* picture info Limit Point In mathematics, a limit point, accumulation point, or cluster point of a set S in a topological space X is a point x that can be "approximated" by points of S in the sense that every neighbourhood of x with respect to the topology on X also contains a point of S other than x itself. A limit point of a set S does not itself have to be an element of S. There is also a closely related concept for sequences. A cluster point or accumulation point of a sequence (x_n)_ in a topological space X is a point x such that, for every neighbourhood V of x, there are infinitely many natural numbers n such that x_n \in V. This definition of a cluster or accumulation point of a sequence generalizes to nets and filters. The similarly named notion of a (respectively, a limit point of a filter, a limit point of a net) by definition refers to a point that the sequence converges to (respectively, the filter converges to, the net converges to). Importantly, although "limit point of a set" is sy ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Set (mathematics) A set is the mathematical model for a collection of different things; a set contains '' elements'' or ''members'', which can be mathematical objects of any kind: numbers, symbols, points in space, lines, other geometrical shapes, variables, or even other sets. The set with no element is the empty set; a set with a single element is a singleton. A set may have a finite number of elements or be an infinite set. Two sets are equal if they have precisely the same elements. Sets are ubiquitous in modern mathematics. Indeed, set theory, more specifically Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, has been the standard way to provide rigorous foundations for all branches of mathematics since the first half of the 20th century. History The concept of a set emerged in mathematics at the end of the 19th century. The German word for set, ''Menge'', was coined by Bernard Bolzano in his work ''Paradoxes of the Infinite''. Georg Cantor, one of the founders of set theory, gave the following ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Standard Topology In mathematics, the real coordinate space of dimension , denoted ( ) or is the set of the -tuples of real numbers, that is the set of all sequences of real numbers. With component-wise addition and scalar multiplication, it is a real vector space, and its elements are called coordinate vectors. The coordinates over any basis of the elements of a real vector space form a ''real coordinate space'' of the same dimension as that of the vector space. Similarly, the Cartesian coordinates of the points of a Euclidean space of dimension form a ''real coordinate space'' of dimension . These one to one correspondences between vectors, points and coordinate vectors explain the names of ''coordinate space'' and ''coordinate vector''. It allows using geometric terms and methods for studying real coordinate spaces, and, conversely, to use methods of calculus in geometry. This approach of geometry was introduced by René Descartes in the 17th century. It is widely used, as it allows loca ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Uncountable Set In mathematics, an uncountable set (or uncountably infinite set) is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable. The uncountability of a set is closely related to its cardinal number: a set is uncountable if its cardinal number is larger than that of the set of all natural numbers. Characterizations There are many equivalent characterizations of uncountability. A set ''X'' is uncountable if and only if any of the following conditions hold: * There is no injective function (hence no bijection) from ''X'' to the set of natural numbers. * ''X'' is nonempty and for every ω-sequence of elements of ''X'', there exists at least one element of X not included in it. That is, ''X'' is nonempty and there is no surjective function from the natural numbers to ''X''. * The cardinality of ''X'' is neither finite nor equal to \aleph_0 (aleph-null, the cardinality of the natural numbers). * The set ''X'' has cardinality strictly greater than \aleph_0. The first three of ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Derived Set (mathematics) In mathematics, more specifically in point-set topology, the derived set of a subset S of a topological space is the set of all limit points of S. It is usually denoted by S'. The concept was first introduced by Georg Cantor in 1872 and he developed set theory in large part to study derived sets on the real line. Examples If \mathbb is endowed with its usual Euclidean topology then the derived set of the half-open interval , 1) is the closed interval [0,1 Consider \mathbb with the Topology (structure)">topology (open sets) consisting of the empty set and any subset of \mathbb that contains 1. The derived set of A := \ is A' = \mathbb \setminus \. Properties If A and B are subsets of the topological space \left(X, \mathcal\right), then the derived set has the following properties: * \varnothing' = \varnothing * a \in A' \implies a \in (A \setminus \)' * (A \cup B)' = A' \cup B' * A \subseteq B \implies A' \subseteq B' A subset S of a topological space is closed precise ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Limit Of A Sequence As the positive integer n becomes larger and larger, the value n\cdot \sin\left(\tfrac1\right) becomes arbitrarily close to 1. We say that "the limit of the sequence n\cdot \sin\left(\tfrac1\right) equals 1." In mathematics, the limit of a sequence is the value that the terms of a sequence "tend to", and is often denoted using the \lim symbol (e.g., \lim_a_n).Courant (1961), p. 29. If such a limit exists, the sequence is called convergent. A sequence that does not converge is said to be divergent. The limit of a sequence is said to be the fundamental notion on which the whole of mathematical analysis ultimately rests. Limits can be defined in any metric or topological space, but are usually first encountered in the real numbers. History The Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea is famous for formulating paradoxes that involve limiting processes. Leucippus, Democritus, Antiphon, Eudoxus, and Archimedes developed the method of exhaustion, which uses an infinite sequence ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] First-countable Space In topology, a branch of mathematics, a first-countable space is a topological space satisfying the "first axiom of countability". Specifically, a space X is said to be first-countable if each point has a countable neighbourhood basis (local base). That is, for each point x in X there exists a sequence N_1, N_2, \ldots