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Md5sum
is a computer program that calculates and verifies 128-bit MD5 hashes, as described in RFC 1321. The MD5 hash functions as a compact digital fingerprint of a file. As with all such hashing algorithms, there is theoretically an unlimited number of files that will have any given MD5 hash. However, it is very unlikely that any two non-identical files in the real world will have the same MD5 hash, unless they have been specifically created to have the same hash. The underlying MD5 algorithm is no longer deemed secure. Thus, while is well-suited for identifying known files in situations that are not security related, it should not be relied on if there is a chance that files have been purposefully and maliciously tampered. In the latter case, the use of a newer hashing tool such as sha256sum is recommended. is used to verify the integrity of files, as virtually any change to a file will cause its MD5 hash to change. Most commonly, is used to verify that a file has not changed as ...
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Sha256sum
is a computer program that calculates and verifies SHA-1 hashes. It is commonly used to verify the integrity of files. It (or a variant) is installed by default on most Linux distributions. Typically distributed alongside are , , and , which use a specific SHA-2 hash function and , which uses the BLAKE2 cryptographic hash function. The SHA-1 variants are ''proven'' vulnerable to collision attacks, and users should instead use, for example, a SHA-2 variant such as or the BLAKE2 variant to prevent tampering by an adversary. It is included in GNU Core Utilities, Busybox (excluding ), and Toybox (excluding ). Ports to a wide variety of systems are available, including Microsoft Windows. Examples To create a file with a SHA-1 hash in it, if one is not provided: $ sha1sum filename ilename2... > SHA1SUM If distributing one file, the file extension may be appended to the filename e.g.: $ sha1sum --binary my-zip.tar.gz > my-zip.tar.gz.sha1 The output contains one line ...
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Sha1sum
is a computer program that calculates and verifies SHA-1 hashes. It is commonly used to verify the integrity of files. It (or a variant) is installed by default on most Linux distributions. Typically distributed alongside are , , and , which use a specific SHA-2 hash function and , which uses the BLAKE2 cryptographic hash function. The SHA-1 variants are ''proven'' vulnerable to collision attacks, and users should instead use, for example, a SHA-2 variant such as or the BLAKE2 variant to prevent tampering by an adversary. It is included in GNU Core Utilities, Busybox (excluding ), and Toybox (excluding ). Ports to a wide variety of systems are available, including Microsoft Windows. Examples To create a file with a SHA-1 hash in it, if one is not provided: $ sha1sum filename ilename2... > SHA1SUM If distributing one file, the file extension may be appended to the filename e.g.: $ sha1sum --binary my-zip.tar.gz > my-zip.tar.gz.sha1 The output contains one line ...
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Cksum
cksum is a command in Unix and Unix-like operating systems that generates a checksum value for a file or stream of data. The cksum command reads each file given in its arguments, or standard input if no arguments are provided, and outputs the file's 32-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum and byte count. The CRC output by cksum is different from the CRC-32 used in zip, PNG and zlib. The cksum command can be used to verify that files transferred by unreliable means arrived intact. However, the CRC checksum calculated by the cksum command is not cryptographically secure: While it guards against ''accidental'' corruption (it is unlikely that the corrupted data will have the same checksum as the intended data), it is not difficult for an attacker to ''deliberately'' corrupt the file in a specific way that its checksum is unchanged. Unix-like systems typically include other commands for cryptographically secure checksums, such as sha256sum. The command is available as a separa ...
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Unix
Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, whose development started in 1969 at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others. Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix variants from vendors including University of California, Berkeley ( BSD), Microsoft ( Xenix), Sun Microsystems ( SunOS/ Solaris), HP/ HPE ( HP-UX), and IBM ( AIX). In the early 1990s, AT&T sold its rights in Unix to Novell, which then sold the UNIX trademark to The Open Group, an industry consortium founded in 1996. The Open Group allows the use of the mark for certified operating systems that comply with the Single UNIX Specification (SUS). Unix systems are characterized by a modular design that is sometimes called the " Unix philosophy". According to thi ...
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Cygwin
Cygwin ( ) is a POSIX-compatible programming and runtime environment that runs natively on Microsoft Windows. Under Cygwin, source code designed for Unix-like operating systems may be compiled with minimal modification and executed. The Cygwin installation has a directory layout that is similar to the root file system of Unix-like systems, with familiar directories, such as /bin, /home, /etc, /usr, and /var. Cygwin installs with hundreds of command-line tools and other programs commonly found on a Unix-like system. Additionally, many applications may be installed from a packaging system. The terminal emulator Mintty is the default command-line interface provided to interact with the environment. Cygwin provides native integration of Windows-based applications. Thus it is possible to launch Windows applications from the Cygwin environment, as well as to use Cygwin tools and applications within the Windows operating context. Cygwin consists of two parts: a dynamic-link library (DL ...
