Negentropy
In information theory and statistics, negentropy is used as a measure of distance to normality. The concept and phrase "negative entropy" was introduced by Erwin Schrödinger in his 1944 popularscience book ''What is Life?'' Later, Léon Brillouin shortened the phrase to ''negentropy''. In 1974, Albert SzentGyörgyi proposed replacing the term ''negentropy'' with ''syntropy''. That term may have originated in the 1940s with the Italian mathematician Luigi Fantappiè, who tried to construct a unified theory of biology and physics. Buckminster Fuller tried to popularize this usage, but ''negentropy'' remains common. In a note to ''What is Life?'' Schrödinger explained his use of this phrase. Information theory In information theory and statistics, negentropy is used as a measure of distance to normality. Out of all distributions with a given mean and variance, the normal or Gaussian distribution is the one with the highest entropy. Negentropy measures the difference in entr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Capacity For Entropy
In information theory and statistics, negentropy is used as a measure of distance to normality. The concept and phrase "negative entropy" was introduced by Erwin Schrödinger in his 1944 popularscience book ''What is Life? (Schrödinger), What is Life?'' Later, Léon Brillouin shortened the phrase to ''negentropy''. In 1974, Albert SzentGyörgyi proposed replacing the term ''negentropy'' with ''syntropy''. That term may have originated in the 1940s with the Italian mathematician Luigi Fantappiè, who tried to construct a unified theory of biology and physics. Buckminster Fuller tried to popularize this usage, but ''negentropy'' remains common. In a note to ''What is Life?'' Schrödinger explained his use of this phrase. Information theory In information theory and statistics, negentropy is used as a measure of distance to normality. Out of all Distribution (mathematics), distributions with a given mean and variance, the normal or Gaussian distribution is the one with the highe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Luigi Fantappiè
Luigi Fantappiè (15 September 1901 – 28 July 1956) was an Italian mathematician, known for work in mathematical analysis and for creating the theory of analytic functionals: he was a student and follower of Vito Volterra. Later in life, he proposed scientific theories of sweeping scope. He was born in Viterbo, and studied at the University of Pisa, graduating in mathematics in 1922. After time spent abroad, he was offered a chair by the University of Florence in 1926, and a year later by the University of Palermo. He spent the years 1934 to 1939 in the University of São Paulo, Brazil collaborating with Benedito Castrucci notorious ItalianBr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Entropy And Life
Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity entropy and the evolution of life began around the turn of the 20th century. In 1910, American historian Henry Adams printed and distributed to university libraries and history professors the small volume ''A Letter to American Teachers of History'' proposing a theory of history based on the second law of thermodynamics and on the principle of entropy. The 1944 book ''What is Life?'' by Nobellaureate physicist Erwin Schrödinger stimulated further research in the field. In his book, Schrödinger originally stated that life feeds on negative entropy, or negentropy as it is sometimes called, but in a later edition corrected himself in response to complaints and stated that the true source is free energy. More recent work has restricted the discussion to Gibbs free energy because biological processes on Earth normally occur at a constant temperature and pressure, such as in the atmosphere or at the bottom of th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (, ; ; 12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961), sometimes written as or , was a Nobel Prizewinning Austrian physicist with Irish citizenship who developed a number of fundamental results in quantum theory: the Schrödinger equation provides a way to calculate the wave function of a system and how it changes dynamically in time. In addition, he wrote many works on various aspects of physics: statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, physics of dielectrics, colour theory, electrodynamics, general relativity, and cosmology, and he made several attempts to construct a unified field theory. In his book '' What Is Life?'' Schrödinger addressed the problems of genetics, looking at the phenomenon of life from the point of view of physics. He also paid great attention to the philosophical aspects of science, ancient, and oriental philosophical concepts, ethics, and religion. He also wrote on philosophy and theoretical biology. In popular cultur ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Léon Brillouin
Léon Nicolas Brillouin (; August 7, 1889 – October 4, 1969) was a French physicist. He made contributions to quantum mechanics, radio wave propagation in the atmosphere, solid state physics, and information theory. Early life Brillouin was born in Sèvres, near Paris, France. His father, Marcel Brillouin, grandfather, Éleuthère Mascart, and greatgrandfather, Charles Briot, were physicists as well. Education From 1908 to 1912, Brillouin studied physics at the École Normale Supérieure, in Paris. From 1911 he studied under Jean Perrin until he left for the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), in 1912. At LMU, he studied theoretical physics with Arnold Sommerfeld. Just a few months before Brillouin's arrival at LMU, Max von Laue had conducted his experiment showing Xray diffraction in a crystal lattice. In 1913, he went back to France to study at the University of Paris and it was in this year that Niels Bohr submitted his first paper on the Bohr model of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isothermal Process
