Line Segment
In geometry, a line segment is a part of a straight line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line that is between its endpoints. The length of a line segment is given by the Euclidean distance between its endpoints. A closed line segment includes both endpoints, while an open line segment excludes both endpoints; a halfopen line segment includes exactly one of the endpoints. In geometry, a line segment is often denoted using a line above the symbols for the two endpoints (such as \overline). Examples of line segments include the sides of a triangle or square. More generally, when both of the segment's end points are vertices of a polygon or polyhedron, the line segment is either an edge (of that polygon or polyhedron) if they are adjacent vertices, or a diagonal. When the end points both lie on a curve (such as a circle), a line segment is called a chord (of that curve). In real or complex vector spaces If ''V'' is a vector space o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Segment Definition
Segment or segmentation may refer to: Biology *Segmentation (biology), the division of body plans into a series of repetitive segments ** Segmentation in the human nervous system * Internodal segment, the portion of a nerve fiber between two Nodes of Ranvier *Segment, in fruit anatomy, a section of a citrus fruit *Parts of a genome, especially in virology Computing and communications *Memory segmentation, the division of computer memory into segments ** Segment descriptor ** Data segment **Code segment * Image segmentation, the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments * Timeseries segmentation, the process of partitioning a timeseries into a sequence of discrete segments in order to reveal the underlying properties of its source *Network segmentation, splitting a computer network into subnetworks **Network segment * Packet segmentation, the process of dividing a data packet into smaller units **Segmentation and reassembly *TCP segmentation, the process of d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Convex Combination
In convex geometry and vector algebra, a convex combination is a linear combination of points (which can be vectors, scalars, or more generally points in an affine space) where all coefficients are nonnegative and sum to 1. In other words, the operation is equivalent to a standard weighted average, but whose weights are expressed as a percent of the total weight, instead of as a fraction of the ''count'' of the weights as in a standard weighted average. More formally, given a finite number of points x_1, x_2, \dots, x_n in a real vector space, a convex combination of these points is a point of the form :\alpha_1x_1+\alpha_2x_2+\cdots+\alpha_nx_n where the real numbers \alpha_i satisfy \alpha_i\ge 0 and \alpha_1+\alpha_2+\cdots+\alpha_n=1. As a particular example, every convex combination of two points lies on the line segment between the points. A set is convex if it contains all convex combinations of its points. The convex hull of a given set of points is ident ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isometry
In mathematics, an isometry (or congruence, or congruent transformation) is a distancepreserving transformation between metric spaces, usually assumed to be bijective. The word isometry is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' meaning "equal", and μέτρον ''metron'' meaning "measure". Introduction Given a metric space (loosely, a set and a scheme for assigning distances between elements of the set), an isometry is a transformation which maps elements to the same or another metric space such that the distance between the image elements in the new metric space is equal to the distance between the elements in the original metric space. In a twodimensional or threedimensional Euclidean space, two geometric figures are congruent if they are related by an isometry; the isometry that relates them is either a rigid motion (translation or rotation), or a composition of a rigid motion and a reflection. Isometries are often used in constructions where one space ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Skew Lines
In threedimensional geometry, skew lines are two lines that do not intersect and are not parallel. A simple example of a pair of skew lines is the pair of lines through opposite edges of a regular tetrahedron. Two lines that both lie in the same plane must either cross each other or be parallel, so skew lines can exist only in three or more dimensions. Two lines are skew if and only if they are not coplanar. General position If four points are chosen at random uniformly within a unit cube, they will almost surely define a pair of skew lines. After the first three points have been chosen, the fourth point will define a nonskew line if, and only if, it is coplanar with the first three points. However, the plane through the first three points forms a subset of measure zero of the cube, and the probability that the fourth point lies on this plane is zero. If it does not, the lines defined by the points will be skew. Similarly, in threedimensional space a very small perturbat ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Parallel (geometry)
In geometry, parallel lines are coplanar straight lines that do not intersect at any point. Parallel planes are planes in the same threedimensional space that never meet. ''Parallel curves'' are curves that do not touch each other or intersect and keep a fixed minimum distance. In threedimensional Euclidean space, a line and a plane that do not share a point are also said to be parallel. However, two noncoplanar lines are called '' skew lines''. Parallel lines are the subject of Euclid's parallel postulate. Parallelism is primarily a property of affine geometries and Euclidean geometry is a special instance of this type of geometry. In some other geometries, such as hyperbolic geometry, lines can have analogous properties that are referred to as parallelism. Symbol The parallel symbol is \parallel. For example, AB \parallel CD indicates that line ''AB'' is parallel to line ''CD''. In the Unicode character set, the "parallel" and "not parallel" signs have co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intersection (geometry)
