Neighbourhood (mathematics)
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a neighbourhood (or neighborhood) is one of the basic concepts in a topological space. It is closely related to the concepts of open set and interior. Intuitively speaking, a neighbourhood of a point is a set of points containing that point where one can move some amount in any direction away from that point without leaving the set. Definitions Neighbourhood of a point If X is a topological space and p is a point in X, then a of p is a subset V of X that includes an open set U containing p, p \in U \subseteq V \subseteq X. This is also equivalent to the point p \in X belonging to the topological interior of V in X. The neighbourhood V need be an open subset X, but when V is open in X then it is called an . Some authors have been known to require neighbourhoods to be open, so it is important to note conventions. A set that is a neighbourhood of each of its points is open since it can be expressed as the union of open sets ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Neighborhood Illust1
A neighbourhood (British English, Irish English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area, sometimes consisting of a single street and the buildings lining it. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable facetoface interaction among members. Researchers have not agreed on an exact definition, but the following may serve as a starting point: "Neighbourhood is generally defined spatially as a specific geographic area and functionally as a set of social networks. Neighbourhoods, then, are the spatial units in which facetoface social interactions occur—the personal settings and situations where residents seek to realise common values, socialise youth, and maintain effective social control." Preindustrial cities In the words of the urban scholar Lewis Mumford, "Neighbourhoods, in some annoying, inchoate fashi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Open Ball
In mathematics, a ball is the solid figure bounded by a ''sphere''; it is also called a solid sphere. It may be a closed ball (including the boundary points that constitute the sphere) or an open ball (excluding them). These concepts are defined not only in threedimensional Euclidean space but also for lower and higher dimensions, and for metric spaces in general. A ''ball'' in dimensions is called a hyperball or ball and is bounded by a ''hypersphere'' or ()sphere. Thus, for example, a ball in the Euclidean plane is the same thing as a disk, the area bounded by a circle. In Euclidean 3space, a ball is taken to be the volume bounded by a 2dimensional sphere. In a onedimensional space, a ball is a line segment. In other contexts, such as in Euclidean geometry and informal use, ''sphere'' is sometimes used to mean ''ball''. In the field of topology the closed ndimensional ball is often denoted as B^n or D^n while the open ndimensional ball is \operatorname B^n or \o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit Of A Function
Although the function (sin ''x'')/''x'' is not defined at zero, as ''x'' becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin ''x'')/''x'' becomes arbitrarily close to 1. In other words, the limit of (sin ''x'')/''x'', as ''x'' approaches zero, equals 1. In mathematics, the limit of a function is a fundamental concept in calculus and analysis concerning the behavior of that function near a particular input. Formal definitions, first devised in the early 19th century, are given below. Informally, a function ''f'' assigns an output ''f''(''x'') to every input ''x''. We say that the function has a limit ''L'' at an input ''p,'' if ''f''(''x'') gets closer and closer to ''L'' as ''x'' moves closer and closer to ''p''. More specifically, when ''f'' is applied to any input ''sufficiently'' close to ''p'', the output value is forced ''arbitrarily'' close to ''L''. On the other hand, if some inputs very close to ''p'' are taken to outputs that stay a fixed distance apart, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Line
In elementary mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line that serves as visual representation of the real numbers. Every point of a number line is assumed to correspond to a real number, and every real number to a point. The integers are often shown as speciallymarked points evenly spaced on the line. Although the image only shows the integers from –3 to 3, the line includes all real numbers, continuing forever in each direction, and also numbers that are between the integers. It is often used as an aid in teaching simple addition and subtraction, especially involving negative numbers. In advanced mathematics, the number line can be called as a real line or real number line, formally defined as the set of all real numbers, viewed as a geometric space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space (or affine space), a metric space, a topological space, a measure space, or a linear continuum. Just like ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Interval (mathematics)
In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Other examples of intervals are the set of numbers such that , the set of all real numbers \R, the set of nonnegative real numbers, the set of positive real numbers, the empty set, and any singleton (set of one element). Real intervals play an important role in the theory of integration, because they are the simplest sets whose "length" (or "measure" or "size") is easy to define. The concept of measure can then be extended to more complicated sets of real numbers, leading to the Borel measure and eventually to the Lebesgue measure. Intervals are central to interval arithmetic, a general numerical computing technique that automatically provides guaranteed enclosures for arbitrary formulas, even in the presence of uncertainties, mathematical ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Entourage (topology)