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OpenBSD
OpenBSD is a security-focused, free and open-source, Unix-like operating system based on the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD). Theo de Raadt created OpenBSD in 1995 by forking NetBSD 1.0. According to the website, the OpenBSD project emphasizes "portability, standardization, correctness, proactive security and integrated cryptography." The OpenBSD project maintains portable versions of many subsystems as packages for other operating systems. Because of the project's preferred BSD license, many components are reused in proprietary and corporate-sponsored software projects. The firewall code in Apple's macOS is based on OpenBSD's PF firewall code, Android's Bionic C standard library is based on OpenBSD code, LLVM uses OpenBSD's regular expression library, and Windows 10 uses OpenSSH (OpenBSD Secure Shell) with LibreSSL. The word "open" in the name OpenBSD refers to the availability of the operating system source code on the Internet, although the word "open" in the ...
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FreeBSD
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), which was based on Research Unix. The first version of FreeBSD was released in 1993. In 2005, FreeBSD was the most popular open-source BSD operating system, accounting for more than three-quarters of all installed and permissively licensed BSD systems. FreeBSD has similarities with Linux, with two major differences in scope and licensing: FreeBSD maintains a complete system, i.e. the project delivers a kernel, device drivers, userland utilities, and documentation, as opposed to Linux only delivering a kernel and drivers, and relying on third-parties for system software; FreeBSD source code is generally released under a permissive BSD license, as opposed to the copyleft GPL used by Linux. The FreeBSD project includes a security team overseeing all software shipped in the base distribution. A wide range of additional third-party applications may be i ...
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BusyBox
BusyBox is a software suite that provides several Unix utilities in a single executable file. It runs in a variety of POSIX environments such as Linux, Android, and FreeBSD, although many of the tools it provides are designed to work with interfaces provided by the Linux kernel. It was specifically created for embedded operating systems with very limited resources. The authors dubbed it "The Swiss Army knife of Embedded Linux", as the single executable replaces basic functions of more than 300 common commands. It is released as free software under the terms of the GNU General Public License v2, after controversially deciding not to move to version 3. History Origins Originally written by Bruce Perens in 1995 and declared complete for his intended usage in 1996, BusyBox initially aimed to put a complete bootable system on a single floppy disk that would serve both as a rescue disk and as an installer for the Debian distribution. Since that time, it has been extended ...
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GNU Coreutils
The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing implementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, which are used on Unix-like operating systems. In September 2002, the ''GNU coreutils'' were created by merging the earlier packages ''textutils'', ''shellutils'', and ''fileutils'', along with some other miscellaneous utilities. In July 2007, the license of the GNU coreutils was updated from GPL-2.0-or-later to GPL-3.0-or-later. The GNU core utilities support long options as parameters to the commands, as well as the relaxed convention allowing options even after the regular arguments (unless the environment variable is set). Note that this environment variable enables a different functionality in BSD. See the List of GNU Core Utilities commands for a brief description of included commands. Alternative implementation packages are available in the FOSS ecosystem, with a slightly different scope and focus, or license. For exa ...
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Operating Systems
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers. The dominant general-purpose personal computer operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 74.99%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (14.84%), and t ...
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Compatibility Layer
In software engineering, a compatibility layer is an interface that allows binaries for a legacy or foreign system to run on a host system. This translates system calls for the foreign system into native system calls for the host system. With some libraries for the foreign system, this will often be sufficient to run foreign binaries on the host system. A hardware compatibility layer consists of tools that allow hardware emulation. Software Examples include: * Wine, which runs some Microsoft Windows binaries on Unix-like systems using a program loader and the Windows API implemented in DLLs * Windows's application compatibility layers to attempt to run poorly written applications or those written for earlier versions of the platform. * Lina, which runs some Linux binaries on Windows, Mac OS X and Unix-like systems with native look and feel. * KernelEX, which runs some Windows 2000/XP programs on Windows 98/Me. * Executor, which runs 68k-based "classic" Mac OS programs in Wi ...
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Unix-like
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, although not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. A Unix-like application is one that behaves like the corresponding Unix command or shell. Although there are general philosophies for Unix design, there is no technical standard defining the term, and opinions can differ about the degree to which a particular operating system or application is Unix-like. Some well-known examples of Unix-like operating systems include Linux and BSD. These systems are often used on servers, as well as on personal computers and other devices. Many popular applications, such as the Apache web server and the Bash shell, are also designed to be used on Unix-like systems. One of the key features of Unix-like systems is their ability to support multiple users and processes simultaneously. This allows users to run multipl ...
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