Lambda
Lambda (}, ''lám(b)da'') is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the voiced alveolar lateral approximant . In the system of Greek numerals, lambda has a value of 30. Lambda is derived from the Phoenician Lamed . Lambda gave rise to the Latin L and the Cyrillic El (Л). The ancient grammarians and dramatists give evidence to the pronunciation as () in Classical Greek times. In Modern Greek, the name of the letter, Λάμδα, is pronounced . In early Greek alphabets, the shape and orientation of lambda varied. Most variants consisted of two straight strokes, one longer than the other, connected at their ends. The angle might be in the upperleft, lowerleft ("Western" alphabets) or top ("Eastern" alphabets). Other variants had a vertical line with a horizontal or sloped stroke running to the right. With the general adoption of the Ionic alphabet, Greek settled on an angle at the top; the Romans put the angle at the lowerleft. The HTML 4 character entity ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Eigendecomposition Of A Matrix
In linear algebra, eigendecomposition is the factorization of a matrix into a canonical form, whereby the matrix is represented in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Only diagonalizable matrices can be factorized in this way. When the matrix being factorized is a normal or real symmetric matrix, the decomposition is called "spectral decomposition", derived from the spectral theorem. Fundamental theory of matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalues A (nonzero) vector of dimension is an eigenvector of a square matrix if it satisfies a linear equation of the form :\mathbf \mathbf = \lambda \mathbf for some scalar . Then is called the eigenvalue corresponding to . Geometrically speaking, the eigenvectors of are the vectors that merely elongates or shrinks, and the amount that they elongate/shrink by is the eigenvalue. The above equation is called the eigenvalue equation or the eigenvalue problem. This yields an equation for the eigenvalues : p\left(\lambda\right) = \ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lambda Particle
The lambda baryons (Λ) are a family of subatomic hadron particles containing one up quark, one down quark, and a third quark from a higher flavour generation, in a combination where the quantum wave function changes sign upon the flavour of any two quarks being swapped (thus slightly different from a neutral sigma baryon, ). They are thus baryons, with total isospin of 0, and have either neutral electric charge or the elementary charge +1. Overview The lambda baryon was first discovered in October 1950, by V. D. Hopper and S. Biswas of the University of Melbourne, as a neutral V particle with a proton as a decay product, thus correctly distinguishing it as a baryon, rather than a meson, i.e. different in kind from the K meson discovered in 1947 by Rochester and Butler; they were produced by cosmic rays and detected in photographic emulsions flown in a balloon at . Though the particle was expected to live for , it actually survived for . The property that caused it to live so ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Greek Alphabet
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BCE. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the earliest known alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many local variants, but, by the end of the 4th century BCE, the Euclidean alphabet, with 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used for Greek writing today. The uppercase and lowercase forms of the 24 letters are: : , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , /ς, , , , , , . The Greek alphabet is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between uppercase and lowercase in parallel with Latin during the modern era. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

MANOVA
In statistics, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a procedure for comparing multivariate sample means. As a multivariate procedure, it is used when there are two or more dependent variables, and is often followed by significance tests involving individual dependent variables separately. Without relation to the image, the dependent variables may be k life satisfactions scores measured at sequential time points and p job satisfaction scores measured at sequential time points. In this case there are k+p dependent variables whose linear combination follows a multivariate normal distribution, multivariate variancecovariance matrix homogeneity, and linear relationship, no multicollinearity, and each without outliers. Relationship with ANOVA MANOVA is a generalized form of univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA), although, unlike univariate ANOVA, it uses the covariance between outcome variables in testing the statistical significance of the mean differences. Where sums ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Von Mangoldt Function
In mathematics, the von Mangoldt function is an arithmetic function named after German mathematician Hans von Mangoldt. It is an example of an important arithmetic function that is neither multiplicative nor additive. Definition The von Mangoldt function, denoted by , is defined as :\Lambda(n) = \begin \log p & \textn=p^k \text p \text k \ge 1, \\ 0 & \text \end The values of for the first nine positive integers (i.e. natural numbers) are :0 , \log 2 , \log 3 , \log 2 , \log 5 , 0 , \log 7 , \log 2 , \log 3, which is related to . Properties The von Mangoldt function satisfies the identityApostol (1976) p.32Tenenbaum (1995) p.30 :\log(n) = \sum_ \Lambda(d). The sum is taken over all integers that divide . This is proved by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, since the terms that are not powers of primes are equal to . For example, consider the case . Then :\begin \sum_ \Lambda(d) &= \Lambda(1) + \Lambda(2) + \Lambda(3) + \Lambda(4) + \Lambda(6) + \Lambda(12) \\ & ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Riemann's Hypothesis
In mathematics, the Riemann hypothesis is the conjecture that the Riemann zeta function has its zeros only at the negative even integers and complex numbers with real part . Many consider it to be the most important unsolved problem in pure mathematics. It is of great interest in number theory because it implies results about the distribution of prime numbers. It was proposed by , after whom it is named. The Riemann hypothesis and some of its generalizations, along with Goldbach's conjecture and the twin prime conjecture, make up Hilbert's eighth problem in David Hilbert's list of twentythree unsolved problems; it is also one of the Clay Mathematics Institute's Millennium Prize Problems, which offers a million dollars to anyone who solves any of them. The name is also used for some closely related analogues, such as the Riemann hypothesis for curves over finite fields. The Riemann zeta function ζ(''s'') is a function whose argument ''s'' may be any comple ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Samuel Stanley Wilks
Samuel Stanley Wilks (June 17, 1906 – March 7, 1964) was an American mathematician and academic who played an important role in the development of mathematical statistics, especially in regard to practical applications. Early life and education Wilks was born in Little Elm, Texas and raised on a farm. He studied Industrial Arts at the North Texas State Teachers College in Denton, Texas, obtaining his bachelor's degree in 1926. He received his master's degree in mathematics in 1928 from the University of Texas. He obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Iowa under Everett F. Lindquist; his thesis dealt with a problem of statistical measurement in education, and was published in the ''Journal of Educational Psychology''. Career Wilks became an instructor in mathematics at Princeton University in 1933; in 1938 he assumed the editorship of the journal ''Annals of Mathematical Statistics'' in place of Harry C. Carver. Wilks assembled an advisory board for the journal t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

