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Mathematical Analysts
Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (calculus and mathematical analysis, analysis). There is no general consensus about its exact scope or epistemology, epistemological status. Most of mathematical activity consists of discovering and proving (by pure reasoning) properties of mathematical object, abstract objects. These objects are either abstractions from nature (such as natural numbers or "a line (mathematics), line"), or (in modern mathematics) abstract entities that are defined by their basic properties, called axioms. A proof (mathematics), proof consists of a succession of applications of some inference rule, deductive rules to already known results, including previously proved theorems, axioms and (in case of abstraction from nature) some basic properties that are conside ...
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Euclid
Euclid (; grc-gre, Εὐκλείδης Euclid (; grc, Εὐκλείδης – ''Eukleídēs'', ; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry Geometr ... ; 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematics, Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). His ''Euclid's Elements, Elements'' is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. In the ''Elements'', Euclid deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wr ...
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Experimentation
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context Context may refer to: * Context (language use), the rel ..., or determine the efficacy Efficacy is the ability to perform a task to a satisfactory or expected degree. The word comes from the same roots as ''effectiveness Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output. When ... or likelihood In statistics, the likelihood function (often simply called the likelihood) measures the goodness of fit of a statistical model to a Sample (statistics), sample of data for given values of the unknown Statistical parameter, parameters. It is formed ... of something previously untried. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome ...
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Statistics
Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), variables about one or .... In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population In statistics, a population is a Set (mathematics), set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment. A statistical population can be a group of existing objects (e.g. the set of all stars within the Milky Way gal ... or a statistical model A statistical model is a mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set o ...
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Social Sciences
Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ... of science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or objects ... devoted to the study of societies A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals. Social relations derived from individual agenc ... and the relationships among individual An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity refe ...
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Computer Science
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of computation, automation, and information. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines, such as algorithms, theory of computation, and Information theory, information theory, to Applied science, practical disciplines including the design and implementation of Computer architecture, hardware and Computer programming, software. Computer science is generally considered an area of research, academic research and distinct from computer programming. Algorithms and data structures have been called the heart of computer science. The theory of computation concerns abstract models of computation and general classes of computational problem, problems that can be solved using them. Cryptography and computer security study the means for secure communication and prevent Vulner ...
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Finance
Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally a ... and investment Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In , the purpose of investing is to generate a from the inve ...s. Pamela Drake and Frank Fabozzi Frank J. Fabozzi is an United States, American economist, educator, writer, and investor, currently Professor of Finance at EDHEC Business School and a Member of Edhec Risk Institute. He was previously a Professor in the Practice of Finance and Bec ... (2009)What Is Finance?/ref> Specifically, it deals with the questions of how an individual, company A company ...
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Medicine
Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or objects ... and practice of caring for a patient, managing the diagnosis Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different academic discipline, disciplines, with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience, to determine "causality, cause an ..., prognosis Prognosis (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately ..., prevention Prevention may refer to: Health and medicine * Preventive healthcare Preventive healthcare, or prophylaxis, consists ...
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Engineering
Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering Engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses ..., each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and be ..., applied science Applied science is the use of the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical m ...
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Natural Sciences
Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who spe ... of science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ... concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of natural phenomena Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ..., based on empirical evidence Empirical evidence for a proposition In logic and linguistics, a proposition i ...
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General Relativity
General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity, is the geometric Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; '' geo-'' "earth", '' -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, ... theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, G ... of gravitation Gravity (), or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon Types of natural phenomena include: Weather, fog, thunder, tornadoes; biological processes, decomposition, germination seedlings, three days after germination. Germination is th ... published by Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born , widely ac ...
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Einstein
Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity, proposed and published in 1905 and 1915, respectively. Special relativity applies to all physical phenomena in ..., but he also made important contributions to the development of the theory of quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with .... Relativity and quantum mechanics are together the two pillars of modern physics Modern physics is a branch of physics Physics is the natural scien ...
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Perihelion Precession Of Mercury
Tests of general relativity serve to establish observational evidence for the theory of general relativity General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity, is the differential geometry, geometric scientific theory, theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and is the current description of gravitation in modern ph .... The first three tests, proposed by Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theo ... in 1915, concerned the "anomalous" precession Precession is a change in the orientation Orientation may refer to: Positioning in physical space * Map orientation, the relationship between directions on a map and compass directions * Orientation (housing), the position of a building with re ... of the perihelion uprig ...
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