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Lower Limit Topology
In mathematics, the lower limit topology or right half-open interval topology is a topology defined on the set \mathbb of real numbers; it is different from the standard topology on \mathbb (generated by the open intervals) and has a number of interesting properties. It is the topology generated by the basis of all half-open intervals ''a'',''b''),_where_''a''_and_''b''_are_real_numbers. The_resulting_topological_space.html" ;"title="/nowiki>''a'',''b''), where ''a'' and ''b'' are real numbers. The resulting topological space">/nowiki>''a'',''b''), where ''a'' and ''b'' are real numbers. The resulting topological space is called the Sorgenfrey line after Robert Sorgenfrey or the arrow and is sometimes written \mathbb_l. Like the Cantor set and the long line (topology), long line, the Sorgenfrey line often serves as a useful counterexample to many otherwise plausible-sounding conjectures in general topology. The product of \mathbb_l with itself is also a useful counterexample ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of t ...
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Compact Space
In mathematics, specifically general topology, compactness is a property that seeks to generalize the notion of a closed and bounded subset of Euclidean space by making precise the idea of a space having no "punctures" or "missing endpoints", i.e. that the space not exclude any ''limiting values'' of points. For example, the open interval (0,1) would not be compact because it excludes the limiting values of 0 and 1, whereas the closed interval ,1would be compact. Similarly, the space of rational numbers \mathbb is not compact, because it has infinitely many "punctures" corresponding to the irrational numbers, and the space of real numbers \mathbb is not compact either, because it excludes the two limiting values +\infty and -\infty. However, the ''extended'' real number line ''would'' be compact, since it contains both infinities. There are many ways to make this heuristic notion precise. These ways usually agree in a metric space, but may not be equivalent in other topo ...
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Paracompact
In mathematics, a paracompact space is a topological space in which every open cover has an open refinement that is locally finite. These spaces were introduced by . Every compact space is paracompact. Every paracompact Hausdorff space is normal, and a Hausdorff space is paracompact if and only if it admits partitions of unity subordinate to any open cover. Sometimes paracompact spaces are defined so as to always be Hausdorff. Every closed subspace of a paracompact space is paracompact. While compact subsets of Hausdorff spaces are always closed, this is not true for paracompact subsets. A space such that every subspace of it is a paracompact space is called hereditarily paracompact. This is equivalent to requiring that every open subspace be paracompact. Tychonoff's theorem (which states that the product of any collection of compact topological spaces is compact) does not generalize to paracompact spaces in that the product of paracompact spaces need not be paracompact. Ho ...
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Lindelöf Space
In mathematics, a Lindelöf space is a topological space in which every open cover has a countable subcover. The Lindelöf property is a weakening of the more commonly used notion of '' compactness'', which requires the existence of a ''finite'' subcover. A hereditarily Lindelöf space is a topological space such that every subspace of it is Lindelöf. Such a space is sometimes called strongly Lindelöf, but confusingly that terminology is sometimes used with an altogether different meaning. The term ''hereditarily Lindelöf'' is more common and unambiguous. Lindelöf spaces are named after the Finnish mathematician Ernst Leonard Lindelöf. Properties of Lindelöf spaces * Every compact space, and more generally every σ-compact space, is Lindelöf. In particular, every countable space is Lindelöf. * A Lindelöf space is compact if and only if it is countably compact. * Every second-countable space is Lindelöf, but not conversely. For example, there are many compact sp ...
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Second-countable Space
In topology, a second-countable space, also called a completely separable space, is a topological space whose topology has a countable base. More explicitly, a topological space T is second-countable if there exists some countable collection \mathcal = \_^ of open subsets of T such that any open subset of T can be written as a union of elements of some subfamily of \mathcal. A second-countable space is said to satisfy the second axiom of countability. Like other countability axioms, the property of being second-countable restricts the number of open sets that a space can have. Many " well-behaved" spaces in mathematics are second-countable. For example, Euclidean space (R''n'') with its usual topology is second-countable. Although the usual base of open balls is uncountable, one can restrict to the collection of all open balls with rational radii and whose centers have rational coordinates. This restricted set is countable and still forms a basis. Properties Second-countabilit ...
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Separable Space
In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence \_^ of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence. Like the other axioms of countability, separability is a "limitation on size", not necessarily in terms of cardinality (though, in the presence of the Hausdorff axiom, this does turn out to be the case; see below) but in a more subtle topological sense. In particular, every continuous function on a separable space whose image is a subset of a Hausdorff space is determined by its values on the countable dense subset. Contrast separability with the related notion of second countability, which is in general stronger but equivalent on the class of metrizable spaces. First examples Any topological space that is itself finite or countably infinite is separable, for the whole space is a countable dense subset of itself. An impo ...