De Bruijn–Newman Constant
The de Bruijn–Newman constant, denoted by Λ and named after Nicolaas Govert de Bruijn and Charles M. Newman, is a mathematical constant defined via the zeros of a certain function ''H''(''λ'', ''z''), where ''λ'' is a real parameter and ''z'' is a complex variable. More precisely, :H(\lambda, z):=\int_^ e^ \Phi(u) \cos (z u) d u, where \Phi is the superexponentially decaying function :\Phi(u) = \sum_^ (2\pi^2n^4e^  3 \pi n^2 e^ ) e^ and Λ is the unique real number with the property that ''H'' has only real zeros if and only if ''λ'' ≥ Λ. The constant is closely connected with Riemann's hypothesis concerning the zeros of the Riemann zetafunction: since the Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the claim that all the zeroes of ''H''(0, ''z'') are real, the Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the conjecture that Λ ≤ 0. (announcement post) Brad Rodgers and Terence Tao proved that Λ < 0 cannot be true, so 

Epichoric Alphabets
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until around 400 BC, when they were replaced by the classical 24letter alphabet that is the standard today. All forms of the Greek alphabet were originally based on the shared inventory of the 22 symbols of the Phoenician alphabet, with the exception of the letter Samekh, whose Greek counterpart Xi () was used only in a subgroup of Greek alphabets, and with the common addition of Upsilon () for the vowel . The local, socalled ''epichoric'', alphabets differed in many ways: in the use of the consonant symbols , and ; in the use of the innovative long vowel letters ( and ), in the absence or presence of Η in its original consonant function (); in the use or nonuse of certain archaic letters ( = , = , = ); and in many details of the individual shapes of each letter. The system now familiar as the standard 24letter Greek alphabet was originally ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spartans
Sparta ( Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, ''Spártā''; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, ''Spártē'') was a prominent citystate in Laconia, in ancient Greece. In antiquity, the citystate was known as Lacedaemon (, ), while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in southeastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military landpower in ancient Greece. Given its military preeminence, Sparta was recognized as the leading force of the unified Greek military during the GrecoPersian Wars, in rivalry with the rising naval power of Athens. Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), from which it emerged victorious after the Battle of Aegospotami. The decisive Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended the Spartan hegemony, although the citystate maintained its political independence until its forced integration into the Achaean League in 192 BC. The city neverth ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Greek Numerals
Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. In modern Greece, they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals are still used in the Western world. For ordinary cardinal numbers, however, modern Greece uses Arabic numerals. History The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations' Linear A and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals, which included numberonly symbols for powers of ten: = 1, = 10, = 100, = 1000, and = 10000. Attic numerals comprised another system that came into use perhaps in the 7th century BCE. They were acrophonic, derived (after the initial one) from the first letters of the names of the numbers represented. They ran = 1, = 5, = 10, = 100, = 1,000, and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cyrillic Script
The Cyrillic script ( ), Slavonic script or the Slavic script, is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia. It is the designated national script in various Slavic, Turkic, Mongolic, Uralic, Caucasian and Iranicspeaking countries in Southeastern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Asia, and East Asia. , around 250 million people in Eurasia use Cyrillic as the official script for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them. With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union, following the Latin and Greek alphabets. The Early Cyrillic alphabet was developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire during the reign of tsar Simeon I the Great, probably by disciples of the two Byzantine brothers Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, who had previously created the Gla ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 