In thermodynamics, an isothermal process is a type of thermodynamic process in which the temperature ''T'' of a system remains constant: Δ''T'' = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an outside thermal reservoir, and a change in the system occurs slowly enough to allow the system to be continuously adjusted to the temperature of the reservoir through heat exchange (see quasiequilibrium). In contrast, an ''adiabatic process'' is where a system exchanges no heat with its surroundings (''Q'' = 0). Simply, we can say that in an isothermal process * T = \text * \Delta T = 0 * dT = 0 * For ideal gases only, internal energy \Delta U = 0 while in adiabatic processes: * Q = 0. Etymology The adjective "isothermal" is derived from the Greek words "ἴσος" ("isos") meaning "equal" and "θέρμη" ("therme") meaning "heat". Examples Isothermal processes can occur in any kind of system that has some means of regulating the temperature, includi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

François Jacques Dominique Massieu
François () is a French masculine given name and surname, equivalent to the English name Francis. People with the given name * Francis I of France, King of France (), known as "the Father and Restorer of Letters" * Francis II of France, King of France and King consort of Scots (), known as the husband of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots * François Amoudruz (1926–2020), French resistance fighter * FrançoisMarie Arouet (better known as Voltaire; 1694–1778), French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher * François Aubry (other), several people * François Baby (other), several people * François Beauchemin (born 1980), Canadian ice hockey player for the Anaheim Duck *François Blanc (1806–1877), French entrepreneur and operator of casinos *François Boucher (other), several people *François Caron (other), several people * François Cevert (1944–1973), French racing driver * François Chau (born 1959), Cambodian American actor * ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Max Planck
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (, ; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many substantial contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests primarily on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. In 1948, the German scientific institution Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president) was renamed Max Planck Society (MPG). The MPG now includes 83 institutions representing a wide range of scientific directions. Life and career Planck came from a traditional, intellectual family. His paternal greatgrandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen; his father was a law professor at the University of Kiel and Munich. One of his uncles was also a judge. Planck was born in 1858 in Kiel, Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Pl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mean
There are several kinds of mean in mathematics, especially in statistics. Each mean serves to summarize a given group of data, often to better understand the overall value ( magnitude and sign) of a given data set. For a data set, the '' arithmetic mean'', also known as "arithmetic average", is a measure of central tendency of a finite set of numbers: specifically, the sum of the values divided by the number of values. The arithmetic mean of a set of numbers ''x''1, ''x''2, ..., x''n'' is typically denoted using an overhead bar, \bar. If the data set were based on a series of observations obtained by sampling from a statistical population, the arithmetic mean is the '' sample mean'' (\bar) to distinguish it from the mean, or expected value, of the underlying distribution, the '' population mean'' (denoted \mu or \mu_x).Underhill, L.G.; Bradfield d. (1998) ''Introstat'', Juta and Company Ltd.p. 181/ref> Outside probability and statistics, a wide range of other notions of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs (; February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made significant theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive science. Together with James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann, he created statistical mechanics (a term that he coined), explaining the laws of thermodynamics as consequences of the statistical properties of ensembles of the possible states of a physical system composed of many particles. Gibbs also worked on the application of Maxwell's equations to problems in physical optics. As a mathematician, he invented modern vector calculus (independently of the British scientist Oliver Heaviside, who carried out similar work during the same period). In 1863, Yale awarded Gibbs the first American doctorate in engineering. After a threeyear sojourn in Europe, Gibbs spent the rest ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Enthalpy
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (or Gibbs energy; symbol G) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum amount of work that may be performed by a thermodynamically closed system at constant temperature and pressure. It also provides a necessary condition for processes such as chemical reactions that may occur under these conditions. The Gibbs free energy change , measured in joules in SI) is the ''maximum'' amount of nonexpansion work that can be extracted from a closed system (one that can exchange heat and work with its surroundings, but not matter) at fixed temperature and pressure. This maximum can be attained only in a completely reversible process. When a system transforms reversibly from an initial state to a final state under these conditions, the decrease in Gibbs free energy equals the work done by the system to its surroundings, minus the work of the pressure forces. The Gibbs energy is the thermodynamic potential that is minimi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 