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Local Field
In mathematics, a field ''K'' is called a (non-Archimedean) local field if it is complete with respect to a topology induced by a discrete valuation ''v'' and if its residue field ''k'' is finite. Equivalently, a local field is a locally compact topological field with respect to a non-discrete topology. Sometimes, real numbers R, and the complex numbers C (with their standard topologies) are also defined to be local fields; this is the convention we will adopt below. Given a local field, the valuation defined on it can be of either of two types, each one corresponds to one of the two basic types of local fields: those in which the valuation is Archimedean and those in which it is not. In the first case, one calls the local field an Archimedean local field, in the second case, one calls it a non-Archimedean local field. Local fields arise naturally in number theory as completions of global fields. While Archimedean local fields have been quite well known in mathematics for a ...
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Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and mathematical analysis, analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of mathematical object, abstract objects and the use of pure reason to proof (mathematics), prove them. These objects consist of either abstraction (mathematics), abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of inference rule, deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms ...
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Characteristic (algebra)
In mathematics, the characteristic of a ring , often denoted , is defined to be the smallest number of times one must use the ring's multiplicative identity (1) in a sum to get the additive identity (0). If this sum never reaches the additive identity the ring is said to have characteristic zero. That is, is the smallest positive number such that: :\underbrace_ = 0 if such a number exists, and otherwise. Motivation The special definition of the characteristic zero is motivated by the equivalent definitions characterized in the next section, where the characteristic zero is not required to be considered separately. The characteristic may also be taken to be the exponent of the ring's additive group, that is, the smallest positive integer such that: :\underbrace_ = 0 for every element of the ring (again, if exists; otherwise zero). Some authors do not include the multiplicative identity element in their requirements for a ring (see Multiplicative identity and t ...
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Compact Space
In mathematics, specifically general topology, compactness is a property that seeks to generalize the notion of a closed and bounded subset of Euclidean space by making precise the idea of a space having no "punctures" or "missing endpoints", i.e. that the space not exclude any ''limiting values'' of points. For example, the open interval (0,1) would not be compact because it excludes the limiting values of 0 and 1, whereas the closed interval ,1would be compact. Similarly, the space of rational numbers \mathbb is not compact, because it has infinitely many "punctures" corresponding to the irrational numbers, and the space of real numbers \mathbb is not compact either, because it excludes the two limiting values +\infty and -\infty. However, the ''extended'' real number line ''would'' be compact, since it contains both infinities. There are many ways to make this heuristic notion precise. These ways usually agree in a metric space, but may not be equivalent in other top ...
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Unit Ball
Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a discrete piece of action (or beat) in a theatrical presentation Music * ''Unit'' (album), 1997 album by the Australian band Regurgitator * The Units, a synthpunk band Television * '' The Unit'', an American television series * '' The Unit: Idol Rebooting Project'', South Korean reality TV survival show Business * Stock keeping unit, a discrete inventory management construct * Strategic business unit, a profit center which focuses on product offering and market segment * Unit of account, a monetary unit of measurement * Unit coin, a small coin or medallion (usually military), bearing an organization's insignia or emblem * Work unit, the name given to a place of employment in the People's Republic of China Science and technology Science and medicine * Unit, a vessel or section of a chemical plant * Blood unit, a measu ...
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Discrete Valuation Ring
In abstract algebra, a discrete valuation ring (DVR) is a principal ideal domain (PID) with exactly one non-zero maximal ideal. This means a DVR is an integral domain ''R'' which satisfies any one of the following equivalent conditions: # ''R'' is a local principal ideal domain, and not a field. # ''R'' is a valuation ring with a value group isomorphic to the integers under addition. # ''R'' is a local Dedekind domain and not a field. # ''R'' is a Noetherian local domain whose maximal ideal is principal, and not a field.https://mathoverflow.net/a/155639/114772 # ''R'' is an integrally closed Noetherian local ring with Krull dimension one. # ''R'' is a principal ideal domain with a unique non-zero prime ideal. # ''R'' is a principal ideal domain with a unique irreducible element (up to multiplication by units). # ''R'' is a unique factorization domain with a unique irreducible element (up to multiplication by units). # ''R'' is Noetherian, not a field, and every nonzero ...
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Ring Of Integers
In mathematics, the ring of integers of an algebraic number field K is the ring of all algebraic integers contained in K. An algebraic integer is a root of a monic polynomial with integer coefficients: x^n+c_x^+\cdots+c_0. This ring is often denoted by O_K or \mathcal O_K. Since any integer belongs to K and is an integral element of K, the ring \mathbb is always a subring of O_K. The ring of integers \mathbb is the simplest possible ring of integers. Namely, \mathbb=O_ where \mathbb is the field of rational numbers. And indeed, in algebraic number theory the elements of \mathbb are often called the "rational integers" because of this. The next simplest example is the ring of Gaussian integers \mathbb /math>, consisting of complex numbers whose real and imaginary parts are integers. It is the ring of integers in the number field \mathbb(i) of Gaussian rationals, consisting of complex numbers whose real and imaginary parts are rational numbers. Like the rational integers, \ma ...
