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Malleus
The malleus, or hammer, is a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton in animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red blood cel ... of the middle ear The middle ear is the portion of the ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is th .... It connects with the incus The ''incus'' or anvil is a bone in the middle ear. The anvil-shaped small bone is one of three ossicles in the middle ear. The ''incus'' receives vibrations from the ''malleus'', to which it is connected laterally, and transmits these to the ''s ..., and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum In the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is ...
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Ossicles
The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...s in either middle ear The middle ear is the portion of the ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is th ... that are among the smallest bones in the human body. They serve to transmit sound In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ...s from the air to the fluid-filled labyrinth In Greek mythology ...
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Evolution Of Mammalian Auditory Ossicles
The evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles was an evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...ary event that resulted in the formation of the bones of the mammalian middle ear The middle ear is the portion of the ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is t .... These bones, or ossicles, are a defining characteristic of all mammals Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R .... The event is well-d ...
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Membrana Tympani
In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped biological membrane, membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles inside the middle ear, and then to the oval window in the fluid-filled cochlea. Hence, it ultimately converts and amplifies vibration in air to vibration in cochlear fluid. The malleus bone bridges the gap between the eardrum and the other ossicles. Rupture or perforation of the eardrum can lead to conductive hearing loss. Collapse or tympanic membrane retraction, retraction of the eardrum can cause conductive hearing loss or cholesteatoma. Structure Orientation and relations The tympanic membrane is oriented obliquely in the anatomical terms of location, anteroposterior, mediolateral, and superoinferior planes. Consequently, its superoposterior end lies lateral to its anteroinferior end. Anatomical ...
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Inner Ear
The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is the external part of the ear, which consists .... In vertebrates, the inner ear is mainly responsible for sound detection and balance. In mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...s, it consists of the bony labyrinth The bony labyrinth (also osseous labyrinth or otic capsule) is the rigid, bony outer wall of the inner ear in the temporal bone. It consists of three parts: the vestibule of the ear, vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea. These are cavities ho ..., a hollow ca ...
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Cambridge,Massachusetts
Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester, Massachusetts, Worcester, Springfield, Massachusetts, Springfield, and Lowell, Massachusetts, Lowell. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162. It is one of two de jure county seats of Middlesex County, although the county's government was abolished in 1997. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, once also an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Lesley University, and Hult International Business School are in Cambridge,
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Phantoms In The Brain
''Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind'' (also published as ''Phantoms in the Brain: Human Nature and the Architecture of the Mind'') is a 1998 popular science Popular science (also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predic ... book by neuroscientist A neuroscientist (or neurobiologist) is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in neuroscience, a branch of biology that deals with the physiology, biochemistry, psychology, anatomy and molecular biology of neurons, Biological neural network, n ... V.S. Ramachandran and ''New York Times'' science writer Sandra Blakeslee Sandra Blakeslee (born 1943) is an American science correspondent of over four decades for ''The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper bas ...
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Articular
The articular bone is part of the lower jaw of most vertebrates Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ..., including most jawed fish Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few excepti ..., amphibians Amphibians are ectotherm File:Junonia lemonias DSF by Kadavoor.JPG, ''Junonia lemonias'' is basking under the sun. An ectotherm (from the Ancient Greek, Greek ἐκτός (''ektós'') "outside" and θερμός (''thermós'') "hot") is an o ..., birds Birds are a group of s constituting the Aves , characterised by s, toothless beaked jaws, the of eggs, a high r ...
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Amniota
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον ''amnion'', "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός ''amnos'', "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising reptiles (class Reptilia), birds (class Aves) and mammals (class Mammalia). Amniotes lay their Egg (biology), eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother, and are distinguished from the anamniotes (fishes and amphibians), which typically lay their eggs in water. Older sources, particularly prior to the 20th century, may refer to amniotes as "higher vertebrates" and anamniotes as "lower vertebrates", based on the discredited idea of the Great chain of being#Scala naturae in evolution, evolutionary great chain of being. Amniotes are tetrapods (descendants of four-limbed and backboned animals) that are characterised by having an Egg (biology), egg equipped with an amnion, an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as the ana ...
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Berengario Da Carpi
Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, Giacomo Berengario da Carpi or simply Carpus; c. 1460 – c. 1530) was an Italian physician. His book "''Isagoge breves''" published in 1522 made him the most important anatomist Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ... before Andreas Vesalius Andreas Vesalius (; 31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish people, Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, ''De humani corporis fabrica, De Humani Corporis Fabrica .... Early years Jacopo Berengario da Carpi Carpi may refer to : Places * Carpi, Emilia-Romagna, a large town in the province of Modena, central Italy * Carpi (Africa), a city and former diocese ...
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Alessandro Achillini
Alessandro Achillini (''Latin'' Alexander Achillinus; 20 or 29 October 1463 (or possibly 1461)2 August 1512) was an Italy, Italian philosopher and physician. He is known for the anatomic studies that he was able to publish, made possible by a 13th-century edict putatively by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Frederick II allowing for dissection of human cadavers, and which previously had stimulated the anatomist Mondino de Luzzi (c. 1270 – 1326) at Bologna. Biography Achillini was born in Bologna and lived the majority of his life there. He was the son of Claudio Achillini, member of an old family of Bologna. He was celebrated as a lecturer both in medicine and in philosophy at University of Bologna, Bologna and University of Padua, Padua, and was styled the second Aristotle. He was of a very simplistic nature. He was unskilled in the arts of adulation and double-dealing to such a degree that his most witty and imprudent students often regarded him as an object of ridi ...
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Philosopher
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio .... The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom'. The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras Pythagoras of Samos, or simply ; in () was an ancient and the eponymous founder of . His political and religious teachings were well known in and influenced the philosophies of , , and, through them, . Knowledge of his life is clouded b ... (6th century BCE).. In the classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical archi ...
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