In the mathematical field of topology, a uniform space is a set with a uniform structure. Uniform spaces are topological spaces with additional structure that is used to define uniform properties such as completeness, uniform continuity and uniform convergence. Uniform spaces generalize metric spaces and topological groups, but the concept is designed to formulate the weakest axioms needed for most proofs in analysis. In addition to the usual properties of a topological structure, in a uniform space one formalizes the notions of relative closeness and closeness of points. In other words, ideas like "''x'' is closer to ''a'' than ''y'' is to ''b''" make sense in uniform spaces. By comparison, in a general topological space, given sets ''A,B'' it is meaningful to say that a point ''x'' is ''arbitrarily close'' to ''A'' (i.e., in the closure of ''A''), or perhaps that ''A'' is a ''smaller neighborhood'' of ''x'' than ''B'', but notions of closeness of points and relative closeness ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uniform Space
In the mathematical field of topology, a uniform space is a set with a uniform structure. Uniform spaces are topological spaces with additional structure that is used to define uniform properties such as completeness, uniform continuity and uniform convergence. Uniform spaces generalize metric spaces and topological groups, but the concept is designed to formulate the weakest axioms needed for most proofs in analysis. In addition to the usual properties of a topological structure, in a uniform space one formalizes the notions of relative closeness and closeness of points. In other words, ideas like "''x'' is closer to ''a'' than ''y'' is to ''b''" make sense in uniform spaces. By comparison, in a general topological space, given sets ''A,B'' it is meaningful to say that a point ''x'' is ''arbitrarily close'' to ''A'' (i.e., in the closure of ''A''), or perhaps that ''A'' is a ''smaller neighborhood'' of ''x'' than ''B'', but notions of closeness of points and relative closeness ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Filter (set Theory)
In mathematics, a filter on a set X is a Family of sets, family \mathcal of subsets such that: # X \in \mathcal and \emptyset \notin \mathcal # if A\in \mathcal and B \in \mathcal, then A\cap B\in \mathcal # If A,B\subset X,A\in \mathcal, and A\subset B, then B\in \mathcal A filter on a set may be thought of as representing a "collection of large subsets". Filters appear in Order theory, order, model theory, set theory, but can also be found in topology, from which they originate. The dual notion of a filter is an ideal (set theory), ideal. Filters were introduced by Henri Cartan in 1937 and as described in the article dedicated to filters in topology, they were subsequently used by Nicolas Bourbaki in their book ''Topologie Générale'' as an alternative to the related notion of a Net (topology), net developed in 1922 by E. H. Moore and Herman L. Smith. Filter (mathematics), Order filters are generalizations of filters from sets to arbitrary partially ordered sets. Specificall ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Natural Number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). Numbers used for counting are called '' cardinal numbers'', and numbers used for ordering are called '' ordinal numbers''. Natural numbers are sometimes used as labels, known as '' nominal numbers'', having none of the properties of numbers in a mathematical sense (e.g. sports jersey numbers). Some definitions, including the standard ISO 800002, begin the natural numbers with , corresponding to the nonnegative integers , whereas others start with , corresponding to the positive integers Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, while in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers). The natural numbers form a set. Many other number sets are built by suc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Metric
In mathematics, the Euclidean distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a line segment between the two points. It can be calculated from the Cartesian coordinates of the points using the Pythagorean theorem, therefore occasionally being called the Pythagorean distance. These names come from the ancient Greek mathematicians Euclid and Pythagoras, although Euclid did not represent distances as numbers, and the connection from the Pythagorean theorem to distance calculation was not made until the 18th century. The distance between two objects that are not points is usually defined to be the smallest distance among pairs of points from the two objects. Formulas are known for computing distances between different types of objects, such as the distance from a point to a line. In advanced mathematics, the concept of distance has been generalized to abstract metric spaces, and other distances than Euclidean have been studied. In some applications in statistics an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' onedimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set Of Real Numbers With Epsilonneighbourhood
Set, The Set, SET or SETS may refer to: Science, technology, and mathematics Mathematics *Set (mathematics), a collection of elements *Category of sets, the category whose objects and morphisms are sets and total functions, respectively Electronics and computing * Set (abstract data type), a data type in computer science that is a collection of unique values ** Set (C++), a set implementation in the C++ Standard Library * Set (command), a command for setting values of environment variables in Unix and Microsoft operatingsystems * Secure Electronic Transaction, a standard protocol for securing credit card transactions over insecure networks * Singleelectron transistor, a device to amplify currents in nanoelectronics * Singleended triode, a type of electronic amplifier * Set!, a programming syntax in the scheme programming language Biology and psychology * Set (psychology), a set of expectations which shapes perception or thought *Set or sett, a badger's den *Set, a small tu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 