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Matrix Exponential
In mathematics, the matrix exponential is a matrix function on square matrices analogous to the ordinary exponential function. It is used to solve systems of linear differential equations. In the theory of Lie groups, the matrix exponential gives the exponential map between a matrix Lie algebra and the corresponding Lie group. Let be an real or complex matrix. The exponential of , denoted by or , is the matrix given by the power series e^X = \sum_^\infty \frac X^k where X^0 is defined to be the identity matrix I with the same dimensions as X. The above series always converges, so the exponential of is well-defined. If is a 1×1 matrix the matrix exponential of is a 1×1 matrix whose single element is the ordinary exponential of the single element of . Properties Elementary properties Let and be complex matrices and let and be arbitrary complex numbers. We denote the identity matrix by and the zero matrix by 0. The matrix exponential satisfies the foll ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Inequalities For Exponentials Of Hermitian Matrices
Inequality may refer to: Economics * Attention inequality, unequal distribution of attention across users, groups of people, issues in etc. in attention economy * Economic inequality, difference in economic well-being between population groups * Spatial inequality, the unequal distribution of income and resources across geographical regions * Income inequality metrics, used to measure income and economic inequality among participants in a particular economy * International inequality, economic differences between countries Healthcare * Health equity, the study of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations Mathematics * Inequality (mathematics), a relation between two values when they are different Social sciences * Educational inequality, the unequal distribution of academic resources to socially excluded communities * Gender inequality, unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals due to their gender * Participation inequality, the phe ...
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Trace Identity
In mathematics, a trace identity is any equation involving the trace of a matrix. Properties Trace identities are invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Uses They are frequently used in the invariant theory of n \times n matrices to find the generators and relations of the ring of invariants, and therefore are useful in answering questions similar to that posed by Hilbert's fourteenth problem. Examples * The Cayley–Hamilton theorem says that every square matrix satisfies its own characteristic polynomial. This also implies that all square matrices satisfy \operatorname\left(A^n\right) - c_\operatorname(A) \operatorname\left(A^\right) + \cdots + (-1)^n n \det(A) = 0\, where the coefficients c_i are given by the elementary symmetric polynomials of the eigenvalues of . * All square matrices satisfy \operatorname(A) = \operatorname\left(A^\mathsf\right).\, See also * References {{citation, title=Graduate Algebra: Noncommutative View, volume=2, series=Graduate Studi ...
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Jacobi's Formula
In matrix calculus, Jacobi's formula expresses the derivative of the determinant of a matrix ''A'' in terms of the adjugate of ''A'' and the derivative of ''A''., Part Three, Section 8.3 If is a differentiable map from the real numbers to matrices, then : \frac \det A(t) = \operatorname \left (\operatorname(A(t)) \, \frac\right ) = \left(\det A(t) \right) \cdot \operatorname \left (A(t)^ \cdot \, \frac\right ) where is the trace of the matrix . (The latter equality only holds if ''A''(''t'') is invertible.) As a special case, : = \operatorname(A)_. Equivalently, if stands for the differential of , the general formula is : d \det (A) = \operatorname (\operatorname(A) \, dA). The formula is named after the mathematician Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi. Derivation Via Matrix Computation We first prove a preliminary lemma: Lemma. Let ''A'' and ''B'' be a pair of square matrices of the same dimension ''n''. Then :\sum_i \sum_j A_ B_ = \operatorname (A^ B). ''Proof.'' The pr ...
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Magnus Series
In mathematics and physics, the Magnus expansion, named after Wilhelm Magnus (1907–1990), provides an exponential representation of the solution of a first-order homogeneous linear differential equation for a linear operator. In particular, it furnishes the fundamental matrix of a system of linear ordinary differential equations of order with varying coefficients. The exponent is aggregated as an infinite series, whose terms involve multiple integrals and nested commutators. The deterministic case Magnus approach and its interpretation Given the coefficient matrix , one wishes to solve the initial-value problem associated with the linear ordinary differential equation : Y'(t) = A(t) Y(t), \quad Y(t_0) = Y_0 for the unknown -dimensional vector function . When ''n'' = 1, the solution simply reads : Y(t) = \exp \left( \int_^t A(s)\,ds \right) Y_0. This is still valid for ''n'' > 1 if the matrix satisfies for any pair of values of ''t'', ''t''1 and ' ...
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Applications
Application may refer to: Mathematics and computing * Application software, computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks ** Application layer, an abstraction layer that specifies protocols and interface methods used in a communications network * Function application, in mathematics and computer science Processes and documents * Application for employment, a form or forms that an individual seeking employment must fill out * College application, the process by which prospective students apply for entry into a college or university * Patent application, a document filed at a patent office to support the grant of a patent Other uses * Application (virtue), a characteristic encapsulated in diligence * Topical application, the spreading or putting of medication to body surfaces See also * * Apply In mathematics and computer science, apply is a function that applies a function to arguments. It is central to programming languages derived from lambda calcul ...
