Open Map
In mathematics, more specifically in topology, an open map is a function between two topological spaces that maps open sets to open sets. That is, a function f : X \to Y is open if for any open set U in X, the image f(U) is open in Y. Likewise, a closed map is a function that maps closed sets to closed sets. A map may be open, closed, both, or neither; in particular, an open map need not be closed and vice versa. Open and closed maps are not necessarily continuous. Further, continuity is independent of openness and closedness in the general case and a continuous function may have one, both, or neither property; this fact remains true even if one restricts oneself to metric spaces. Although their definitions seem more natural, open and closed maps are much less important than continuous maps. Recall that, by definition, a function f : X \to Y is continuous if the preimage of every open set of Y is open in X. (Equivalently, if the preimage of every closed set of Y is closed in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Surjective Function
In mathematics, a surjective function (also known as surjection, or onto function) is a function that every element can be mapped from element so that . In other words, every element of the function's codomain is the image of one element of its domain. It is not required that be unique; the function may map one or more elements of to the same element of . The term ''surjective'' and the related terms ''injective'' and ''bijective'' were introduced by Nicolas Bourbaki, a group of mainly French 20thcentury mathematicians who, under this pseudonym, wrote a series of books presenting an exposition of modern advanced mathematics, beginning in 1935. The French word '' sur'' means ''over'' or ''above'', and relates to the fact that the image of the domain of a surjective function completely covers the function's codomain. Any function induces a surjection by restricting its codomain to the image of its domain. Every surjective function has a right inverse assuming the axiom ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' onedimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Floor Function
In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number , and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to , denoted or . Similarly, the ceiling function maps to the least integer greater than or equal to , denoted or . For example, , , , and . Historically, the floor of has been–and still is–called the integral part or integer part of , often denoted (as well as a variety of other notations). Some authors may define the integral part as if is nonnegative, and otherwise: for example, and . The operation of truncation generalizes this to a specified number of digits: truncation to zero significant digits is the same as the integer part. For an integer, . Notation The ''integral part'' or ''integer part'' of a number ( in the original) was first defined in 1798 by AdrienMarie Legendre in his proof of the Legendre's formula. Carl Friedrich Gauss introduced the square bracket notation in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Discrete Topology
In topology, a discrete space is a particularly simple example of a topological space or similar structure, one in which the points form a , meaning they are ''isolated'' from each other in a certain sense. The discrete topology is the finest topology that can be given on a set. Every subset is open in the discrete topology so that in particular, every singleton subset is an open set in the discrete topology. Definitions Given a set X: A metric space (E,d) is said to be '' uniformly discrete'' if there exists a ' r > 0 such that, for any x,y \in E, one has either x = y or d(x,y) > r. The topology underlying a metric space can be discrete, without the metric being uniformly discrete: for example the usual metric on the set \left\. Properties The underlying uniformity on a discrete metric space is the discrete uniformity, and the underlying topology on a discrete uniform space is the discrete topology. Thus, the different notions of discrete space are compatible with one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Topology
In mathematics, and especially general topology, the Euclidean topology is the natural topology induced on ndimensional Euclidean space Euclidean space is the fundamental space of geometry, intended to represent physical space. Originally, that is, in Euclid's ''Elements'', it was the threedimensional space of Euclidean geometry, but in modern mathematics there are Euclidea ... \R^n by the Euclidean metric. Definition The Euclidean norm on \R^n is the nonnegative function \, \cdot\, : \R^n \to \R defined by \left\, \left(p_1, \ldots, p_n\right)\right\, ~:=~ \sqrt. Like all norms, it induces a canonical metric defined by d(p, q) = \, p  q\, . The metric d : \R^n \times \R^n \to \R induced by the Euclidean norm is called the Euclidean metric or the Euclidean distance and the distance between points p = \left(p_1, \ldots, p_n\right) and q = \left(q_1, \ldots, q_n\right) is d(p, q) ~=~ \, p  q\, ~=~ \sqrt. In any metric space, the open balls form a base f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Basis (topology)
