Logical Disjunction
In logic, disjunction is a logical connective typically notated as \lor and read aloud as "or". For instance, the English language sentence "it is raining or it is snowing" can be represented in logic using the disjunctive formula R \lor S , assuming that R abbreviates "it is raining" and S abbreviates "it is snowing". In classical logic, disjunction is given a truth functional semantics according to which a formula \phi \lor \psi is true unless both \phi and \psi are false. Because this semantics allows a disjunctive formula to be true when both of its disjuncts are true, it is an ''inclusive'' interpretation of disjunction, in contrast with exclusive disjunction. Classical proof theoretical treatments are often given in terms of rules such as disjunction introduction and disjunction elimination. Disjunction has also been given numerous nonclassical treatments, motivated by problems including Aristotle's sea battle argument, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Venn 0111 1111
Venn is a surname and a given name. It may refer to: Given name * Venn Eyre (died 1777), Archdeacon of Carlisle, Cumbria, England * Venn Pilcher (1879–1961), Anglican bishop, writer, and translator of hymns * Venn Young (1929–1993), New Zealand politician Surname * Albert Venn (1867–1908), American lacrosse player * Anne Venn (1620s–1654), English religious radical and diarist * Blair Venn, Australian actor * Charles Venn (born 1973), British actor * Harry Venn (1844–1908), Australian politician * Henry Venn (Church Missionary Society) the younger (17961873), secretary of the Church Missionary Society, grandson of Henry Venn * Henry Venn (Clapham Sect) the elder (1725–1797), English evangelical minister * Horace Venn (1892–1953), English cricketer * John Venn (1834–1923), British logician and the inventor of Venn diagrams, son of Henry Venn the younger * John Venn (academic) (died 1687), English academic administrator * John Venn (politician) (1586–1650), Engli ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Programming Language
A programming language is a system of notation for writing computer programs. Most programming languages are textbased formal languages, but they may also be graphical. They are a kind of computer language. The description of a programming language is usually split into the two components of syntax (form) and semantics (meaning), which are usually defined by a formal language. Some languages are defined by a specification document (for example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard) while other languages (such as Perl) have a dominant implementation that is treated as a reference. Some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common. Programming language theory is the subfield of computer science that studies the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages. Definitions There are many considerations when defi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Associativity
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations, which means that rearranging the parentheses in an expression will not change the result. In propositional logic, associativity is a valid rule of replacement for expressions in logical proofs. Within an expression containing two or more occurrences in a row of the same associative operator, the order in which the operations are performed does not matter as long as the sequence of the operands is not changed. That is (after rewriting the expression with parentheses and in infix notation if necessary), rearranging the parentheses in such an expression will not change its value. Consider the following equations: \begin (2 + 3) + 4 &= 2 + (3 + 4) = 9 \,\\ 2 \times (3 \times 4) &= (2 \times 3) \times 4 = 24 . \end Even though the parentheses were rearranged on each line, the values of the expressions were not altered. Since this holds true when performing addition and multiplication on any rea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Material Conditional
The material conditional (also known as material implication) is an operation commonly used in logic. When the conditional symbol \rightarrow is interpreted as material implication, a formula P \rightarrow Q is true unless P is true and Q is false. Material implication can also be characterized inferentially by modus ponens, modus tollens, conditional proof, and classical reductio ad absurdum. Material implication is used in all the basic systems of classical logic as well as some nonclassical logics. It is assumed as a model of correct conditional reasoning within mathematics and serves as the basis for commands in many programming languages. However, many logics replace material implication with other operators such as the strict conditional and the variably strict conditional. Due to the paradoxes of material implication and related problems, material implication is not generally considered a viable analysis of conditional sentences in natural language. Notati ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logical Negation
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P, \mathord P or \overline. It is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true. Negation is thus a unary logical connective. It may be applied as an operation on notions, propositions, truth values, or semantic values more generally. In classical logic, negation is normally identified with the truth function that takes ''truth'' to ''falsity'' (and vice versa). In intuitionistic logic, according to the Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov interpretation, the negation of a proposition P is the proposition whose proofs are the refutations of P. Definition ''Classical negation'' is an operation on one logical value, typically the value of a proposition, that produces a value of ''true'' when its operand is false, and a value of ''false'' when its operand is true. Thus if statement is true, then \neg P ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logical Conjunction
