Monoid
In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is a set equipped with an associative binary operation and an identity element. For example, the nonnegative integers with addition form a monoid, the identity element being 0. Monoids are semigroups with identity. Such algebraic structures occur in several branches of mathematics. The functions from a set into itself form a monoid with respect to function composition. More generally, in category theory, the morphisms of an object to itself form a monoid, and, conversely, a monoid may be viewed as a category with a single object. In computer science and computer programming, the set of strings built from a given set of characters is a free monoid. Transition monoids and syntactic monoids are used in describing finitestate machines. Trace monoids and history monoids provide a foundation for process calculi and concurrent computing. In theoretical computer science, the study of monoids is fundamental for au ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Automata Theory
Automata theory is the study of abstract machines and automata, as well as the computational problems that can be solved using them. It is a theory in theoretical computer science. The word ''automata'' comes from the Greek word αὐτόματος, which means "selfacting, selfwilled, selfmoving". An automaton (automata in plural) is an abstract selfpropelled computing device which follows a predetermined sequence of operations automatically. An automaton with a finite number of states is called a Finite Automaton (FA) or FiniteState Machine (FSM). The figure on the right illustrates a finitestate machine, which is a wellknown type of automaton. This automaton consists of states (represented in the figure by circles) and transitions (represented by arrows). As the automaton sees a symbol of input, it makes a transition (or jump) to another state, according to its transition function, which takes the previous state and current input symbol as its arguments. Automata theo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Monoid
In abstract algebra, the free monoid on a set is the monoid whose elements are all the finite sequences (or strings) of zero or more elements from that set, with string concatenation as the monoid operation and with the unique sequence of zero elements, often called the empty string and denoted by ε or λ, as the identity element. The free monoid on a set ''A'' is usually denoted ''A''∗. The free semigroup on ''A'' is the subsemigroup of ''A''∗ containing all elements except the empty string. It is usually denoted ''A''+./ref> More generally, an abstract monoid (or semigroup) ''S'' is described as free if it is isomorphic to the free monoid (or semigroup) on some set. As the name implies, free monoids and semigroups are those objects which satisfy the usual universal property defining free objects, in the respective categories of monoids and semigroups. It follows that every monoid (or semigroup) arises as a homomorphic image of a free monoid (or semigroup). The st ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Identity Element
In mathematics, an identity element, or neutral element, of a binary operation operating on a set is an element of the set that leaves unchanged every element of the set when the operation is applied. This concept is used in algebraic structures such as groups and rings. The term ''identity element'' is often shortened to ''identity'' (as in the case of additive identity and multiplicative identity) when there is no possibility of confusion, but the identity implicitly depends on the binary operation it is associated with. Definitions Let be a set equipped with a binary operation ∗. Then an element of is called a if for all in , and a if for all in . If is both a left identity and a right identity, then it is called a , or simply an . An identity with respect to addition is called an (often denoted as 0) and an identity with respect to multiplication is called a (often denoted as 1). These need not be ordinary addi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Object (category Theory)
In mathematics, a category (sometimes called an abstract category to distinguish it from a concrete category) is a collection of "objects" that are linked by "arrows". A category has two basic properties: the ability to compose the arrows associatively and the existence of an identity arrow for each object. A simple example is the category of sets, whose objects are sets and whose arrows are functions. ''Category theory'' is a branch of mathematics that seeks to generalize all of mathematics in terms of categories, independent of what their objects and arrows represent. Virtually every branch of modern mathematics can be described in terms of categories, and doing so often reveals deep insights and similarities between seemingly different areas of mathematics. As such, category theory provides an alternative foundation for mathematics to set theory and other proposed axiomatic foundations. In general, the objects and arrows may be abstract entities of any kind, and the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Transition Monoid
In mathematics and theoretical computer science, a semiautomaton is a deterministic finite automaton having inputs but no output. It consists of a set ''Q'' of states, a set Σ called the input alphabet, and a function ''T'': ''Q'' × Σ → ''Q'' called the transition function. Associated with any semiautomaton is a monoid called the characteristic monoid, input monoid, transition monoid or transition system of the semiautomaton, which acts on the set of states ''Q''. This may be viewed either as an action of the free monoid of strings in the input alphabet Σ, or as the induced transformation semigroup of ''Q''. In older books like Clifford and Preston (1967) semigroup actions are called "operands". In category theory, semiautomata essentially are functors. Transformation semigroups and monoid acts : A transformation semigroup or transformation monoid is a pair (M,Q) consisting of a set ''Q'' (often called the "set of states") and a semigroup or monoid ''M'' of functions ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include group (mathematics), groups, ring (mathematics), rings, field (mathematics), fields, module (mathematics), modules, vector spaces, lattice (order), lattices, and algebra over a field, algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variable (mathematics), variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form category (mathematics), mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For exampl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Magma (algebra)