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Ordinary Differential Equations
In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation whose unknown(s) consists of one (or more) function(s) of one variable and involves the derivatives of those functions. The term ''ordinary'' is used in contrast with the term partial differential equation which may be with respect to ''more than'' one independent variable. Differential equations A linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form :a_0(x)y +a_1(x)y' + a_2(x)y'' +\cdots +a_n(x)y^+b(x)=0, where , ..., and are arbitrary differentiable functions that do not need to be linear, and are the successive derivatives of the unknown function of the variable . Among ordinary differential equations, linear differential equations play a prominent role for several reasons. Most elementary and special functions that are encountered in physics and applied mathematics ...
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Resolvent Formalism
In mathematics, the resolvent formalism is a technique for applying concepts from complex analysis to the study of the spectrum of operators on Banach spaces and more general spaces. Formal justification for the manipulations can be found in the framework of holomorphic functional calculus. The resolvent captures the spectral properties of an operator in the analytic structure of the functional. Given an operator , the resolvent may be defined as : R(z;A)= (A-zI)^~. Among other uses, the resolvent may be used to solve the inhomogeneous Fredholm integral equations; a commonly used approach is a series solution, the Liouville–Neumann series. The resolvent of can be used to directly obtain information about the spectral decomposition of . For example, suppose is an isolated eigenvalue in the spectrum of . That is, suppose there exists a simple closed curve C_\lambda in the complex plane that separates from the rest of the spectrum of . Then the residue : -\frac ...
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Laplace Transform
In mathematics, the Laplace transform, named after its discoverer Pierre-Simon Laplace (), is an integral transform that converts a function of a real variable (usually t, in the '' time domain'') to a function of a complex variable s (in the complex frequency domain, also known as ''s''-domain, or s-plane). The transform has many applications in science and engineering because it is a tool for solving differential equations. In particular, it transforms ordinary differential equations into algebraic equations and convolution into multiplication. For suitable functions ''f'', the Laplace transform is the integral \mathcal\(s) = \int_0^\infty f(t)e^ \, dt. History The Laplace transform is named after mathematician and astronomer Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace, who used a similar transform in his work on probability theory. Laplace wrote extensively about the use of generating functions in ''Essai philosophique sur les probabilités'' (1814), and the integral form of t ...
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Unitary Matrix
In linear algebra, a complex square matrix is unitary if its conjugate transpose is also its inverse, that is, if U^* U = UU^* = UU^ = I, where is the identity matrix. In physics, especially in quantum mechanics, the conjugate transpose is referred to as the Hermitian adjoint of a matrix and is denoted by a dagger (†), so the equation above is written U^\dagger U = UU^\dagger = I. The real analogue of a unitary matrix is an orthogonal matrix. Unitary matrices have significant importance in quantum mechanics because they preserve norms, and thus, probability amplitudes. Properties For any unitary matrix of finite size, the following hold: * Given two complex vectors and , multiplication by preserves their inner product; that is, . * is normal (U^* U = UU^*). * is diagonalizable; that is, is unitarily similar to a diagonal matrix, as a consequence of the spectral theorem. Thus, has a decomposition of the form U = VDV^*, where is unitary, and is diagonal and ...
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Skew-Hermitian Matrix
__NOTOC__ In linear algebra, a square matrix with complex entries is said to be skew-Hermitian or anti-Hermitian if its conjugate transpose is the negative of the original matrix. That is, the matrix A is skew-Hermitian if it satisfies the relation where A^\textsf denotes the conjugate transpose of the matrix A. In component form, this means that for all indices i and j, where a_ is the element in the j-th row and i-th column of A, and the overline denotes complex conjugation. Skew-Hermitian matrices can be understood as the complex versions of real skew-symmetric matrices, or as the matrix analogue of the purely imaginary numbers., §4.1.2 The set of all skew-Hermitian n \times n matrices forms the u(n) Lie algebra, which corresponds to the Lie group U(n). The concept can be generalized to include linear transformations of any complex vector space with a sesquilinear norm. Note that the adjoint of an operator depends on the scalar product considered on the n dimensio ...
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Hermitian Matrix
In mathematics, a Hermitian matrix (or self-adjoint matrix) is a complex square matrix that is equal to its own conjugate transpose—that is, the element in the -th row and -th column is equal to the complex conjugate of the element in the -th row and -th column, for all indices and : or in matrix form: A \text \quad \iff \quad A = \overline . Hermitian matrices can be understood as the complex extension of real symmetric matrices. If the conjugate transpose of a matrix A is denoted by A^\mathsf, then the Hermitian property can be written concisely as Hermitian matrices are named after Charles Hermite, who demonstrated in 1855 that matrices of this form share a property with real symmetric matrices of always having real eigenvalues. Other, equivalent notations in common use are A^\mathsf = A^\dagger = A^\ast, although note that in quantum mechanics, A^\ast typically means the complex conjugate only, and not the conjugate transpose. Alternative characterizations H ...
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