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First-countable Space
In topology, a branch of mathematics, a first-countable space is a topological space satisfying the "first axiom of countability". Specifically, a space X is said to be first-countable if each point has a countable neighbourhood basis (local base). That is, for each point x in X there exists a sequence N_1, N_2, \ldots of neighbourhoods of x such that for any neighbourhood N of x there exists an integer i with N_i contained in N. Since every neighborhood of any point contains an open neighborhood of that point, the neighbourhood basis can be chosen without loss of generality to consist of open neighborhoods. Examples and counterexamples The majority of 'everyday' spaces in mathematics are first-countable. In particular, every metric space is first-countable. To see this, note that the set of open balls centered at x with radius 1/n for integers form a countable local base at x. An example of a space which is not first-countable is the cofinite topology on an uncountable se ...
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Axiom Of Countability
In mathematics, an axiom of countability is a property of certain mathematical objects that asserts the existence of a countable set with certain properties. Without such an axiom, such a set might not provably exist. Important examples Important countability axioms for topological spaces include:. *sequential space: a set is open if every sequence convergent to a point in the set is eventually in the set *first-countable space: every point has a countable neighbourhood basis (local base) *second-countable space: the topology has a countable base *separable space: there exists a countable dense subset *Lindelöf space: every open cover has a countable subcover *σ-compact space: there exists a countable cover by compact spaces Relationships with each other These axioms are related to each other in the following ways: *Every first-countable space is sequential. *Every second-countable space is first countable, separable, and Lindelöf. *Every σ-compact space is Lindelöf. *Ev ...
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Perfectly Normal Hausdorff Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a normal space is a topological space ''X'' that satisfies Axiom T4: every two disjoint closed sets of ''X'' have disjoint open neighborhoods. A normal Hausdorff space is also called a T4 space. These conditions are examples of separation axioms and their further strengthenings define completely normal Hausdorff spaces, or T5 spaces, and perfectly normal Hausdorff spaces, or T6 spaces. Definitions A topological space ''X'' is a normal space if, given any disjoint closed sets ''E'' and ''F'', there are neighbourhoods ''U'' of ''E'' and ''V'' of ''F'' that are also disjoint. More intuitively, this condition says that ''E'' and ''F'' can be separated by neighbourhoods. A T4 space is a T1 space ''X'' that is normal; this is equivalent to ''X'' being normal and Hausdorff. A completely normal space, or , is a topological space ''X'' such that every subspace of ''X'' with subspace topology is a normal space. It turns out that ...
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Separation Axioms
In topology and related fields of mathematics, there are several restrictions that one often makes on the kinds of topological spaces that one wishes to consider. Some of these restrictions are given by the separation axioms. These are sometimes called ''Tychonoff separation axioms'', after Andrey Tychonoff. The separation axioms are not fundamental axioms like those of set theory, but rather defining properties which may be specified to distinguish certain types of topological spaces. The separation axioms are denoted with the letter "T" after the German ''Trennungsaxiom ("''separation axiom"), and increasing numerical subscripts denote stronger and stronger properties. The precise definitions of the separation axioms has varied over time. Especially in older literature, different authors might have different definitions of each condition. Preliminary definitions Before we define the separation axioms themselves, we give concrete meaning to the concept of separated sets (and ...
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Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians Al-Biruni and Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ...
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Right-sided Limit
In calculus, a one-sided limit refers to either one of the two limits of a function f(x) of a real variable x as x approaches a specified point either from the left or from the right. The limit as x decreases in value approaching a (x approaches a "from the right" or "from above") can be denoted: \lim_f(x) \quad \text \quad \lim_\,f(x) \quad \text \quad \lim_\,f(x) \quad \text \quad f(x+) The limit as x increases in value approaching a (x approaches a "from the left" or "from below") can be denoted: \lim_f(x) \quad \text \quad \lim_\, f(x) \quad \text \quad \lim_\,f(x) \quad \text \quad f(x-) If the limit of f(x) as x approaches a exists then the limits from the left and from the right both exist and are equal. In some cases in which the limit \lim_ f(x) does not exist, the two one-sided limits nonetheless exist. Consequently, the limit as x approaches a is sometimes called a "two-sided limit". It is possible for exactly one of the two one-sided limits to exist (while the ...
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