an upper set (also called an upward closed set, an upset, or an isotone set in ''X'') of a partially ordered set (X, \leq) is a subset S \subseteq X with the following property: if ''s'' is in ''S'' and if ''x'' in ''X'' is larger than ''s'' (that is, if s \leq x), then ''x'' is in ''S''. In words, this means that any ''x'' element of ''X'' that is \,\geq\, to some element of ''S'' is necessarily also an element of ''S''. The term lower set (also called a downward closed set, down set, decreasing set, initial segment, or semi-ideal) is defined similarly as being a subset ''S'' of ''X'' with the property that any element ''x'' of ''X'' that is \,\leq\, to some element of ''S'' is necessarily also an element of ''S''. Definition Let (X, \leq) be a preordered set. An in X (also called an , an , or an set) is a subset U \subseteq X that is "closed under going up", in the sense that :for all u \in U and all x \in X, if u \leq x then x \in U. The dual notion is a ...
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Axiom Of Dependent Choice
In mathematics, the axiom of dependent choice, denoted by \mathsf , is a weak form of the axiom of choice ( \mathsf ) that is still sufficient to develop most of real analysis. It was introduced by Paul Bernays in a 1942 article that explores which set-theoretic axioms are needed to develop analysis."The foundation of analysis does not require the full generality of set theory but can be accomplished within a more restricted frame." The axiom of dependent choice is stated on p. 86. Formal statement A homogeneous relation R on X is called a total relation if for every a \in X, there exists some b \in X such that a\,R~b is true. The axiom of dependent choice can be stated as follows: For every nonempty set X and every total relation R on X, there exists a sequence (x_n)_ in X such that :x_n\, R~x_ for all n \in \N. ''x''0 may be taken to be any desired element of ''X''. If the set X above is restricted to be the set of all real numbers, then the resulting axiom is ...
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Partial Order
In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set. A poset consists of a set together with a binary relation indicating that, for certain pairs of elements in the set, one of the elements precedes the other in the ordering. The relation itself is called a "partial order." The word ''partial'' in the names "partial order" and "partially ordered set" is used as an indication that not every pair of elements needs to be comparable. That is, there may be pairs of elements for which neither element precedes the other in the poset. Partial orders thus generalize total orders, in which every pair is comparable. Informal definition A partial order defines a notion of comparison. Two elements ''x'' and ''y'' may stand in any of four mutually exclusive relationships to each other: either ''x''  ''y'', or ''x'' and ''y'' are ''inco ...
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Totally Ordered
In mathematics, a total or linear order is a partial order in which any two elements are comparable. That is, a total order is a binary relation \leq on some set X, which satisfies the following for all a, b and c in X: # a \leq a ( reflexive). # If a \leq b and b \leq c then a \leq c ( transitive). # If a \leq b and b \leq a then a = b ( antisymmetric). # a \leq b or b \leq a ( strongly connected, formerly called total). Total orders are sometimes also called simple, connex, or full orders. A set equipped with a total order is a totally ordered set; the terms simply ordered set, linearly ordered set, and loset are also used. The term ''chain'' is sometimes defined as a synonym of ''totally ordered set'', but refers generally to some sort of totally ordered subsets of a given partially ordered set. An extension of a given partial order to a total order is called a linear extension of that partial order. Strict and non-strict total orders A on a set X is a strict partial ...
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Well-ordering
In mathematics, a well-order (or well-ordering or well-order relation) on a set ''S'' is a total order on ''S'' with the property that every non-empty subset of ''S'' has a least element in this ordering. The set ''S'' together with the well-order relation is then called a well-ordered set. In some academic articles and textbooks these terms are instead written as wellorder, wellordered, and wellordering or well order, well ordered, and well ordering. Every non-empty well-ordered set has a least element. Every element ''s'' of a well-ordered set, except a possible greatest element, has a unique successor (next element), namely the least element of the subset of all elements greater than ''s''. There may be elements besides the least element which have no predecessor (see below for an example). A well-ordered set ''S'' contains for every subset ''T'' with an upper bound a least upper bound, namely the least element of the subset of all upper bounds of ''T'' in ''S''. If � ...
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