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Haar Measure
In mathematical analysis, the Haar measure assigns an "invariant volume" to subsets of locally compact topological groups, consequently defining an integral for functions on those groups. This measure was introduced by Alfréd Haar in 1933, though its special case for Lie groups had been introduced by Adolf Hurwitz in 1897 under the name "invariant integral". Haar measures are used in many parts of analysis, number theory, group theory, representation theory, statistics, probability theory, and ergodic theory. Preliminaries Let (G, \cdot) be a locally compact Hausdorff topological group. The \sigma-algebra generated by all open subsets of G is called the Borel algebra. An element of the Borel algebra is called a Borel set. If g is an element of G and S is a subset of G, then we define the left and right translates of S by ''g'' as follows: * Left translate: g S = \. * Right translate: S g = \. Left and right translates map Borel sets onto Borel sets. A measure \mu ...
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Neighbourhood Basis
In topology and related areas of mathematics, the neighbourhood system, complete system of neighbourhoods, or neighbourhood filter \mathcal(x) for a point x in a topological space is the collection of all neighbourhoods of x. Definitions Neighbourhood of a point or set An of a point (or subset) x in a topological space X is any open subset U of X that contains x. A is any subset N \subseteq X that contains open neighbourhood of x; explicitly, N is a neighbourhood of x in X if and only if there exists some open subset U with x \in U \subseteq N. Equivalently, a neighborhood of x is any set that contains x in its topological interior. Importantly, a "neighbourhood" does have to be an open set; those neighbourhoods that also happen to be open sets are known as "open neighbourhoods." Similarly, a neighbourhood that is also a closed (respectively, compact, connected, etc.) set is called a (respectively, , , etc.). There are many other types of neighbourhoods that are used in ...
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Perfect Field
In algebra, a field ''k'' is perfect if any one of the following equivalent conditions holds: * Every irreducible polynomial over ''k'' has distinct roots. * Every irreducible polynomial over ''k'' is separable. * Every finite extension of ''k'' is separable. * Every algebraic extension of ''k'' is separable. * Either ''k'' has characteristic 0, or, when ''k'' has characteristic , every element of ''k'' is a ''p''th power. * Either ''k'' has characteristic 0, or, when ''k'' has characteristic , the Frobenius endomorphism is an automorphism of ''k''. * The separable closure of ''k'' is algebraically closed. * Every reduced commutative ''k''-algebra ''A'' is a separable algebra; i.e., A \otimes_k F is reduced for every field extension ''F''/''k''. (see below) Otherwise, ''k'' is called imperfect. In particular, all fields of characteristic zero and all finite fields are perfect. Perfect fields are significant because Galois theory over these fields becomes simpler, si ...
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Algebraic Number Field
In mathematics, an algebraic number field (or simply number field) is an extension field K of the field of rational numbers such that the field extension K / \mathbb has finite degree (and hence is an algebraic field extension). Thus K is a field that contains \mathbb and has finite dimension when considered as a vector space over The study of algebraic number fields, and, more generally, of algebraic extensions of the field of rational numbers, is the central topic of algebraic number theory. This study reveals hidden structures behind usual rational numbers, by using algebraic methods. Definition Prerequisites The notion of algebraic number field relies on the concept of a field. A field consists of a set of elements together with two operations, namely addition, and multiplication, and some distributivity assumptions. A prominent example of a field is the field of rational numbers, commonly denoted together with its usual operations of addition and multiplication. ...
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Exponentiation
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as , involving two numbers, the '' base'' and the ''exponent'' or ''power'' , and pronounced as " (raised) to the (power of) ". When is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, is the product of multiplying bases: b^n = \underbrace_. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base. In that case, is called "''b'' raised to the ''n''th power", "''b'' (raised) to the power of ''n''", "the ''n''th power of ''b''", "''b'' to the ''n''th power", or most briefly as "''b'' to the ''n''th". Starting from the basic fact stated above that, for any positive integer n, b^n is n occurrences of b all multiplied by each other, several other properties of exponentiation directly follow. In particular: \begin b^ & = \underbrace_ \\ ex& = \underbrace_ \times \underbrace_ \\ ex& = b^n \times b^m \end In other words, when multiplying a base raised to one ...
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Finite Field
In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (so-named in honor of √Čvariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements. As with any field, a finite field is a set on which the operations of multiplication, addition, subtraction and division are defined and satisfy certain basic rules. The most common examples of finite fields are given by the integers mod when is a prime number. The ''order'' of a finite field is its number of elements, which is either a prime number or a prime power. For every prime number and every positive integer there are fields of order p^k, all of which are isomorphic. Finite fields are fundamental in a number of areas of mathematics and computer science, including number theory, algebraic geometry, Galois theory, finite geometry, cryptography and coding theory. Properties A finite field is a finite set which is a field; this means that multiplication, addition, subtraction and division (excluding division by zero ...
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