In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (\wedge) is the truthfunctional operator of logical conjunction; the ''and'' of a set of operands is true if and only if ''all'' of its operands are true. The logical connective that represents this operator is typically written as \wedge or . A \land B is true if and only if A is true and B is true, otherwise it is false. An operand of a conjunction is a conjunct. Beyond logic, the term "conjunction" also refers to similar concepts in other fields: * In natural language, the denotation of expressions such as English "and". * In programming languages, the shortcircuit and control structure. * In set theory, intersection. * In lattice theory, logical conjunction (greatest lower bound). * In predicate logic, universal quantification. Notation And is usually denoted by an infix operator: in mathematics and logic, it is denoted by \wedge, or ; in electronics, ; and in programming languages, &, &&, or and. In ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Truth Table
A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables. In particular, truth tables can be used to show whether a propositional expression is true for all legitimate input values, that is, logically valid. A truth table has one column for each input variable (for example, P and Q), and one final column showing all of the possible results of the logical operation that the table represents (for example, P XOR Q). Each row of the truth table contains one possible configuration of the input variables (for instance, P=true Q=false), and the result of the operation for those values. See the examples below for further clarification. Ludwig Wittgenstein is generally credited with inventing and popularizing the truth ta ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Logic Symbols
In logic, a set of symbols is commonly used to express logical representation. The following table lists many common symbols, together with their name, how they should be read out loud, and the related field of mathematics. Additionally, the subsequent columns contains an informal explanation, a short example, the Unicode location, the name for use in HTML documents, and the LaTeX symbol. Basic logic symbols Advanced and rarely used logical symbols These symbols are sorted by their Unicode value: Usage in various countries Poland and Germany in Poland, the universal quantifier is sometimes written ∧, and the existential quantifier as ∨. The same applies for Germany. Japan The ⇒ symbol is often used in text to mean "result" or "conclusion", as in "We examined whether to sell the product ⇒ We will not sell it". Also, the → symbol is often used to denote "changed to", as in the sentence "The interest rate changed. March 20% → April 21%". See also * Józef M ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Double Turnstile
In logic, the symbol ⊨, ⊧ or \models is called the double turnstile. It is often read as " entails", "models", "is a semantic consequence of" or "is stronger than". It is closely related to the turnstile symbol \vdash, which has a single bar across the middle, and which denotes ''syntactic'' consequence (in contrast to ''semantic''). Meaning The double turnstile is a binary relation. It has several different meanings in different contexts: * To show semantic consequence, with a set of sentences on the left and a single sentence on the right, to denote that if every sentence on the left is true, the sentence on the right must be true, e.g. \Gamma \vDash \varphi. This usage is closely related to the singlebarred turnstile symbol which denotes syntactic consequence. * To show satisfaction, with a model (or truthstructure) on the left and a set of sentences on the right, to denote that the structure is a model for (or satisfies) the set of sentences, e.g. \mathcal \models \Gam ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Truth Value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth, which in classical logic has only two possible values ('' true'' or '' false''). Computing In some programming languages, any expression can be evaluated in a context that expects a Boolean data type. Typically (though this varies by programming language) expressions like the number zero, the empty string, empty lists, and null evaluate to false, and strings with content (like "abc"), other numbers, and objects evaluate to true. Sometimes these classes of expressions are called "truthy" and "falsy" / "false". Classical logic In classical logic, with its intended semantics, the truth values are '' true'' (denoted by ''1'' or the verum ⊤), and '' untrue'' or '' false'' (denoted by ''0'' or the falsum ⊥); that is, classical logic is a twovalued logic. This set of two values is also called the Boolean domain. Corresponding sem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logical Operation
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a logical constant. They can be used to connect logical formulas. For instance in the syntax of propositional logic, the binary connective \lor can be used to join the two atomic formulas P and Q, rendering the complex formula P \lor Q . Common connectives include negation, disjunction, conjunction, and implication. In standard systems of classical logic, these connectives are interpreted as truth functions, though they receive a variety of alternative interpretations in nonclassical logics. Their classical interpretations are similar to the meanings of natural language expressions such as English "not", "or", "and", and "if", but not identical. Discrepancies between natural language connectives and those of classical logic have motivated nonclassical approaches to natural language meaning as well as approaches which pair a classical compositional semanti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Semantics Of Logic
In logic, the semantics of logic or formal semantics is the study of the semantics, or interpretations, of formal and (idealizations of) natural languages usually trying to capture the pretheoretic notion of entailment. Overview The truth conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. The semantics of logic refers to the approaches that logicians have introduced to understand and determine that part of meaning in which they are interested; the logician traditionally is not interested in the sentence as uttered but in the proposition, an idealised sentence suitable for logical manipulation. Until the advent of modern logic, Aristotle's ''Organon'', especially ''De Interpretatione'', provided the basis for understanding the significance of logic. The introduction of quantification, needed to solve the problem of multiple ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 