In mathematics, a base (or basis) for the topology of a topological space is a family \mathcal of open subsets of such that every open set of the topology is equal to the union of some subfamily of \mathcal. For example, the set of all open intervals in the real number line \R is a basis for the Euclidean topology on \R because every open interval is an open set, and also every open subset of \R can be written as a union of some family of open intervals. Bases are ubiquitous throughout topology. The sets in a base for a topology, which are called , are often easier to describe and use than arbitrary open sets. Many important topological definitions such as continuity and convergence can be checked using only basic open sets instead of arbitrary open sets. Some topologies have a base of open sets with specific useful properties that may make checking such topological definitions easier. Not all families of subsets of a set X form a base for a topology on X. Under some con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logical Equivalence
In logic and mathematics, statements p and q are said to be logically equivalent if they have the same truth value in every model. The logical equivalence of p and q is sometimes expressed as p \equiv q, p :: q, \textsfpq, or p \iff q, depending on the notation being used. However, these symbols are also used for material equivalence, so proper interpretation would depend on the context. Logical equivalence is different from material equivalence, although the two concepts are intrinsically related. Logical equivalences In logic, many common logical equivalences exist and are often listed as laws or properties. The following tables illustrate some of these. General logical equivalences Logical equivalences involving conditional statements :#p \implies q \equiv \neg p \vee q :#p \implies q \equiv \neg q \implies \neg p :#p \vee q \equiv \neg p \implies q :#p \wedge q \equiv \neg (p \implies \neg q) :#\neg (p \implies q) \equiv p \wedge \neg q :#(p \implies q) \wedge (p \impli ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuous Function
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function such that a continuous variation (that is a change without jump) of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function. This means that there are no abrupt changes in value, known as '' discontinuities''. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its value can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes of its argument. A discontinuous function is a function that is . Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, and considered only continuous functions. The epsilon–delta definition of a limit was introduced to formalize the definition of continuity. Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers. The concept has been generalized to functions between metric spaces and between topological spaces. The latter are t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Net (mathematics)
In mathematics, more specifically in general topology and related branches, a net or Moore–Smith sequence is a generalization of the notion of a sequence. In essence, a sequence is a function whose domain is the natural numbers. The codomain of this function is usually some topological space. The motivation for generalizing the notion of a sequence is that, in the context of topology, sequences do not fully encode all information about functions between topological spaces. In particular, the following two conditions are, in general, not equivalent for a map f between topological spaces X and Y: #The map f is continuous in the topological sense; #Given any point x in X, and any sequence in X converging to x, the composition of f with this sequence converges to f(x) (continuous in the sequential sense). While it is necessarily true that condition 1 implies condition 2 (The truth of the condition 1 ensures the truth of the conditions 2.), the reverse implication is not ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Base (topology)
In mathematics, a base (or basis) for the topology of a topological space is a family \mathcal of open subsets of such that every open set of the topology is equal to the union of some subfamily of \mathcal. For example, the set of all open intervals in the real number line \R is a basis for the Euclidean topology on \R because every open interval is an open set, and also every open subset of \R can be written as a union of some family of open intervals. Bases are ubiquitous throughout topology. The sets in a base for a topology, which are called , are often easier to describe and use than arbitrary open sets. Many important topological definitions such as continuity and convergence can be checked using only basic open sets instead of arbitrary open sets. Some topologies have a base of open sets with specific useful properties that may make checking such topological definitions easier. Not all families of subsets of a set X form a base for a topology on X. Under some c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Set Identities And Relations
This article lists mathematical properties and laws of sets, involving the settheoretic operations of union, intersection, and complementation and the relations of set equality and set inclusion. It also provides systematic procedures for evaluating expressions, and performing calculations, involving these operations and relations. The binary operations of set union (\cup) and intersection (\cap) satisfy many identities. Several of these identities or "laws" have well established names. Notation Throughout this article, capital letters such as A, B, C, L, M, R, S, and X will denote sets and \wp(X) will denote the power set of X. If it is needed then unless indicated otherwise, it should be assumed that X denotes the universe set, which means that all sets that are used in the formula are subsets of X. In particular, the complement of a set L will be denoted by L^C where unless indicated otherwise, it should be assumed that L^C denotes the complement of L in (the univ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 