Measure (mathematics)
In mathematics, the concept of a measure is a generalization and formalization of geometrical measures (length, area, volume) and other common notions, such as mass and probability of events. These seemingly distinct concepts have many similarities and can often be treated together in a single mathematical context. Measures are foundational in probability theory, integration theory, and can be generalized to assume negative values, as with electrical charge. Farreaching generalizations (such as spectral measures and projectionvalued measures) of measure are widely used in quantum physics and physics in general. The intuition behind this concept dates back to ancient Greece, when Archimedes tried to calculate the area of a circle. But it was not until the late 19th and early 20th centuries that measure theory became a branch of mathematics. The foundations of modern measure theory were laid in the works of Émile Borel, Henri Lebesgue, Nikolai Luzin, Johann Radon, C ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Measure Illustration (Vector)
Measure may refer to: * Measurement, the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event Law * Ballot measure, proposed legislation in the United States * Church of England Measure, legislation of the Church of England * Measure of the National Assembly for Wales, primary legislation in Wales * Assembly Measure of the Northern Ireland Assembly (1973) Science and mathematics * Measure (data warehouse), a property on which calculations can be made * Measure (mathematics), a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set * Measure (physics), a way to integrate over all possible histories of a system in quantum field theory * Measure (termination), in computer program termination analysis * Measuring coalgebra, a coalgebra constructed from two algebras * Measure (Apple), an iOS augmented reality app Other uses * ''Measure'' (album), by Matt Pond PA, 2000, and its title track * Measure (bartending) or jigger, a bartending tool us ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Émile Borel
Félix Édouard Justin Émile Borel (; 7 January 1871 – 3 February 1956) was a French mathematician and politician. As a mathematician, he was known for his founding work in the areas of measure theory and probability. Biography Borel was born in SaintAffrique, Aveyron, the son of a Protestant pastor. He studied at the Collège SainteBarbe and Lycée LouisleGrand before applying to both the École normale supérieure and the École Polytechnique. He qualified in the first position for both and chose to attend the former institution in 1889. That year he also won the concours général, an annual national mathematics competition. After graduating in 1892, he placed first in the agrégation, a competitive civil service examination leading to the position of professeur agrégé. His thesis, published in 1893, was titled ''Sur quelques points de la théorie des fonctions'' ("On some points in the theory of functions"). That year, Borel started a fouryear stint as a le ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Measurable Space
In mathematics, a measurable space or Borel space is a basic object in measure theory. It consists of a set and a σalgebra, which defines the subsets that will be measured. Definition Consider a set X and a σalgebra \mathcal A on X. Then the tuple (X, \mathcal A) is called a measurable space. Note that in contrast to a measure space, no measure is needed for a measurable space. Example Look at the set: X = \. One possible \sigmaalgebra would be: \mathcal A_1 = \. Then \left(X, \mathcal A_1\right) is a measurable space. Another possible \sigmaalgebra would be the power set on X: \mathcal A_2 = \mathcal P(X). With this, a second measurable space on the set X is given by \left(X, \mathcal A_2\right). Common measurable spaces If X is finite or countably infinite, the \sigmaalgebra is most often the power set on X, so \mathcal A = \mathcal P(X). This leads to the measurable space (X, \mathcal P(X)). If X is a topological space In mathematics, a topological space is, rou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Disjoint Sets
In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common. Equivalently, two disjoint sets are sets whose intersection is the empty set.. For example, and are ''disjoint sets,'' while and are not disjoint. A collection of two or more sets is called disjoint if any two distinct sets of the collection are disjoint. Generalizations This definition of disjoint sets can be extended to a family of sets \left(A_i\right)_: the family is pairwise disjoint, or mutually disjoint if A_i \cap A_j = \varnothing whenever i \neq j. Alternatively, some authors use the term disjoint to refer to this notion as well. For families the notion of pairwise disjoint or mutually disjoint is sometimes defined in a subtly different manner, in that repeated identical members are allowed: the family is pairwise disjoint if A_i \cap A_j = \varnothing whenever A_i \neq A_j (every two ''distinct'' sets in the family are disjoint).. For example, the collection of sets is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Countable
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are quite c ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sigma Additivity