of neighbourhoods of x such that for any neighbourhood N of x there exists an integer i with N_i contained in N. Since every neighborhood of any point contains an open neighborhood of that point, the neighbourhood basis can be chosen without loss of generality to consist of open neighborhoods. Examples and counterexamples The majority of 'everyday' spaces in mathematics are first-countable. In particular, every metric space is first-countable. To see this, note that the set of open balls centered at x with radius 1/n for integers form a countable local base at x. An example of a space which is not first-countable is the cofinite topology on an uncountable ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Fréchet–Urysohn Space In the field of topology, a Fréchet–Urysohn space is a topological space X with the property that for every subset S \subseteq X the closure of S in X is identical to the ''sequential'' closure of S in X. Fréchet–Urysohn spaces are a special type of sequential space. Fréchet–Urysohn spaces are the most general class of spaces for which sequences suffice to determine all topological properties of subsets of the space. That is, Fréchet–Urysohn spaces are exactly those spaces for which knowledge of which sequences converge to which limits (and which sequences do not) suffices to completely determine the space's topology. Every Fréchet–Urysohn space is a sequential space but not conversely. The space is named after Maurice Fréchet and Pavel Urysohn. Definitions Let (X, \tau) be a topological space. The of S in (X, \tau) is the set: \begin \operatorname S :&= S := \left\ \end where \operatorname_X S or \operatorname_ S may be written if clarity is neede ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Metric Space In mathematics, a metric space is a set together with a notion of ''distance'' between its elements, usually called points. The distance is measured by a function called a metric or distance function. Metric spaces are the most general setting for studying many of the concepts of mathematical analysis and geometry. The most familiar example of a metric space is 3-dimensional Euclidean space with its usual notion of distance. Other well-known examples are a sphere equipped with the angular distance and the hyperbolic plane. A metric may correspond to a metaphorical, rather than physical, notion of distance: for example, the set of 100-character Unicode strings can be equipped with the Hamming distance, which measures the number of characters that need to be changed to get from one string to another. Since they are very general, metric spaces are a tool used in many different branches of mathematics. Many types of mathematical objects have a natural notion of distance and ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] T1 Space In topology and related branches of mathematics, a T1 space is a topological space in which, for every pair of distinct points, each has a neighborhood not containing the other point. An R0 space is one in which this holds for every pair of topologically distinguishable points. The properties T1 and R0 are examples of separation axioms. Definitions Let ''X'' be a topological space and let ''x'' and ''y'' be points in ''X''. We say that ''x'' and ''y'' are if each lies in a neighbourhood that does not contain the other point. * ''X'' is called a T1 space if any two distinct points in ''X'' are separated. * ''X'' is called an R0 space if any two topologically distinguishable points in ''X'' are separated. A T1 space is also called an accessible space or a space with Fréchet topology and an R0 space is also called a symmetric space. (The term also has an entirely different meaning in functional analysis. For this reason, the term ''T1 space'' is preferred. There is also a no ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Neighbourhood (mathematics) In topology and related areas of mathematics, a neighbourhood (or neighborhood) is one of the basic concepts in a topological space. It is closely related to the concepts of open set and interior. Intuitively speaking, a neighbourhood of a point is a set of points containing that point where one can move some amount in any direction away from that point without leaving the set. Definitions Neighbourhood of a point If X is a topological space and p is a point in X, then a of p is a subset V of X that includes an open set U containing p, p \in U \subseteq V \subseteq X. This is also equivalent to the point p \in X belonging to the topological interior of V in X. The neighbourhood V need be an open subset X, but when V is open in X then it is called an . Some authors have been known to require neighbourhoods to be open, so it is important to note conventions. A set that is a neighbourhood of each of its points is open since it can be expressed as the union of open set ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] Diagonal Argument A diagonal argument, in mathematics, is a technique employed in the proofs of the following theorems: *Cantor's diagonal argument (the earliest) *Cantor's theorem * Russell's paradox * Diagonal lemma ** Gödel's first incompleteness theorem ** Tarski's undefinability theorem *Halting problem * Kleene's recursion theorem See also * Diagonalization (other) In logic and mathematics, diagonalization may refer to: * Matrix diagonalization, a construction of a diagonal matrix (with nonzero entries only on the main diagonal) that is similar to a given matrix * Diagonal argument (other), various ... {{mathdab ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu] picture info Rational Sequence With 2 Accumulation Points Rationality is the quality of being guided by or based on reasons. In this regard, a person acts rationally if they have a good reason for what they do or a belief is rational if it is based on strong evidence. This quality can apply to an ability, as in rational animal, to a psychological process, like reasoning, to mental states, such as beliefs and intentions, or to persons who possess these other forms of rationality. A thing that lacks rationality is either ''arational'', if it is outside the domain of rational evaluation, or ''irrational'', if it belongs to this domain but does not fulfill its standards. There are many discussions about the essential features shared by all forms of rationality. According to reason-responsiveness accounts, to be rational is to be responsive to reasons. For example, dark clouds are a reason for taking an umbrella, which is why it is rational for an agent to do so in response. An important rival to this approach are coherence-based accounts, ... [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]