In geometry, an intersection is a point, line, or curve common to two or more objects (such as lines, curves, planes, and surfaces). The simplest case in Euclidean geometry is the line–line intersection between two distinct lines, which either is one point or does not exist (if the lines are parallel). Other types of geometric intersection include: * Line–plane intersection * Line–sphere intersection * Intersection of a polyhedron with a line * Line segment intersection * Intersection curve Determination of the intersection of flats – linear geometric objects embedded in a higherdimensional space – is a simple task of linear algebra, namely the solution of a system of linear equations. In general the determination of an intersection leads to nonlinear equations, which can be solved numerically, for example using Newton iteration. Intersection problems between a line and a conic section (circle, ellipse, parabola, etc.) or a quadric (sphere, cylinder, hyperboloi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ordered Geometry
Ordered geometry is a form of geometry featuring the concept of intermediacy (or "betweenness") but, like projective geometry, omitting the basic notion of measurement. Ordered geometry is a fundamental geometry forming a common framework for affine, Euclidean, absolute, and hyperbolic geometry (but not for projective geometry). History Moritz Pasch first defined a geometry without reference to measurement in 1882. His axioms were improved upon by Peano (1889), Hilbert (1899), and Veblen (1904). Euclid anticipated Pasch's approach in definition 4 of ''The Elements'': "a straight line is a line which lies evenly with the points on itself". Primitive concepts The only primitive notions in ordered geometry are points ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ... and the ternary relation of intermediacy 'ABC''which can be read as "''B'' is between ''A'' and ''C''". Definitions The ''segment'' ''AB'' is the set of points ''P'' such that 'APB'' The ''interval'' ''AB'' is the segment ''AB'' and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Onedimensional Space
In physics and mathematics, a sequence of ''n'' numbers can specify a location in ''n''dimensional space. When , the set of all such locations is called a onedimensional space. An example of a onedimensional space is the number line, where the position of each point on it can be described by a single number. In algebraic geometry there are several structures that are technically onedimensional spaces but referred to in other terms. A field ''k'' is a onedimensional vector space over itself. Similarly, the projective line over ''k'' is a onedimensional space. In particular, if , the complex numbers, then the complex projective line P1(ℂ) is onedimensional with respect to ℂ, even though it is also known as the Riemann sphere. More generally, a ring is a lengthone module over itself. Similarly, the projective line over a ring is a onedimensional space over the ring. In case the ring is an algebra over a field, these spaces are onedimensional with respect to t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

If And Only If
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, "if and only if" (shortened as "iff") is a biconditional logical connective between statements, where either both statements are true or both are false. The connective is biconditional (a statement of material equivalence), and can be likened to the standard material conditional ("only if", equal to "if ... then") combined with its reverse ("if"); hence the name. The result is that the truth of either one of the connected statements requires the truth of the other (i.e. either both statements are true, or both are false), though it is controversial whether the connective thus defined is properly rendered by the English "if and only if"—with its preexisting meaning. For example, ''P if and only if Q'' means that ''P'' is true whenever ''Q'' is true, and the only case in which ''P'' is true is if ''Q'' is also true, whereas in the case of ''P if Q'', there could be other scenarios where ''P'' is true and ''Q ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Open Subset
In mathematics, open sets are a generalization of open intervals in the real line. In a metric space (a set along with a distance defined between any two points), open sets are the sets that, with every point , contain all points that are sufficiently near to (that is, all points whose distance to is less than some value depending on ). More generally, one defines open sets as the members of a given collection of subsets of a given set, a collection that has the property of containing every union of its members, every finite intersection of its members, the empty set, and the whole set itself. A set in which such a collection is given is called a topological space, and the collection is called a topology. These conditions are very loose, and allow enormous flexibility in the choice of open sets. For example, ''every'' subset can be open (the discrete topology), or no set can be open except the space itself and the empty set (the indiscrete topology). In practice, however, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Closed Set
In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a closed set is a set whose complement is an open set. In a topological space, a closed set can be defined as a set which contains all its limit points. In a complete metric space, a closed set is a set which is closed under the limit operation. This should not be confused with a closed manifold. Equivalent definitions By definition, a subset A of a topological space (X, \tau) is called if its complement X \setminus A is an open subset of (X, \tau); that is, if X \setminus A \in \tau. A set is closed in X if and only if it is equal to its closure in X. Equivalently, a set is closed if and only if it contains all of its limit points. Yet another equivalent definition is that a set is closed if and only if it contains all of its boundary points. Every subset A \subseteq X is always contained in its (topological) closure in X, which is denoted by \operatorname_X A; that is, if A \subseteq X then A \subseteq \o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Vector Space
In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space and commonly abbreviated TVS or t.v.s.) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis. A topological vector space is a vector space that is also a topological space with the property that the vector space operations (vector addition and scalar multiplication) are also continuous functions. Such a topology is called a and every topological vector space has a uniform topological structure, allowing a notion of uniform convergence and completeness. Some authors also require that the space is a Hausdorff space (although this article does not). One of the most widely studied categories of TVSs are locally convex topological vector spaces. This article focuses on TVSs that are not necessarily locally convex. Banach spaces, Hilbert spaces and Sobolev spaces are other wellknown examples of TVSs. Many topological vector spaces are spaces of functions, or linear operators acting o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 