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Interoperability
Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions. While the term was initially defined for information technology or systems engineering Systems engineering is an field of and that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage s over their s. At its core, systems engineering utilizes principles to organize this body of knowledge. The individual outcome of such efforts, an e ... services to allow for information exchange, a broader definition takes into account social, political, and organizational factors that impact system-to-system performance. Hence, interoperability involves the task of building coherent services for users when the individual components are technically different and managed by different organizations. Types of interoperability include syntactic interoperability, wher ...
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Semantic Interoperability
Semantic interoperability is the ability of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ... systems to exchange data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used ... with unambiguous, shared meaning. Semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another ... interoperability is a requirement to enable machine computable logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field whic ...
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Cross-domain Interoperability
Cross-domain interoperability exists when organizations or systems from different domains interact in information exchange, services, and/or goods to achieve their own or common goals. Interoperability is the method of systems working together (inter-operate). A domain in this instance is a community with its related infrastructure, bound by common purpose and interests, with consistent mutual interactions or rules of engagement that is separable from other communities by social, technical, linguistic, professional, legal or sovereignty related boundaries. The capability of cross-domain interoperability is becoming increasingly important as business and government operations become more global and interdependent. Cross-domain interoperability enables synergy, extends product utility and enables users to be more effective and successful within their own domains and the combined effort. Cross-domain interoperability is characterized by common understanding and agreements on both sides ...
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Network Effect
In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ..., a network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the phenomenon by which the value Value or values may refer to: * Value (ethics) In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, E ... or utility As a topic of economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within thos ... a user derives from a good 125px, In many Western religions, angels are considere ...
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Cross-domain Interoperability
Cross-domain interoperability exists when organizations or systems from different domains interact in information exchange, services, and/or goods to achieve their own or common goals. Interoperability is the method of systems working together (inter-operate). A domain in this instance is a community with its related infrastructure, bound by common purpose and interests, with consistent mutual interactions or rules of engagement that is separable from other communities by social, technical, linguistic, professional, legal or sovereignty related boundaries. The capability of cross-domain interoperability is becoming increasingly important as business and government operations become more global and interdependent. Cross-domain interoperability enables synergy, extends product utility and enables users to be more effective and successful within their own domains and the combined effort. Cross-domain interoperability is characterized by common understanding and agreements on both sides ...
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System Of Systems
System of systems is a collection of task-oriented or dedicated systems that pool their resources and capabilities together to create a new, more complex system which offers more functionality and performance than simply the sum of the constituent systems. Currently, systems of systems is a critical research discipline for which frames of reference, thought processes, quantitative analysis, tools, and design methods are incomplete. The methodology for defining, abstracting, modeling, and analyzing system of systems problems is typically referred to as system of systems engineeringSystem of systems engineering (SoSE) is a set of developing processes, tools, and methods for designing, re-designing and deploying solutions to System of systems, system-of-systems challenges. Overview System of Systems Engineering (SoSE) methodo .... Overview Commonly proposed descriptions—not necessarily definitions—of systems of systems, are outlined below in order of their appearance in the lit ...
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Project 25
Project 25 (P25 or APCO-25) is a suite of standards Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of ... for interoperable Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions. While the ... digital Digital usually refers to something using discrete digits, often binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electr ... two-way radio A two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive radio waves (a transceiver), unlike a radio broadcasting, broadcast rece ...
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Computer Compatibility
A family of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ... models is said to be compatible if certain software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Computer program, a collection of instructions Music * I ... that runs on one of the models can also be run on all other models of the family. The computer models may differ in performance A performance is an act of staging or presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment. It is also defined as the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task, or function. Management science In the work place ..., reliability Reliability, reliabl ...
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Police
The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their lawful powers include arrest and the use of force legitimized by the state via the monopoly on violence. The term is most commonly associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the Law enforcement agency powers, police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing. Police forces are usually public sector services, funded through taxes. Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Policin ...
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9/11 Attacks
The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated Terrorism, terrorist attacks by the militant Islamism, Islamist terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial airliners traveling from the northeastern United States, northeastern U.S. to California were Aircraft hijacking, hijacked mid-flight by Hijackers in the September 11 attacks, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. The hijackers were organized into three groups of five hijackers and one group of four. Each group had one hijacker who had received flight training and took over control of the aircraft. Their explicit goal was to crash each plane into a prominent American building, causing Mass-casualty incident, mass casualties and partial or complete destruction of the targeted buildings. Two of the planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center (1973–2001), World Trade Center, and a third hit the ...
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Data Sharing
Data sharing is the practice of making data used for scholarly research available to other investigators. Many funding agencies, institutions, and publication venues have policies regarding data sharing because transparency and openness are considered by many to be part of the scientific method. A number of funding agencies and science journals require authors of Peer review, peer-reviewed papers to share any supplemental information (raw data, statistical methods or source code) necessary to understand, develop or Reproducibility, reproduce published research. A great deal of scientific research is not subject to data sharing requirements, and many of these policies have liberal exceptions. In the absence of any binding requirement, data sharing is at the discretion of the scientists themselves. In addition, in certain situations governments and institutions prohibit or severely limit data sharing to protect proprietary interests, national security, and subject/patient/victim conf ...
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Utah Highway Patrol
The Utah Highway Patrol (UHP) is the functional equivalent of state police State police, provincial police, or regional police are a type of sub-national territorial police force A territorial police force is a police service that is responsible for an area defined by sub-national boundaries, distinguished from oth ... for the State of Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West region of the United States. It is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south and Nevada to the west. It also ... in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., .... Its sworn members, known as ''Troopers'', are certified law enforcement officer A law enforcement officer (LEO), ...
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