In abstract algebra, a magma, binar, or, rarely, groupoid is a basic kind of algebraic structure. Specifically, a magma consists of a set equipped with a single binary operation that must be closed by definition. No other properties are imposed. History and terminology The term ''groupoid'' was introduced in 1927 by Heinrich Brandt describing his Brandt groupoid (translated from the German ). The term was then appropriated by B. A. Hausmann and Øystein Ore (1937) in the sense (of a set with a binary operation) used in this article. In a couple of reviews of subsequent papers in Zentralblatt, Brandt strongly disagreed with this overloading of terminology. The Brandt groupoid is a groupoid in the sense used in category theory, but not in the sense used by Hausmann and Ore. Nevertheless, influential books in semigroup theory, including Clifford and Preston (1961) and Howie (1995) use groupoid in the sense of Hausmann and Ore. Hollings (2014) writes that the term ''groupoid ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Star Height Problem
The star height problem in formal language theory is the question whether all regular languages can be expressed using regular expressions of limited star height, i.e. with a limited nesting depth of Kleene stars. Specifically, is a nesting depth of one always sufficient? If not, is there an algorithm to determine how many are required? The problem was raised by . Families of regular languages with unbounded star height The first question was answered in the negative when in 1963, Eggan gave examples of regular languages of star height ''n'' for every ''n''. Here, the star height ''h''(''L'') of a regular language ''L'' is defined as the minimum star height among all regular expressions representing ''L''. The first few languages found by are described in the following, by means of giving a regular expression for each language: :\begin e_1 &= a_1^* \\ e_2 &= \left(a_1^*a_2^*a_3\right)^*\\ e_3 &= \left(\left(a_1^*a_2^*a_3\right)^*\left(a_4^*a_5^*a_6\right)^*a_7\right)^*\\ e_4 &= ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Semigroup
In mathematics, a semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative internal binary operation on it. The binary operation of a semigroup is most often denoted multiplicatively: ''x''·''y'', or simply ''xy'', denotes the result of applying the semigroup operation to the ordered pair . Associativity is formally expressed as that for all ''x'', ''y'' and ''z'' in the semigroup. Semigroups may be considered a special case of magmas, where the operation is associative, or as a generalization of groups, without requiring the existence of an identity element or inverses. The closure axiom is implied by the definition of a binary operation on a set. Some authors thus omit it and specify three axioms for a group and only one axiom (associativity) for a semigroup. As in the case of groups or magmas, the semigroup operation need not be commutative, so ''x''·''y'' is not necessarily equal to ''y''·''x''; a wellknown example of an operation that is as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Trace Monoid
In computer science, a trace is a set of strings, wherein certain letters in the string are allowed to commute, but others are not. It generalizes the concept of a string, by not forcing the letters to always be in a fixed order, but allowing certain reshufflings to take place. Traces were introduced by Pierre Cartier and Dominique Foata in 1969 to give a combinatorial proof of MacMahon's master theorem. Traces are used in theories of concurrent computation, where commuting letters stand for portions of a job that can execute independently of one another, while noncommuting letters stand for locks, synchronization points or thread joins.Sándor & Crstici (2004) p.161 The trace monoid or free partially commutative monoid is a monoid of traces. In a nutshell, it is constructed as follows: sets of commuting letters are given by an independency relation. These induce an equivalence relation of equivalent strings; the elements of the equivalence classes are the traces. The equiv ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Concurrent Computing
Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed '' concurrently''—during overlapping time periods—instead of ''sequentially—''with one completing before the next starts. This is a property of a system—whether a program, computer, or a network—where there is a separate execution point or "thread of control" for each process. A ''concurrent system'' is one where a computation can advance without waiting for all other computations to complete. Concurrent computing is a form of modular programming. In its paradigm an overall computation is factored into subcomputations that may be executed concurrently. Pioneers in the field of concurrent computing include Edsger Dijkstra, Per Brinch Hansen, and C.A.R. Hoare. Introduction The concept of concurrent computing is frequently confused with the related but distinct concept of parallel computing, Pike, Rob (20120111). "Concurrency is not Parallelism". ''Waza conference'', 11 Janu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Process Calculi
In computer science, the process calculi (or process algebras) are a diverse family of related approaches for formally modelling concurrent systems. Process calculi provide a tool for the highlevel description of interactions, communications, and synchronizations between a collection of independent agents or processes. They also provide algebraic laws that allow process descriptions to be manipulated and analyzed, and permit formal reasoning about equivalences between processes (e.g., using bisimulation). Leading examples of process calculi include CSP, CCS, ACP, and LOTOS. More recent additions to the family include the πcalculus, the ambient calculus, PEPA, the fusion calculus and the joincalculus. Essential features While the variety of existing process calculi is very large (including variants that incorporate stochastic behaviour, timing information, and specializations for studying molecular interactions), there are several features that all process calculi have ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 