In mathematics, an additive set function is a function mapping sets to numbers, with the property that its value on a union of two disjoint sets equals the sum of its values on these sets, namely, \mu(A \cup B) = \mu(A) + \mu(B). If this additivity property holds for any two sets, then it also holds for any finite number of sets, namely, the function value on the union of ''k'' disjoint sets (where ''k'' is a finite number) equals the sum of its values on the sets. Therefore, an additive set function is also called a finitelyadditive set function (the terms are equivalent). However, a finitelyadditive set function might not have the additivity property for a union of an ''infinite'' number of sets. A σadditive set function is a function that has the additivity property even for countably infinite many sets, that is, \mu\left(\bigcup_^\infty A_n\right) = \sum_^\infty \mu(A_n). Additivity and sigmaadditivity are particularly important properties of measures. They are abstr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Extended Real Number Line
In mathematics, the affinely extended real number system is obtained from the real number system \R by adding two infinity elements: +\infty and \infty, where the infinities are treated as actual numbers. It is useful in describing the algebra on infinities and the various limiting behaviors in calculus and mathematical analysis, especially in the theory of measure and integration. The affinely extended real number system is denoted \overline or \infty, +\infty/math> or It is the Dedekind–MacNeille completion of the real numbers. When the meaning is clear from context, the symbol +\infty is often written simply as Motivation Limits It is often useful to describe the behavior of a function f, as either the argument x or the function value f gets "infinitely large" in some sense. For example, consider the function f defined by :f(x) = \frac. The graph of this function has a horizontal asymptote at y = 0. Geometrically, when moving increasingly farther to the right along ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set Function
In mathematics, especially measure theory, a set function is a function whose domain is a family of subsets of some given set and that (usually) takes its values in the extended real number line \R \cup \, which consists of the real numbers \R and \pm \infty. A set function generally aims to subsets in some way. Measures are typical examples of "measuring" set functions. Therefore, the term "set function" is often used for avoiding confusion between the mathematical meaning of "measure" and its common language meaning. Definitions If \mathcal is a family of sets over \Omega (meaning that \mathcal \subseteq \wp(\Omega) where \wp(\Omega) denotes the powerset) then a is a function \mu with domain \mathcal and codomain \infty, \infty/math> or, sometimes, the codomain is instead some vector space, as with vector measures, complex measures, and projectionvalued measures. The domain is a set function may have any number properties; the commonly encountered properties and categ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Countable Additivity Of A Measure
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are quite co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Maurice Fréchet
Maurice may refer to: People *Saint Maurice (died 287), Roman legionary and Christian martyr *Maurice (emperor) or Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus (539–602), Byzantine emperor *Maurice (bishop of London) (died 1107), Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper of England *Maurice of Carnoet (1117–1191), Breton abbot and saint *Maurice, Count of Oldenburg (fl. 1169–1211) * Maurice of Inchaffray (14th century), Scottish cleric who became a bishop *Maurice, Elector of Saxony (1521–1553), German Saxon nobleman *Maurice, Duke of SaxeLauenburg (1551–1612) *Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567–1625), stadtholder of the Netherlands *Maurice, Landgrave of HesseKassel or Maurice the Learned (1572–1632) *Maurice of Savoy (1593–1657), prince of Savoy and a cardinal *Maurice, Duke of SaxeZeitz (1619–1681) *Maurice of the Palatinate (1620–1652), Count Palatine of the Rhine *Maurice of the Netherlands (1843–1850), prince of OrangeNassau *Maurice Chevalier (1888–1972), Fr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constantin Carathéodory
Constantin Carathéodory ( el, Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή, Konstantinos Karatheodori; 13 September 1873 – 2 February 1950) was a Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany. He made significant contributions to real and complex analysis, the calculus of variations, and measure theory. He also created an axiomatic formulation of thermodynamics. Carathéodory is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of his era and the most renowned Greek mathematician since antiquity. Origins Constantin Carathéodory was born in 1873 in Berlin to Greek parents and grew up in Brussels. His father Stephanos, a lawyer, served as the Ottoman ambassador to Belgium, St. Petersburg and Berlin. His mother, Despina, née Petrokokkinos, was from the island of Chios. The Carathéodory family, originally from Bosnochori or Vyssa, was well established and respected in Constantinople, and its members held many important governmental positions. Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 